双语阅读 | 为什么一读书就犯困?

为什么一读书就犯困?Why Does Reading Make You Sleepy?王淑怡 供稿Most people enjoy reading a good book after a long day or over the weekends. However, do you ever notice how you start feeling sleepy three pages into a book no matter how exciting it is? If you can relate to this, you are not alone. So what is it about reading that can make us conk out?多数人都喜欢在漫漫长日的结尾或周末时光阅读一本好书。但你是否留意到,不管这本书多么精彩,你刚翻几页就会困意来袭?如果确实如此,其实像你这样的人为数不少。那么,我们到底为什么一读书就犯困呢?The act of reading requires regular eye movement as your eyes follow the words across the page. It also requires brain power as your brain interprets the letters your eyes see and convertsthem into meaningful words, sentences, and paragraphs. As your brain works hard and your eye muscles tire, it's only natural that they would need rest, leading to eyes slowly closing and sleep taking over.The concentration required to processevery word can be pretty exhausting, too, especially if your chosen tomeis dense. And reading line after line of anything can make you feel like giving your eyes a break.阅读行为要求眼睛随着文字在页面上进行有规律的眼球运动。阅读还需要动脑,因为大脑需要解释你所看到的字母,并将它们转换成有意义的单词、句子和段落。由于大脑在努力工作,眼部肌肉也会感到疲劳,它们自然而然想要休息,这时我们的眼睛就慢慢睁不开了,开始昏昏欲睡。逐字阅读需要集中注意力,这也特别劳心费神,尤其在读一本文字密密麻麻的大部头时。不论读什么书,一行又一行地看下来,都会让你想给眼睛放个假。The environment you create could be a big reason. People generally create a cosyand comfortable atmosphere that is quiet while they read. Experts say these are the very same conditions that are perfect for sleep. Reading is also a great way to escape from all your troubling thoughts as it helps you put your mind at ease. Reading is one of those activities that can be enjoyable and relaxing, which can help to put the mind and body in a calm state. This calm state can cause you to feel sleepy.你创造的阅读环境也可能是导致犯困的一大原因。人们通常会营造安静、舒适的阅读氛围。专家认为这些条件也很适合睡眠。阅读是摆脱烦恼的绝佳方式,因为它能让你放松心情。阅读会令人轻松愉悦,让你的身心平静下来,进而让你感到困倦。If you have a book that you really need to finish or you simply want to read longer without falling asleep, there are some techniques you can use. First, find a place to read that's comfortable, but not too comfortable.如果你需要读完一本书,或者仅仅想阅读时不犯困的话,可以试试这几种方法。首先,找一个舒适的地方阅读,但切忌过于舒适。Rather than lying down on your back, sit up in a comfortable chair, so you don’t feel like drifting offto sleep. Use lighting to reduce eye strain. Also make sure that the temperature isn't too hot. Reading in an environment that's too warm can make you sleepy.与其躺着看书,不如坐在一把舒服的椅子上看书,这样你就不会不知不觉睡过去。保证照明充足,减少眼睛疲劳。还要确保室温不要太高,在温暖的环境中阅读会让你昏昏欲睡。If you anticipate trouble staying awake and you really need to finish that book before bed, try waking yourself up before you start reading. Do some light exercise, drink a caffeinatedbeverage, or take a cool shower. If you're more alert when you start reading, you're more likely to make it to the end of that book!如果你感觉实在难以保持清醒,而且必须要在睡前读完那本书,试着在阅读前振奋精神。做少量运动,喝一杯含咖啡因的饮料,或者洗个冷水澡。你在开始阅读时越清醒,就越有可能坚持读完这本书!【VOCABULARY】1.conk out入睡;睡着2.convert v.(使)转变,(使)转换3.processv.审阅,审核,处理(文件、请求等)4.tome n.大部头巨著5.cosyadj.舒适的;惬意的6.drift off迷迷糊糊地睡去7.caffeinatedadj. 含咖啡因的(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 为什么蚊子爱咬人?

为什么蚊子爱咬人?Why Do Mosquitoes Love to Bite You?王淑怡 供稿In summer, mosquitoes interrupt our sleep with their constant buzzing, they bite us leaving redness, itching, and sometimes edema. Also, they can transmit a large number of diseases to us.夏季到来,恼人的蚊子总是不断骚扰我们,晚上嗡嗡嗡吵的人睡不着,被蚊子咬到后会出现红肿、瘙痒,有时还会出现水肿。蚊子还会给人类传播大量疾病。Why Do Mosquitoes’ Bite Us?蚊子为什么会咬人?First of all, you should know that not all mosquitoes bite. There are around 3,500 species and only three of them seek our blood: Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes. Likewise, it is only female mosquitoes that bite. And only those who need protein and other chemicals in the blood to produce and deposit their eggs. In general, a female mosquito can lay between 30 and 300 eggs by sucking blood once. To complete the process of forming more eggs, she needs to suck again. Male mosquitoes do not bite because they feed on the nectar and juices produced by plants. Females could also live without stinging, but the three species we mentioned need this for their reproduction.首先,你要知道并非所有的蚊子都咬人。全世界约有3500种蚊子,只有三种吸食人血,分别是按蚊(Anopheles)、库蚊(Culex)和伊蚊(Aedes)。同样,只有雌蚊才会咬人。因为人的血液中含有蛋白质和其他化学物质,雌蚊需要这些物质来产卵和储存蚊卵。一般来说,一只雌蚊子吸饱一次血能产卵30至300粒。为了能产更多的蚊卵,它们需要不断吸血。雄蚊吸食花蜜、植物的汁液等,它们不吸血。雌蚊也可以和雄蚊一样,不以吸食人血为生,但方才提到的三种蚊子只能通过吸血来繁殖后代。Why Do Mosquitoes Bites Itch?为什么被咬后会觉得痒?When they bite, mosquitoes insert their mouthparts under our skin and then inject some of their saliva to prevent the blood from clotting as they absorb it. On the other hand, the immune system reacts to chemicals in the insect’s saliva. This causes different reactions: redness, swelling, and itching. Although these reactions are the most common and harmless, children, people with weak immune systems, and adults who have never been bitten before tend to react with more severe symptoms. Among which fever and hives.蚊子在叮咬的时候,它的口器刺入我们的皮下,通过注入唾液来防止周血液凝固,方便它们吸血。另一方面,这些唾液中内含的化学成分会使我们的免疫系统作出反应,出现红肿发痒等症状。虽然这些症状很常见也无害,但是儿童、免疫系统较弱的人和从未被蚊虫叮咬过的成年人,容易出现更加严重的症状,如发烧或荨麻疹。Do Mosquitoes Prefer Some People Over Others?蚊子会“偏爱”某些人吗?As unfair as it sounds, the answer is yes. Indeed, some studies suggest that 20% of people are irresistible to mosquitoes. Likewise, entomologists have discovered other factors that may be more attractive to these insects. Several factors, therefore, make you the favorite prey of mosquitoes. The best known and most supported by science are as follows.虽然这听起来有些荒谬,但答案是肯定的。事实上,研究表明20%的人对蚊子来说尤其“美味”。同样,昆虫学家发现了吸引蚊子的一些原因。有几点原因让你成为了蚊子的“最爱”。以下是最被大众熟知和最具科学依据的几点原因:1. The color of the clothes1.衣着颜色Mosquitoes use the sense of sight to locate their prey. The studies suggest that they are often more attracted to dark colors such as black, green, and red. In this sense, if you wear clothes in these tones, you will become the ideal target for most mosquitoes.蚊子依靠视觉来锁定“猎物”。研究表明,蚊子更喜欢叮咬穿黑色、绿色和红色等深色衣服的人。也就是说,如果你穿着这类颜色的衣服,你就会成为大多数蚊子的理想目标。2. The carbon dioxide we emit2.二氧化碳Mosquitoes have the ability to smell the carbon dioxide that we exhale as we breathe. Therefore, the more we exhale, the more prone we are to their stings. In general, our production of dioxide increases when we play sports or when our body size is large. Also, be aware that when we exhale through our nose and mouth, mosquitoes feel more attracted to the head area. This explains why we hear their incessant buzzing during the night.蚊子可以嗅到人们呼吸时产生的二氧化碳。所以,呼出更多气体的人更加吸引蚊子。一般来说,运动中的人或体型较大的人会呼出更多的二氧化碳。另外,我们在用鼻子和嘴呼吸时,蚊子就会更容易飞向头部区域。这也就是为什么我们晚上总能一直听见“嗡嗡”声。3. Chemicals and body temperature3. 化学物质和体温Mosquitoes can also detect their prey by sniffing lactic acid, uric acid, ammonia, and other compounds emitted by sweat. They also have a great preference for people with an elevated body temperature. Also, being active makes us more prone to mosquito bites due to the increase in lactic acid and body temperature. There are also genetic factors involved in the amount of uric acid and other substances secreted.蚊子会根据人们出汗时排出的乳酸、尿酸、氨气以及其他物质来确定目标,而且更喜欢体温较高的人。由于剧烈运动会促进乳酸的增加并产生更多热量,这会使你从蚊子的众多目标中“脱颖而出”。与此同时,遗传因素也会影响人们排出的乳酸和其他物质的含量。4. Bacteria present in the skin4. 皮肤细菌Some scientific studies have shown that the type and amount of bacteria present in the skin can make us more prone to mosquito bites. The most irresistible to mosquitoes are those that present the most numbers of certain types of skin microbes. This factor would explain why some insects are so attracted to the ankle and foot area. These regions are a sure source of bacteria.科学研究表明,人类皮肤上细菌的具体类型和数量也会影响人们对蚊子的吸引力。如果皮肤上有许多细菌,但菌群的种类更为多样的话,这样的皮肤最能吸引蚊子。这也许解释了为什么蚊子尤其喜欢咬我们的踝关节和双脚,因为这些部位的菌群组成更加稳定。5. Pregnancy5.孕妇According to studies, pregnant women are more attractive to mosquitoes. Indeed, during pregnancy, women exhale more carbon dioxide (about 21% more volume). Their body temperature is also higher.研究表明,蚊子更喜欢叮咬孕妇。怀孕时,孕妇会比其他人多呼出21%的二氧化碳,体温也会更高。6. Drink beer6. 爱喝啤酒的人A 2002 research has associated alcohol consumption with increased mosquito bites. Scientists determined that those who consumed beer were more attractive to insects than those who did not.2002年的一项研究表明,饮酒和被蚊子叮咬相关。科学家们发现,喝了啤酒的人更易得到蚊子的青睐。How To Prevent Mosquito Bites?如何预防蚊虫叮咬?Although it is sometimes impossible to avoid being stung, there are some things you can do to prevent discomfort. The main thing is, first of all, to reduce the risk of contracting a disease.虽然有时我们会不可避免地遭到蚊子叮咬,但你可以做些什么来缓解不适。最重要的是,首先要降低感染疾病的风险。Use insect repellant.Use long clothes, pants, and socks, if possible.Choose light-colored clothing.Avoid going out at nightfall or daybreak: these are the hours when mosquitoes are most active.使用驱虫剂;尽量穿长袖长裤和袜子;穿浅色服饰;避免傍晚或黎明外出:蚊子在这些时间段最活跃。【VOCABULARY】1. itching n. 痒2. edema n. [病理] 水肿3. nectar n. [植] 花蜜4.mouthpart n. (节肢动物等的)口器5. saliva n. 唾液6. hives n. [皮肤] 荨麻疹7.irresistible adj. 极诱人的;忍不住想要的8. entomologist n. 昆虫学者9.lactic acid 乳酸10. uric acid 尿酸11. ammonia n. 氨;氨水12. secrete v. 分泌13. microbes n. 细菌14. repellant n. 驱虫剂(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 梦境如何反映健康

梦境如何反映健康What Your Dreams Reveal About Your Health王淑怡 供稿Have you ever wondered why we dream? Rosalind Cartwright, Ph.D., saysthat dreams are the way the brain "incorporates memories, solves problems and deals with emotions. In this way, dreams are essential for our emotional health."你是否思考过,我们为什么会做梦呢?罗莎琳德·卡特赖特博士认为,梦是大脑“储存记忆、解决问题和处理情感的一种方式。因此,梦对我们的心理健康至关重要。”While dreaming is an important and necessary physiological phenomenon to help with our memory and mental health, dreams can also indicate other health issues that might need our attention. From nightmaresto the frequency of dreams, we can learn a lot ofinformationfrom our nocturnaladventures.做梦是一种重要且必不可少的生理现象,有助于我们加强记忆、保持心理健康,但梦境也能提醒我们需要警惕健康问题。从做噩梦到做梦的频率,我们可以从夜晚的梦境中了解到不少信息。Nightmares can be a warning sign噩梦或提示健康有恙There's nothing worse than waking from a nightmare in a cold sweat, heart pounding and nerves rattled. While a nightmare from time to time is generally not anything to worry about, frequent nightmares can indicate something more serious is going on with your health. One study found that nightmares can be linked to heart disease, with an irregular heartbeatincreasing your risk of nightmares even more. This is because heart disease can decrease the amount of oxygen reaching your brain, which can trigger a nightmare.没有什么比从噩梦中惊醒,吓出一身冷汗,让你心惊肉跳、神经紧张更加糟糕的了。偶尔做噩梦通常无需担心,但经常做噩梦可能表明你的健康出现了问题。一项研究发现,做噩梦与心脏病之间存在关联,而心律不齐会增加做噩梦的风险。这是由于心脏病会减少进入大脑的氧气量并导致做噩梦。Another possible cause of nightmares issleep apnea, a chronic conditionthat can really mess with your REM sleep due to lack of oxygen. "Patients have had terrifying dreams of drowning or suffocation," says William Kohler, MD, medical director of the Florida Sleep Institute, "in reality, their airwayis blocked off."导致噩梦的另一因素或为“睡眠呼吸暂停”。这是一种慢性疾病,由于呼吸暂停,快速眼动睡眠(REM)会因为缺氧而被严重扰乱。美国佛罗里达睡眠研究所医学博士威廉·科勒指出,“曾经有病人梦见溺水或窒息的可怕情景,而在现实生活中,他们出现了呼吸道堵塞。”Dream frequency may point to a number of conditions频繁做梦可能反映了一系列问题Most people have about four to six dreams every night, but don't remember near that many. Interestingly, we're more likely to remember dreams if we wake up rightbefore the dream is over, or soon after it. Mood disorders like anxiety and depression might be a cause of increased dream frequency. If you are concerned, you might try keeping a journal by your bed and noting the frequency of your dreams. Although you might not think you are suffering from a mood disorder, the frequency of your dreams might say otherwise.大多数人每天晚上都会做4-6个梦,但却记不住这么多的梦。有趣的是,如果我们在梦境正要结束前或者梦境结束后立即醒来,我们就更有可能记住梦的内容。焦虑和抑郁等情绪障碍可能会导致频繁做梦。如果你常有心事,可以尝试在床头写写日记,记录做梦的频率。即使你可能不觉得自己有情绪上的障碍,但做梦的频率往往便能说明问题。Vivid dreams andbizarre dreams 生动和怪诞的梦境Vivid dreams may arise for a variety of reasons. They may indicate you are suffering from certain medical conditions, which might include neurodegenerativedisorders like Parkinson's disease. There are other, less frightening reasons for your weird dreams as well, so don't jump to conclusions too quickly.造成梦境栩栩如生的因素有很多。它们或许表明你患有某些疾病,其中可能包括帕金森病等神经退行性疾病。也有些不那么可怕的原因会导致怪异梦境的产生,所以不要太快下结论。This may come as a surprise to you, but particularly bizarre or memorable dreams might also indicate a possible infection. "Any infection increases the amount of slow-wave sleepwe have, however, this delays the starting point of when we enter dreaming sleep, so dreaming sleep starts late, and can erupt into consciousness. This leads to vivid dreams and strange hallucinations," saysDr. Patrick McNamara, a neurologistfrom Boston University Medical School.虽然这听起来非常离奇,但特别怪异荒诞或者令人记忆犹新的梦境可能表明你体内存在病菌感染。美国波士顿大学医学院神经病学家帕特里克·麦克纳马拉博士表示,“人体受到病菌感染时,处于慢波睡眠的时间会增加,但有梦睡眠会延后,容易使睡梦进入有意识的状态,导致栩栩如生和离奇怪诞的梦境产生。Alcohol can also prompt vivid and memorable dreams. This is because the effects of alcohol wear off toward morning, affecting your brain chemicals and triggering bizarre dreams.酒精也可以诱发生动且难忘的梦境。这是由于临近早晨,酒精的作用逐渐减弱,大脑化学物质水平会受到影响,导致怪诞梦境的产生。【VOCABULARY】1.nocturnaladj.夜间发生的2.nightmaren.噩梦3.rattlev.使紧张;使恐惧4.heartbeatn.心跳;心搏;心跳声5.sleep apnea睡眠呼吸暂停6.REM sleep快速眼动睡眠7.suffocationn.窒息;闷死8.airwayn. 气道9.neurodegenerativeadj.神经退行性的10.slow-wave sleep慢波睡眠11.hallucinationn. 幻觉12.neurologistn. 神经病学家(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 科学家争相保存冰芯

科学家争相保存冰芯Scientists are racing to collect ice cores刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTScientists are racing to collect ice cores as the earth's warming melts large areas of ice known as glaciersand ice sheets. Some scientists say there is very little time left. And, in some cases, it is already too late.Late last year, chemist Margit Schwikowski and a team of international scientists attempted to gather ice cores from the Grand Combin glacier. In 2018, they had visited the area and took a small test core. The core was in good shape, said Schwikowski, head of a chemistry group at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland. The core had well-preserved atmospheric gases and chemical evidence of past climates. But, in the two years it took for the scientists to return with a full drilling set-up, some of the information that had been trapped in the ice had disappeared. The sudden change "tells us exactly how sensitive these glaciers are," said Schwikowski. "We were just two years too late."The mission on Grand Combin shows the major difficulty scientists face today in collecting ice cores.Some glaciers are disappearing faster than expected, leading scientists to do missions sooner, rethink where to target next, and plan about increased storage.The United Nations says almost all of the world's glaciers are becoming smaller.In its most complete climate report to date, published in August, the UN said that human actions are "very likely the main driver of the near-universal retreat of glaciers globally since the 1990s."About 10 percent of the land area on earth is currently covered with glacial ice, says the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado.If a glacier is melting, it means it also is not storing atmospheric gases from today for scientists to study in the future.Beyond gases, scientists say they may be able to use ice cores to study the DNA of ancient bacteria and viruses that could come back as the world warms.Frozen insects and plant material could also reveal histories of the world's forests.Another team of scientists, whose findings were published in July in Microbiome, found viruses nearly 15,000 years old in two ice core samples taken from the Tibetan Plateauin China.The findings identified genetic codes for 33 viruses. At least 28 of them were new to scientists.That team of scientists included U.S.-based ice core experts Lonnie Thompson and Ellen Mosley-Thompson, who are husband and wife.Lonnie Thompson said he plans to increase his ice core storage facilities at Ohio State University.Some of the cores Thompson and his team have collected are the only remaining ice from some glaciers.Thompson used the term archive- meaning a place where records or materials are kept - to talk about ice."Ice has a wonderful archive of not only the climate, but also the forcings of the climate," the major causes of climate change, Thompson said."Those histories are at risk as the earth warms and the glaciers retreat."I'm John Russell.VOCABULARY1. glaciersn.a large mass of ice, formed by snow on mountains, that moves very slowly down a valley 冰川2.plateaun.an area of flat land that is higher than the land around it 高原3.archiven.a collection of historical documents or records of a government, a family, a place or an organization; the place where these records are stored 档案;档案馆;档案室。例如:the National Sound Archive国家音响档案馆4.retreatv. to move away or back 离开;离去;退去;后退。例如:The flood waters retreated slowly.洪水慢慢地消退。QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. Scientists are racing to collect ice cores as the earth's warming melts large areas of glaciers and ice sheets. 2. Some glaciers are disappearing faster than expected, leading scientists to do missions sooner, rethink where to target next, and plan about decreased storage.3. The United Nations says all of the world's glaciers are becoming smaller.4. In its most complete climate report to date, published in August, the UN said that human actions are "very likely the main driver of the near-universal retreat of glaciers globally since the 1990s."5. About 5 percent of the land area on earth is currently covered with glacial ice, says the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado.6. If a glacier is melting, it means it also is not storing atmospheric gases from today for scientists to study in the past.7. Beyond gases, scientists say they may be able to use ice cores to study the DNA of ancient bacteria and viruses that could come back as the world warms.8. Another team of scientists found viruses nearly 15,000 years old in three ice core samples taken from the Tibetan Plateau in China.9. Ellen Mosley-Thompson said she plans to increase her ice core storage facilities at Ohio State University.KEY Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(T) 1. Scientists are racing to collect ice cores as the earth's warming melts large areas of glaciers and ice sheets. (F) 2. Some glaciers are disappearing faster than expected, leading scientists to do missions sooner, rethink where to target next, and plan about decreasedstorage.(正确表达)Some glaciers are disappearing faster than expected, leading scientists to do missions sooner, rethink where to target next, and plan about increasedstorage.(F) 3. The United Nations says allof the world's glaciers are becoming smaller. (正确表达)The United Nations says almost allof the world's glaciers are becoming smaller.(T) 4. In its most complete climate report to date, published in August, the UN said that human actions are "very likely the main driver of the near-universal retreat of glaciers globally since the 1990s."(F) 5. About 5 percentof the land area on earth is currently covered with glacial ice, says the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado. (正确表达)About 10 percentof the land area on earth is currently covered with glacial ice, says the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado.(F) 6. If a glacier is melting, it means it also is not storing atmospheric gases from today for scientists to study in the past. (正确表达)If a glacier is melting, it means it also is not storing atmospheric gases from today for scientists to study in the future.(T) 7. Beyond gases, scientists say they may be able to use ice cores to study the DNA of ancient bacteria and viruses that could come back as the world warms.(F) 8. Another team of scientists found viruses nearly 15,000 years old in threeice core samples taken from the Tibetan Plateau in China. (正确表达)Another team of scientists found viruses nearly 15,000 years old in twoice core samples taken from the Tibetan Plateau in China.(F) 9. Ellen Mosley-Thompsonsaid sheplans to increase herice core storage facilities at Ohio State University. (正确表达)Lonnie Thompsonsaid heplans to increase hisice core storage facilities at Ohio State University.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 美疾控中心建议已接种疫苗者在室内公共场所恢复戴口罩

美疾控中心建议已接种疫苗者在室内公共场所恢复戴口罩CDCadvises vaccinated people to wear face masks in public indoor spaces刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTHello, I'm Neil Nunes with the BBC News.The United States has announced tougher rules to combata sharp rise in coronavirus cases caused by the more infectious Delta variant. The Centers for Disease Control, or CDC, advises even vaccinatedpeople to wear face masks in public indoor spaces. The announcement reverses advice issued in May. Peter Bowes has this report. The CDC says about 2/3 of countieshave high transmission rates that warrantthe wearing of masks with the Delta variant behind many of the surges. Some states, such as Florida and Missouri, have seen rapidly rising infection rates. The CDC's guidance is a reversal of its position 2 months ago and poses a dilemma for many local and state authorities with some highly reluctant to accept tougher measures.VOCABULARY1. combatv. to stop sth. unpleasant or harmful from happening or from getting worse 防止;减轻。例如:measures to combat crime/inflation/unemployment/disease 防止犯罪 / 通货膨胀 / 失业 / 疾病的措施2.vaccinatev. to give a person or an animal a vaccine , especially by injecting it, in order to protectthem against a disease 给……接种疫苗。例如:I was vaccinated against tetanus.我接种了破伤风疫苗。3.countyn. (美国的)县4.warrantv. (formal) to make sth. necessary or appropriate in a particular situation 使有必要;使正当;使恰当。例如:Further investigation is clearly warranted.进一步调查显然是必要的。QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. The CDCadvises even vaccinated people to wear face masks in public spaces. 2. The CDC says about 2/3 of stateshave high transmission rates that warrant the wearing of masks with the Delta variant behind many of the surges. 3. Florida and Missourihave seen rapidly rising infection ratesbecause of the Delta variant. 4. The CDC's guidance is a reversal of its position onemonth ago.5. The government's guidance poses a dilemma for many local and state authorities with some highly reluctant to accept tougher measures.KEY Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(F)1. The CDCadvises even vaccinated people to wear face masks in public spaces.(正确表达)The CDCadvises even vaccinated people to wear face masks in public indoor spaces. (F)2. The CDC says about 2/3 of stateshave high transmission rates that warrant the wearing of masks with the Delta variant behind many of the surges.(正确表达)The CDC says about 2/3 of countieshave high transmission rates that warrant the wearing of masks with the Delta variant behind many of the surges. (T) 3. Florida and Missourihave seen rapidly rising infection ratesbecause of the Delta variant. (F)4. The CDC's guidance is a reversal of its position onemonth ago. (正确表达)The CDC's guidance is a reversal of its position 2 months ago.(F)5. The government'sguidance poses a dilemma for many local and state authorities with some highly reluctant to accept tougher measures.(正确表达)The CDC'sguidance poses a dilemma for many local and state authorities with some highly reluctant to accept tougher measures.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 减少剩饭剩菜

减少剩饭剩菜Reducing leftovers刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When restaurants first shut down early in the pandemic, Americans raided grocery stores. They started cooking more at home - and, presumably, generating more leftovers. Those leftovers can be a convenient future meal - but they've also got a dark side."There's a tendency that if you put an item on a plate that's a leftover, there's a higher probability that you're not going to fully consume that item. And so it's probably going to go to waste."Brian Roe, an applied economist at the Ohio State University. He and his colleagues recently studied leftovers and food waste by tracking the eating habits of 18 men and women in Baton Rouge, La. The participants tracked what they ate using an iPhone app. And during the weeklong study, the study subjects collectively piled 1,200 different foods on their plates.After analyzing what got eaten, saved or thrown away, the researchers found that leftovers were more likely to be picked at and not fully eaten –which is a finding we can all probably identify with.But they also observed that leftovers - perhaps due to being older and less fresh - directed diners' attention to the other, more novel items on their plate, which brings up an interesting possible strategy to get people to eat their veggies."I guess if you have an item that you don't normally eat as much of, and you're trying to get people to eat their peas, perhaps surrounding it with leftovers is a way to make them focus on the newest item on the plate."The findings are in the journal PLOS ONE.Overall, Roe says one bigger lesson emerged on how to avoid scraping perfectly good food into the trash."So for us, the real take-home here was: choose a smaller meal, and you're less likely to generate leftovers. And that's a good thing because leftovers, all else equal, tend to be wasted more often."Not that Roe doesn't have a few aspirational Tupperware (食物保鲜容器品牌) sitting around."I'm guilty of this myself: we have things left over from last Thanksgiving still sitting in our freezer. And I know people who've moved with frozen items before - without ever getting around to eating them."Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.VOCABULARY1. raid v. to enter a place, usually using force, and steal from it 劫掠;打劫2. leftover n. food that has not been eaten at the end of a meal 吃剩的食物;残羹剩饭3. aspirational adj. wanting very much to achieve success in your career or to improve your social status and standard of living 渴望成功的;一心想提高社会地位和生活水平的QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When restaurants first shut down early in the pandemic, Americans (Q1) __________ grocery stores. They started cooking more at home - and, presumably, generating more leftovers. Those leftovers can be a (Q2) ___________ future meal - but they've also got a dark side."There's a tendency that if you put an item on a plate that's a leftover, there's a higher probability that you're not going to fully (Q3) ______________ that item. And so it's probably going to go to waste."Brian Roe, an applied economist at the Ohio State University. He and his colleagues recently studied leftovers and food waste by (Q4) _____________________________________ of 18 men and women in Baton Rouge, La. The participants tracked what they ate using an iPhone app. And during the (Q5) __________ study, the study subjects collectively piled 1,200 different foods on their plates.After analyzing what got eaten, saved or thrown away, the researchers found that leftovers were more likely to be picked at and not fully eaten – which is a finding we can all probably identify with.But they also observed that leftovers - perhaps due to being (Q6) ________________ - directed diners' attention to the other, more novel items on their plate, which brings up an interesting possible strategy to get people to eat their veggies."I guess if you have an item that you don't normally eat as much of, and you're trying to get people to eat their (Q7) ___________, perhaps surrounding it with leftovers is a way to make them focus on the newest item on the plate."The findings are in the journal PLOS ONE.Overall, Roe says one bigger lesson emerged on how to (Q8) _______________________."So for us, the real take-home here was: (Q9) ___________________, and you're less likely to generate leftovers. And that's a good thing because leftovers, all else equal, tend to be wasted more often."Not that Roe doesn't have a few aspirational Tupperware sitting around."I'm guilty of this myself: we have things left over from last Thanksgiving still sitting in our freezer. And I know people who've moved with (Q10) ____________________________ before - without ever getting around to eating them."Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When restaurants first shut down early in the pandemic, Americans (Q1) raided grocery stores. They started cooking more at home - and, presumably, generating more leftovers. Those leftovers can be a (Q2)convenient future meal - but they've also got a dark side."There's a tendency that if you put an item on a plate that's a leftover, there's a higher probability that you're not going to fully (Q3) consume that item. And so it's probably going to go to waste."Brian Roe, an applied economist at the Ohio State University. He and his colleagues recently studied leftovers and food waste by (Q4) tracking the eating habits of 18 men and women in Baton Rouge, La. The participants tracked what they ate using an iPhone app. And during the (Q5) weeklong study, the study subjects collectively piled 1,200 different foods on their plates.After analyzing what got eaten, saved or thrown away, the researchers found that leftovers were more likely to be picked at and not fully eaten – which is a finding we can all probably identify with.But they also observed that leftovers - perhaps due to being (Q6) older and less fresh - directed diners' attention to the other, more novel items on their plate, which brings up an interesting possible strategy to get people to eat their veggies."I guess if you have an item that you don't normally eat as much of, and you're trying to get people to eat their (Q7) peas, perhaps surrounding it with leftovers is a way to make them focus on the newest item on the plate."The findings are in the journal PLOS ONE.Overall, Roe says one bigger lesson emerged on how to (Q8) avoid scraping perfectly good food into the trash."So for us, the real take-home here was: (Q9) choose a smaller meal, and you're less likely to generate leftovers. And that's a good thing because leftovers, all else equal, tend to be wasted more often."Not that Roe doesn't have a few aspirational Tupperware sitting around."I'm guilty of this myself: we have things left over from last Thanksgiving still sitting in our freezer. And I know people who've moved with (Q10) frozen items before - without ever getting around to eating them."Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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