教学素材 | 不化妆,也能越来越漂亮?

教学素材 | 不化妆,也能悄悄变美?大家是否曾梦想过,早晨醒来,镜子里映照出的是清透健康的肌肤与自信满满的微笑,即便不施粉黛也能绽放自然之美?当然啦!“素颜也能美美哒”并非遥不可及的梦想。这不,微博网友们纷纷支招,就怎样变美这个话题说出了大实话:bare-faced beauty 素颜美有网友说: 这是大实话呀!岂不知那一个个美颜相机产生了多少照“骗”;一张张照“骗”诞生了多少现实中见不到的美女和美男~a beauty camera app 美颜相机应用 好啦,不贫嘴了~ 回归正题,今天我们要为大家揭秘那些无需化妆却能让颜值升级的日常小秘诀,让你轻松拥抱纯净真实的自我! 生活方式调整,塑造自然美人 1. 洗头巧安排,活力始于晨 打破夜晚洗头的习惯,选择在白天洗头。晚上洗头虽易,但此时阳气较弱,即便是彻底吹干,头皮仍可能残留未蒸发的水分,久而久之不利健康。 break the habit of ... 打破……的习惯wash your hair during the day 在白天洗头2. 规律作息,美肌良药 珍视黄金睡眠时段,11点前进入梦乡,充足的睡眠是对肌肤最佳的修复方式。 go to bed before 11 p.m.11点前入睡3. 精简护肤,科学防护 遵循简约的护肤法则,确保基础补水保湿,并且全年坚持防晒。偶尔辅以每周2-3次的面膜护理,为肌肤补足水分,瞬间提亮肤色,让你时刻保持水嫩动人。keep your skin hydrated and moisturized 确保肌肤水润wear sunscreen all year round 全年坚持防晒a facial mask 面膜4. 热水泡脚,舒心养肤夜幕降临,温暖的足浴能有效促进全身血液循环,祛湿散寒,坚持每晚20分钟,你会发现肌肤焕发新生,精神倍增。soak your feet in warm water 热水泡脚promote blood circulation 促进血液循环dispel dampness and coldness祛湿散寒 饮食滋养,由内而外焕发光彩 1. 豆浆唤醒清晨 每日清晨,饮一杯温热豆浆,既能暖胃又能调节皮脂分泌,让你告别油光满面,保持清爽状态。 drink a cup of warm soy milk 喝一杯热豆浆bid farewell to oily skin 告别油性皮肤2. 熟番茄助力美白 西红柿富含抗氧化剂谷胱甘肽,长期食用有助于抑制黑色素沉积,淡化色斑。help inhibit melanin deposition 抑制黑色素沉积3. 睡前酸奶轻盈肠胃 在每晚睡前饮用无糖酸奶,它能够促进肠道蠕动,帮助排毒养颜,让肌肤在睡眠中享受深层滋养。 unsweetened yogurt 无糖酸奶help detoxify and nourish the skin 排毒养颜4. 黑芝麻润养内外 小小一勺黑芝麻,蕴含丰富的营养元素,食用黑芝麻不仅能提升发质光泽度,更能增强皮肤抵抗力。 black sesame 黑芝麻enhance shine and luster 提升光泽度 培养塑形小习惯,勾勒线条美1. 抬头训练,紧致V脸别再沉迷于低头刷手机,试着多做一些抬头运动,有助于收紧面部线条,塑造立体紧实的面部轮廓。do head lifting exercises 做抬头运动tighten skin on your face 紧致面部线条2. 勤练背部,挺拔身姿 背部力量训练绝非虚言,持之以恒,不仅能让你昂首挺胸,展现优雅体态,还会使下颌线更加分明,面部皮肤更加紧致。 back strengthening exercises 背部强化训练make your jawline more defined 使下颌线更分明3. 睡前靠墙倒腿双脚靠墙抬起,倒立15分钟,可以消除腿部浮肿,给腿部塑形。lift your feet up and lean against the wall 双脚抬起并靠墙reduce leg swelling 减少腿部浮肿美丽从来都不是浓墨重彩的面具,而是源自内心的热爱与生活的智慧。通过饮食调理与生活方式的改变,我们会发现“不化妆也能变美”并非空谈。最后,送给大家一句话,祝愿每位追求自然美的小仙女和小哥哥,都能在自律和自信中,遇见最美的自己!Self-confidence is the best beauty treatment for women.自信是女人最好的医美。 (本文图片来自网络,仅供学习交流使用,侵删。)

新闻听力 | 如何避免抄袭

VOA慢速:如何避免抄袭Defining Plagiarism, How to Avoid It CET-4听力语速/五级(CET-4)适中/972词/9分6秒刘立军 供稿Part I. QUESTIONSListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.Q1. What does plagiarism mean in academic writing?A. Paraphrasing another person's writing.B. Quoting too little from a source.C. Copying someone’s work without giving credit.D. Using too many citations in a paper.Q2. Who recently resigned from Harvard University because of plagiarism issues?A. A student who failed a class for copying work.B. The leader of Harvard University.C. An associate professor at the University of Kentucky.D. A psychology professor at the University of Memphis.Q3. Which of the following can be considered as fair use under American copyright law?A. Reporting news using copyrighted materials.B. Selling pirated movies online.C. Copying software for personal use without permission.D. Replicating an entire book for educational purposes.Q4. What should students do if they use parts of copyrighted work in their academic writing?A. Provide credit through detailed illustrations.B. Get written permission from the original creators.C. Make sure they transform the content completely.D. Give credit with proper citation.Q5. Why might professors suspect a student of plagiarizing if English is not their first language?A. Because non-native speakers are more likely to copy text.B. Due to a recognizable change in writing style and wording.C. Because students with different first languages cannot write well.D. Non-native speakers are not allowed to use complex vocabulary.Q6. What action may Harvard University take against students found plagiarizing?A. Lower their grade or fail them in that class.B. Only give a verbal warning and no further consequences.C. Provide them with special tutoring to improve.D. Increase their grade to encourage better behavior.Q7. How did D. Stephen Voss describe the part that Claudine Gay allegedly plagiarized from his paper?A. It was a major component of his own work.B. It made her research important and valuable.C. It was trivial and inconsequential.D. It was copied word-for-word and vastly significant.Q8. What issue did Roger Kreuz bring up in his email to VOA about plagiarism?A. He believes plagiarism is a minor offense that requires no further discussion.B. He suggests that the definition of plagiarism does not depend on individual opinions.C. He confirmed that his book fully supports Claudine Gay's actions.D. He indicates that university students are given more chances to correct plagiarism.Q9. According to the passage, why might university faculty members receive less scrutiny for plagiarism than students?A. They are considered more careful with their citations by administrators.B. Their work is generally not important enough to warrant attention.C. Faculty members do not need to follow any plagiarism policies.D. Students are always expected to set higher standards for themselves.Q10. What is the main idea presented in the text regarding plagiarism?A. Plagiarism is an act that is taken lightly in academic circles.B. Computer programs and AI tools are ineffective in detecting plagiarism.C. All universities have clear policies about plagiarism and enforce them strictly.D. There is a possible double standard in how plagiarism is treated between students and faculty.Part II. TRANSCRIPTIt has become easy for students to find and copy published material. But copying another person's writing without giving them credit can get students and other scholars into big trouble. (Q1) Copying another person's writing without crediting them is called plagiarism.plagiarism n. 抄袭;剽窃(Q2) Recently, the leader of Harvard University stepped down over problems related to the use of other peoples' work in her writing.American copyright law protects original works of authorship including books, movies, music, images and artworks. The protection extends to computer software and the design of buildings and structures.The owner can sell a copyright or permit others to use it because it is property and property ownership is protected by law in the U.S.The idea is that copyright helps society. If people can gain from their own creations, called their intellectual property, then more people will want to create original works.(Q3) The law, however, permits the unlicensed use of copyrighted works under what is called fair use. Fair use can include criticism, comment, news reporting, education and research. However, there are some limitations.(Q4)In education, students can include small parts of copyrighted work in their writing and research. But they must provide credit to the original creators through a citation which gives details about the source.Many universities, including Harvard University, even urge students to give credit to sources of ideas when they come from discussions with professors or other students. Harvard even warns students about copying themselves. That is, they cannot hand in the same work for more than one class without the permission of their instructors.A failure to do so is considered plagiarizing.How can professors know if a student is plagiarizing?Just as it is easy to copy, it is also easy for professors to know if a student has plagiarized.First, there are computer programs and artificial intelligence, or AI, tools that compare students' papers to large databases of published writing. The programs can identify whether students have copied published writing. Second, (Q5) if English is not a student's first language, a professor might recognize a change in wording and writing style. This could bring more attention to the student's paper.Plagiarism is punished in different ways. (Q6) Professors could simply warn a student not to do it again, lower their grade, or they might fail the student in that class. In more extreme cases, a student may be temporarily banned or expelled from school.Tools to avoid plagiarismThere are free tools to make citations easier for students and to avoid plagiarism. Zotero is a free, open-source program that helps organize all the research a student may use. For example, it can automatically create citations and combine them into a list. The Purdue Online Writing Lab, or Purdue OWL for short, is another free resource.Many universities also have writing centers where students can learn the citation rules. And another way for students to learn how to avoid plagiarism is to read published papers and pay careful attention to how information is presented. Students should observe when and how citations are used. This can help them learn the rules of citations.In educational, or academic, writing, it is better to cite too much than too little.A possible double standardHarvard's Claudine Gay resigned this month after several accusations of plagiarism in her academic work.Gay's academic writing got attention after she was strongly criticized for her answers to a Congressional committee related to freedom of speech. Critics found several cases of possible plagiarism in her 1997 doctoral paper. Harvard's governing board first supported Gay, saying a review of her scholarly work turned up "a few instances of inadequate citation" but no evidence of research wrongdoing.doctoral adj. 博士(学位)的There has been debate among academics over whether her conduct amounted to academic dishonesty. D. Stephen Voss is an associate professor of political science at the University of Kentucky. He knew Gay when they were graduate students at Harvard. A paper he co-wrote in the 1990s was one Gay is accused of plagiarizing from.(Q7) He said in an interview with the New Yorker magazine that Gay did plagiarize from him. But what she copied from his paper was "trivial" and "inconsequential."trivial adj. 不重要的;琐碎的;微不足道的inconsequential adj. 不重要的;微不足道的;细琐的What Gay used from his paper "did not take an idea of any significance from my work." He added: "the bit she used from us was not in any way a major component of what made her research important or valuable."Roger Kreuz is a psychology professor at the University of Memphis who is writing a book on the history and psychology of plagiarism. (Q8) He told VOA in an email that if plagiarism is defined as taking words from another person's work, "the opinion of (Voss) doesn't really matter."Kreuz wrote in the online publication, The Conversation, that university students and professors might face different requirements when it comes to plagiarism. Kreuz wrote that professors suspected of plagiarism may be given the benefit of the doubt by their schools. They may also be given the chance to make corrections to their published work.Kreuz added that university leaders think that faculty members know what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. (Q9) If a problem arises, administrators might think they were just being careless with their citations or use of quotation marks.Students, on the other hand, must follow university policies on academic behavior. Harvard, for example, warns that students may be forced to leave the college if they plagiarize. Work written by students is more likely to be closely examined and put through tools that identify plagiarism than faculty work.(Q10) Many students consider this a double standard.Kreuz wrote in an opinion piece in The Boston Globe that university plagiarism policies for faculty are unclear.How "can academics set or enforce policies for faculty when the concept is so ill-defined?" he asked.I'm Dan Novak. And I'm Gena Bennett.Part III. KEYQ1. C. 细节题。文章中提到:“Copying another person's writing without crediting them is called plagiarism.” 意为:“采用别人写作的内容而不注明出处被称为抄袭。” 因此答案为C。Q2. B. 细节题。文章中提到:“Recently, the leader of Harvard University stepped down over problems related to the use of other peoples' work in her writing.” 意为:“最近,哈佛大学的领导因在其写作中使用其他人的作品引发问题而辞职。” 因此答案为B。Q3. A. 细节题。文章中提到:“...the unlicensed use of copyrighted works under what is called fair use. Fair use can include criticism, comment, news reporting, education and research.” 意为:“……未经授权使用版权作品,称为合理使用。合理使用可以包括批评、评论、新闻报道、教育和研究。” 因此答案为A。Q4. D. 细节题。文章中提到:“students can include small parts of copyrighted work in their writing and research. But they must provide credit to the original creators through a citation which gives details about the source.” 意为:“学生可以在他们的写作和研究中包含版权作品的小部分。但是他们必须标明出处。” 因此答案为D。Q5. B. 细节题。文章中提到:“if English is not a student's first language, a professor might recognize a change in wording and writing style.” 意为:“如果英语不是学生的第一语言,教授可能会认出措辞和写作风格的变化。” 因此答案为B。Q6. A. 细节题。文章中提到:“Professors could simply warn a student not to do it again, lower their grade, or they might fail the student in that class.” 意为:“教授们可以简单地警告学生不要再这样做,降低他们的成绩,或者他们可能会让学生在那门课程中不及格。” 因此答案为A。Q7. C. 细节题。文章中D. Stephen Voss说:“...what she copied from his paper was 'trivial' and 'inconsequential.'” 意为:“她从他的文章中抄袭的部分是‘微不足道’和‘无关紧要’的。” 因此答案为C。Q8. B. 推理题。文章中Roger Kreuz提到:“if plagiarism is defined as taking words from another person's work, 'the opinion of (Voss) doesn't really matter.'” 意为:“如果剽窃被定义为取用他人作品中的话语,‘(沃斯的)观点并不重要’。” 他认为剽窃的定义并不依赖于个人意见。因此答案为B。Q9. A. 推理题。文章中提到:“If a problem arises, administrators might think they were just being careless with their citations or use of quotation marks.” 意为:“如果出现问题,管理者可能会认为他们只是在引用或使用引号时不够小心。” 这表明教职员工可能因为管理者认为他们仅仅是在引用上不够小心而受到较少的审查。因此答案为A。Q10. D. 主旨题。整篇文章讨论了在学术界中剽窃的定义、它如何被处理,以及学生与教职员工之间可能存在的双重标准。文章最后强调了“Many students consider this a double standard.” 意为:“许多学生认为这是一种双重标准。” 因此答案为D。 (本文图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

教学素材 | 当爱变得坎坷

When love isn’t easy当爱变得坎坷词汇:考研| 句法:四级 | 文本:考研刘立军 供稿 When love isn’t easy当爱变得坎坷Once again, the night finds you awake, wrestling with the complexities of love. Dinner brought another debate. You attempted to explain your reactions and behaviors in the relationship, but were met with your partner’s growing frustration over their own grievances. 夜幕再次降临,你却依旧清醒,内心纠缠于爱情的纷繁纠葛之中。晚餐时分,一场辩论再度上演。你试图解释自己在这段感情中的反应与行为,然而却遭遇伴侣自身不满情绪的日益加剧。grievance n. 委屈;抱怨;牢骚Both of you made commendable efforts to communicate calmly and kindly. After a long two-hour dialogue, you separated on an almost tender note, retreating to separate rooms. 为了能够以平静且善意的态度进行沟通,你们双方都做出了值得称许的努力。经过长达两个小时的对话,你们在一种几近温柔的氛围中暂别,回到了各自的房间。Yet here you are at 3a.m., listening to the rain and plagued by doubts. You question what mistakes you’re making in love. Are you and this genuinely good person meant to be together? Why does it have to be so challenging?然而,此刻已是凌晨三点。你独坐聆听雨声,心中却被疑虑所困扰。你反思自己在爱情中究竟犯下了何种错误。你与这位真诚善良之人是否真的注定携手一生?为何这段感情必须如此艰难?The thought of leaving crosses your mind, imagining new relationships, but that thought quickly sours at the prospect of starting anew. You’d miss your partner and the memories and hope you once shared. But the path forward is unclear, and you wish for someone wise and kind to offer guidance. 离别的念头闪过脑海,你想象着新的恋情,然而一想到要重新开始,这念头便迅速变得苦涩。你会怀念你的伴侣,怀念你们曾经共有的美好回忆与期望。然而,前方的道路迷雾重重,你多么渴望有一位智者能给予你温柔的指引。However, you realize that more than answers, you seek understanding; someone to acknowledge the struggle of not having a clear solution, simply saying, ‘I know, I know…’ 然而你意识到,比起答案本身,你更渴望得到理解;你期盼有人能感同身受那种找不到明确的解决之道时的挣扎,只是说:“我懂,我懂……”。Sometimes solutions aren’t what we need. We crave validation and empathy for our dilemmas. It’s comforting to know we’re not foolish for facing these issues, that we’re not alone, and that perhaps this challenge is just one of life’s constants. 有时,我们需要的并非解决方案。我们渴望他人对我们所处困境的认可与共鸣。如果能知道我们在面对这些问题时并不愚蠢,知道自己并不孤单,知道这种挑战不过是生活中不可避免的一部分,这样会让人感到宽慰。empathy n. 同感;共鸣;同情A dose of sobering philosophy might help, acknowledging that life is inherently tough, existence is messy, and love can seem an insurmountable task because we’re all only human. 此时,一剂清醒的哲学观或许会对我们有所帮助:承认生活本就艰难,存在本身就是混乱的,而爱情这一关似乎难以逾越,只因我们皆为凡人。insurmountable adj. 无法克服的;难以解决的;不可逾越的Ideally, you wanted to resolve this flawlessly, as you would any problem at work or at home. But matters of the heart are not like organizing a cupboard or balancing finances. 理想情况下,你希望能像处理工作中或家里的问题那样完美地处理这段感情。然而,感情之事并非如整理衣柜或平衡财务那般简单。Very few people have this aspect of life figured out — probably less than 1%. Yes, you’ve stumbled, but you’re not exceptionally deficient for it. You’re typically flawed, typically unsettled, embarking on a journey that is exceptionally, extraordinarily difficult. 很少有人能真正参透人生的这一面——也许不足百分之一。没错,你已经跌跌撞撞,但你并不那么差劲。你只是普通人,有着平凡的缺陷,你正踏上的是一条异常艰难的人生旅途。It’s hard for you, and indeed, for everyone. 这对你来说很难,实际上,对每个人也是如此。 (本文图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

新闻听力 | 笑的科学

笑的科学The Science of Laughter 语速:CET-6听力 / 词汇:七级(考研)易 / 篇幅:630词 / 时长:4分55秒 刘立军供稿 Part I. QUESTIONSListen to the talk and choose the best answer to each question you hear. Q1. What physical changes occur when a person laughs, as described in the text?A. Teeth show involuntarily and eyes water.B. Abdominal muscles contract and breathing patterns change.C. Heart rate increases dramatically.D. Reflexes are enhanced and muscle control improves. Q2. According to the text, to what purpose do scientists believe laughter may have evolved?A. To signal distress in dangerous situations.B. As a way for humans to develop language.C. To clearly indicate friendly, non-aggressive intent.D. To aid digestion after meals. Q3. How has the function of laughter changed after humans diverged from other great apes, according to the text?A. It has remained unchanged throughout human evolution.B. It became less frequent and quieter in humans than in apes.C. The contagious nature of laughter was lost.D. Laughter started to convey a broader range of contexts and subtle meanings. Q4. How do observers distinguish between different kinds of laughter, as found in studies?A. By the duration of the laughter.B. By the volume of the laughter.C. By identifying whether the laughter sounds real or fake.D. By the facial expressions of the laughing person. Q5. What might be the outcome of frequent laughter?A. It could potentially improve cardiovascular health and stress management.B. It may lead to increased levels of stress hormones.C. Frequent laughter usually results in diminished social bonds.D. Laughing often causes people to lose control over their speech. Part II. TRANSCRIPT The Science of Laughter (1) Isn’t it odd that, when something’s funny, you might show your teeth, change your breathing, become weak and achy in some places, and maybe even cry? In other words, why do we do this bizarre thing that is laughter? bizarre adj. 极其怪诞的;异乎寻常的 (2) (Q1) When you laugh, your abdominal muscles contract rapidly. This alters your breathing patterns, increasing the pressure in your chest cavity, and pushing air out, which might audibly emerge as a snort, wheeze, or vocalization. Because you’re exerting your abdominal muscles much more than you usually would while talking, they may start to hurt. Laughter also inhibits your reflexes and muscle control, causing sensations like leg weakness. chest cavity 胸腔snort n.(尤指表示气愤或被逗乐的)喷鼻息,哼inhibit v. 阻止;阻碍;抑制 (3) So, where does this funny phenomenon come from? Because there’s no archaeological record of laughter, it’s impossible to say exactly how and why it evolved, but scientists have some theories. Importantly, humans are not the only animals today that do something like laughter. Using ultrasonic recorders, researchers in the late 90s realized that rats were basically giggling while being tickled. Scientists have since compiled evidence of at least 65 species - mostly mammals, but also some birds - that vocalize during social play. Some, unsurprisingly, are our closest relatives. compile v. 编写(书、列表、报告等);编纂 (4) By recording and analyzing the sounds primates make while playing and being tickled, researchers grew more convinced that the ancient ancestor of all great apes did something like laughter. And, because other apes make laughter-like sounds during rough-and-tumble play, (Q2) they think laughter may have originally developed to clearly signal friendly, non-aggressive intent. (5) But of course, humans don’t just laugh when we’re wrestling, but also when we’re amused, and even surprised, confused, or nervous. Some scientists think laughter took on expanded functions after humans split from other great apes and developed large social groups and more complex language abilities. (Q3) They hypothesize that laughter gradually became something we could use not just during play but within speech to convey subtle meanings and a range of contexts to show our emotions. (6) This is thought to be one of the reasons that laughter is contagious: it’s like an invitation to share in someone’s emotional state. Just hearing clips of laughter can activate key regions in your brain, triggering you to smile or laugh yourself. And when participants in one study watched a funny video, they laughed significantly longer and more often when another person was present – even though they reported feeling the same level of amusement. contagious adj.(疾病)接触传染的 (7) Human laughter is also generally louder than the play vocalizations of most animals. Some scientists speculate that this is because our laughter functions not only as a signal between individuals, but a broadcast to everyone around. (8) Studies found that observers across the world and as young as 5 months old could reliably tell the difference between close friends and acquaintances just from brief clips of them laughing. (Q4) Similarly, we can tell whether a laugh is real or fake based just on the sound. Fake, or volitional, laughter is produced in entirely different networks in the brain, relying on speech-like pathways. Meanwhile, spontaneous laughter arises from older networks that other animals also use for their vocalizations. And laughter is not just socially important; it’s also thought to be good for us. When we laugh, our brains release feel-good neurotransmitters like endorphins, and decrease levels of stress hormones like cortisol. (Q5) Some research even suggests that people who laugh more can cope with stress more effectively and have better cardiovascular health. (9) Laughter is a universal human behavior. Babies can laugh before they can speak. Whether it’s the best medicine depends on your ailment. But as something that makes life more tolerable, strengthens bonds, and potentially improves aspects of your health, you can’t go wrong with a good laugh. Unless you have a broken rib or something. Then it’s no laughing matter. Certainly nothing to crack up about. ailment n. 轻病;小恙Part III. KEY Q1. B. 细节题。文章第(2) 段提到:“When you laugh, your abdominal muscles contract rapidly. This alters your breathing patterns...” 意为:“当你笑时,你的腹部肌肉会快速收缩。这改变了你的呼吸模式……”。因此答案为B。 Q2. C. 细节题。文章第(4) 段提到:“...they think laughter may have originally developed to clearly signal friendly, non-aggressive intent.” 意为:“……他们认为笑声最初可能是为了清晰地表达友好、非攻击性的意图而发展起来的。”因此答案为C。 Q3. D. 推理题。文章第(5) 段提到:“They hypothesize that laughter gradually became something we could use not just during play but within speech to convey subtle meanings and a range of contexts to show our emotions.” 意为:“他们假设笑声逐渐成为我们不仅在玩耍中使用,而且在言语中用来传达微妙含义和一系列情境以显示我们的情感的东西。”这说明笑声的功能随着人类从其他大猿类分化后发生了变化,开始承载更广泛的含义和情绪表达。因此答案为D。 Q4. C. 细节题。文章第(8) 段提到:“Similarly, we can tell whether a laugh is real or fake based just on the sound.” 意为:“同样,我们可以只根据声音判断笑声是真是假。” 因此答案为C。 Q5. A. 主旨题。文章第(8) 段提到:“Some research even suggests that people who laugh more can cope with stress more effectively and have better cardiovascular health.” 意为:“一些研究甚至表明,笑得更多的人可以更有效地应对压力,并拥有更好的心血管健康。” 这表明经常笑可能带来的一个结果是改善心血管健康和压力管理。因此答案为A。 (封面图片来自摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 住房对孩子上学的重要性

VOA慢速:住房对孩子上学的重要性Housing Important for Keeping Children in School刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTLast year, 40 percent of students in Los Angeles public schools missed more than 10 percent of the school year.That information comes from the Los Angeles Unified School District, which says about 429,000 students are enrolled in its schools.In addition to the attendance numbers, the district’s website says its officials did not know where 2,500 students were. These students stopped attending class and did not appear to enroll anywhere else.Elmer Roldan is executive director of Communities in Schools of Los Angeles, a nonprofit group that aims to keep children in school. He said, “Housing is the biggest reason kids aren’t going to school or we can’t find them.”The Associated Press (AP) recently reported on a case of one of those children whose housing situation led to problems at school.Fifteen-year-old Deneffy Sánchez has faced housing problems with his family for years. An AP reporter spoke with the teenager and his family.Deneffy lives with his mother Lilian Lopez and a 3-year-old sister. Lopez had been having a hard time keeping up with monthly rent payments in an earlier apartment. So the family of three shared a small living space with Fabiola Del Castillo, someone they did not know.As they fell behind on rent payments again, Del Castillo wanted to give up the apartment and pressured the family to leave. To fight the threat of losing their home, Deneffy stayed in the apartment ― and missed school.Federal data shows that the majority of students the government considers “homeless” have a place to stay. But the situation is often complex with shared roommates and an unsure future. In Los Angeles, the city’s superintendent said last spring that 13,000 students were homeless and 2,000 of them stayed in city shelters.In Deneffy’s case, his family was struggling to stay in their small apartment. His father has not been with them. His mother immigrated from Guatemala 22 years ago. In 2020, after his mother gave birth to Jennifer, his sister, the family was homeless.That year, schools across the country closed because of the spread of COVID-19. Deneffy tried to attend seventh-grade classes online through Zoom but said he could not pay attention. “I felt like they were judging me,” he said.By ninth grade, classes became more difficult, and his family did not have internet service at home. Deneffy’s grades crashed. His school offered help with homework. But AP reported the boy said that he really wanted a therapist.Deneffy spoke to the school’s “psychiatric social worker” to see if she could help him get mental health counseling. But demand for such help increased sharply during the pandemic.In 2021, an opinion study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said 42 percent of high school students said they felt sad or hopeless a lot compared to 28 percent ten years before.After leaving the apartment shared with Castillo, Deneffy’s family had another bad experience sharing a place. Then they found a place where they could live without roommates through an old friend. The apartment is small and costs $1250 to rent each month. That is more than Deneffy’s mother makes from government assistance and cleaning jobs.The 15-year-old now has a laptop computer provided by the school and a wireless connection to help with schoolwork. He has the most trouble with writing. “I never know where to put the commas and other punctuation,” he said.He also sees a therapist at school once a week. But he is worried that his family’s new living situation might change. His mother needs to find a full-time job to meet the rent payments.Speaking of his mother, Deneffy says she tells him not to worry. “But I do,” he said. “What if we don’t have money, and we get kicked out again?”I’m Mario Ritter, Jr.VOCABULARY1. unify v. to bring together or combine into one; to make unified or cohesive. 统一,使统一2. superintendent n. a person who oversees or manages an organization, especially in an educational setting. 负责人,主管3. Zoom n. 一款在线会议软件4. psychiatric adj. relating to the study and treatment of mental illness or disorders. 精神病学的,心理治疗的QUESTIONSListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.1. According to the Los Angeles Unified School District, what percent of students missed more than 10% of the school year last year?A. 20%.B. 30%.C. 40%.D. 50%.2. How many students were reported lost by the district’s officials?A. 1,500.B. 2,000.C. 2,500.D. 3,000.3. What is stated as the biggest reason kids aren’t going to school or can’t be found according to Elmer Roldan?A. Lack of internet connection.B. Mental health problems.C. The COVID-19 pandemic.D. Housing issues.4. What was Deneffy’s family’s living situation after leaving the apartment shared with Castillo?A. They were homeless.B. They found a place without roommates through an old friend.C. They stayed in city shelters.D. They moved to another shared apartment.5. Based on the information in the text, what could be a potential problem for Deneffy’s family in the future?A. They might struggle to meet rent payments due to financial problems.B. They may have issues with their internet service.C. Deneffy may get expelled from school due to his poor performance.D. The family might face another housing shortage due to COVID-19.KEY1. According to the Los Angeles Unified School District, what percent of students missed more than 10% of the school year last year?A. 20%.B. 30%.C. 40%.D. 50%.【答案】C【解析】细节题。题目的命题出处在文本的第一句:Last year, 40 percent of students in Los Angeles public schools missed more than 10 percent of the school year. 根据这句话,我们可以确定C选项”40%”是正确答案。2. How many students were reported lost by the district’s officials?A. 1,500.B. 2,000.C. 2,500.D. 3,000.【答案】C【解析】细节题。题目的命题出处在文中的一段话:In addition to the attendance numbers, the district’s website says its officials did not know where 2,500 students were. 这句话告诉我们C选项2500是正确答案。3. What is stated as the biggest reason kids aren’t going to school or can’t be found according to Elmer Roldan?A. Lack of internet connection.B. Mental health problems.C. The COVID-19 pandemic.D. Housing issues.【答案】D【解析】细节题。题目的命题出处在文中的一段话:Elmer Roldan is executive director of Communities in Schools of Los Angeles, a nonprofit group that aims to keep children in school. He said, ‘Housing is the biggest reason kids aren’t going to school or we can’t find them.’ 根据这句话,我们可以确定D选项“住房问题”是正确答案。4. What was Deneffy’s family’s living situation after leaving the apartment shared with Castillo?A. They were homeless.B. They found a place without roommates through an old friend.C. They stayed in city shelters.D. They moved to another shared apartment.【答案】B【解析】细节题。题目的命题出处在文中的一段话:After leaving the apartment shared with Castillo, Deneffy’s family had another bad experience sharing a place. Then they found a place where they could live without roommates through an old friend. 这句话说明了他们在离开与Castillo共享的公寓后,通过老朋友找到了一个可以不需要合租的地方,所以B选项是正确答案。5. Based on the information in the text, what could be a potential problem for Deneffy’s family in the future?A. They might struggle to meet rent payments due to financial problems.B. They may have issues with their internet service.C. Deneffy may get expelled from school due to his poor performance.D. The family might face another housing shortage due to COVID-19.【答案】A【解析】推理题。题目的命题出处在文中的一段话:The apartment is small and costs $1250 to rent each month. That is more than Deneffy’s mother makes from government assistance and cleaning jobs. 和 “His mother needs to find a full-time job to meet the rent payments.” 这两句话都提到了Deneffy’s family可能会在满足房租付款方面遇到困难,所以A选项“他们可能因财务问题而努力满足租金付款”是正确答案。(本文图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

新闻听力 | 如何避免抄袭

VOA慢速:如何避免抄袭Defining Plagiarism, How to Avoid It CET-4听力语速/五级(CET-4)适中/972词/9分6秒刘立军 供稿Part I. QUESTIONSListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.Q1. What does plagiarism mean in academic writing?A. Paraphrasing another person's writing.B. Quoting too little from a source.C. Copying someone’s work without giving credit.D. Using too many citations in a paper.Q2. Who recently resigned from Harvard University because of plagiarism issues?A. A student who failed a class for copying work.B. The leader of Harvard University.C. An associate professor at the University of Kentucky.D. A psychology professor at the University of Memphis.Q3. Which of the following can be considered as fair use under American copyright law?A. Reporting news using copyrighted materials.B. Selling pirated movies online.C. Copying software for personal use without permission.D. Replicating an entire book for educational purposes.Q4. What should students do if they use parts of copyrighted work in their academic writing?A. Provide credit through detailed illustrations.B. Get written permission from the original creators.C. Make sure they transform the content completely.D. Give credit with proper citation.Q5. Why might professors suspect a student of plagiarizing if English is not their first language?A. Because non-native speakers are more likely to copy text.B. Due to a recognizable change in writing style and wording.C. Because students with different first languages cannot write well.D. Non-native speakers are not allowed to use complex vocabulary.Q6. What action may Harvard University take against students found plagiarizing?A. Lower their grade or fail them in that class.B. Only give a verbal warning and no further consequences.C. Provide them with special tutoring to improve.D. Increase their grade to encourage better behavior.Q7. How did D. Stephen Voss describe the part that Claudine Gay allegedly plagiarized from his paper?A. It was a major component of his own work.B. It made her research important and valuable.C. It was trivial and inconsequential.D. It was copied word-for-word and vastly significant.Q8. What issue did Roger Kreuz bring up in his email to VOA about plagiarism?A. He believes plagiarism is a minor offense that requires no further discussion.B. He suggests that the definition of plagiarism does not depend on individual opinions.C. He confirmed that his book fully supports Claudine Gay's actions.D. He indicates that university students are given more chances to correct plagiarism.Q9. According to the passage, why might university faculty members receive less scrutiny for plagiarism than students?A. They are considered more careful with their citations by administrators.B. Their work is generally not important enough to warrant attention.C. Faculty members do not need to follow any plagiarism policies.D. Students are always expected to set higher standards for themselves.Q10. What is the main idea presented in the text regarding plagiarism?A. Plagiarism is an act that is taken lightly in academic circles.B. Computer programs and AI tools are ineffective in detecting plagiarism.C. All universities have clear policies about plagiarism and enforce them strictly.D. There is a possible double standard in how plagiarism is treated between students and faculty.Part II. TRANSCRIPTIt has become easy for students to find and copy published material. But copying another person's writing without giving them credit can get students and other scholars into big trouble. (Q1) Copying another person's writing without crediting them is called plagiarism.plagiarism n. 抄袭;剽窃(Q2) Recently, the leader of Harvard University stepped down over problems related to the use of other peoples' work in her writing.American copyright law protects original works of authorship including books, movies, music, images and artworks. The protection extends to computer software and the design of buildings and structures.The owner can sell a copyright or permit others to use it because it is property and property ownership is protected by law in the U.S.The idea is that copyright helps society. If people can gain from their own creations, called their intellectual property, then more people will want to create original works.(Q3) The law, however, permits the unlicensed use of copyrighted works under what is called fair use. Fair use can include criticism, comment, news reporting, education and research. However, there are some limitations.(Q4)In education, students can include small parts of copyrighted work in their writing and research. But they must provide credit to the original creators through a citation which gives details about the source.Many universities, including Harvard University, even urge students to give credit to sources of ideas when they come from discussions with professors or other students. Harvard even warns students about copying themselves. That is, they cannot hand in the same work for more than one class without the permission of their instructors.A failure to do so is considered plagiarizing.How can professors know if a student is plagiarizing?Just as it is easy to copy, it is also easy for professors to know if a student has plagiarized.First, there are computer programs and artificial intelligence, or AI, tools that compare students' papers to large databases of published writing. The programs can identify whether students have copied published writing. Second, (Q5) if English is not a student's first language, a professor might recognize a change in wording and writing style. This could bring more attention to the student's paper.Plagiarism is punished in different ways. (Q6) Professors could simply warn a student not to do it again, lower their grade, or they might fail the student in that class. In more extreme cases, a student may be temporarily banned or expelled from school.Tools to avoid plagiarismThere are free tools to make citations easier for students and to avoid plagiarism. Zotero is a free, open-source program that helps organize all the research a student may use. For example, it can automatically create citations and combine them into a list. The Purdue Online Writing Lab, or Purdue OWL for short, is another free resource.Many universities also have writing centers where students can learn the citation rules. And another way for students to learn how to avoid plagiarism is to read published papers and pay careful attention to how information is presented. Students should observe when and how citations are used. This can help them learn the rules of citations.In educational, or academic, writing, it is better to cite too much than too little.A possible double standardHarvard's Claudine Gay resigned this month after several accusations of plagiarism in her academic work.Gay's academic writing got attention after she was strongly criticized for her answers to a Congressional committee related to freedom of speech. Critics found several cases of possible plagiarism in her 1997 doctoral paper. Harvard's governing board first supported Gay, saying a review of her scholarly work turned up "a few instances of inadequate citation" but no evidence of research wrongdoing.doctoral adj. 博士(学位)的There has been debate among academics over whether her conduct amounted to academic dishonesty. D. Stephen Voss is an associate professor of political science at the University of Kentucky. He knew Gay when they were graduate students at Harvard. A paper he co-wrote in the 1990s was one Gay is accused of plagiarizing from.(Q7) He said in an interview with the New Yorker magazine that Gay did plagiarize from him. But what she copied from his paper was "trivial" and "inconsequential."trivial adj. 不重要的;琐碎的;微不足道的inconsequential adj. 不重要的;微不足道的;细琐的What Gay used from his paper "did not take an idea of any significance from my work." He added: "the bit she used from us was not in any way a major component of what made her research important or valuable."Roger Kreuz is a psychology professor at the University of Memphis who is writing a book on the history and psychology of plagiarism. (Q8) He told VOA in an email that if plagiarism is defined as taking words from another person's work, "the opinion of (Voss) doesn't really matter."Kreuz wrote in the online publication, The Conversation, that university students and professors might face different requirements when it comes to plagiarism. Kreuz wrote that professors suspected of plagiarism may be given the benefit of the doubt by their schools. They may also be given the chance to make corrections to their published work.Kreuz added that university leaders think that faculty members know what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. (Q9) If a problem arises, administrators might think they were just being careless with their citations or use of quotation marks.Students, on the other hand, must follow university policies on academic behavior. Harvard, for example, warns that students may be forced to leave the college if they plagiarize. Work written by students is more likely to be closely examined and put through tools that identify plagiarism than faculty work.(Q10) Many students consider this a double standard.Kreuz wrote in an opinion piece in The Boston Globe that university plagiarism policies for faculty are unclear.How "can academics set or enforce policies for faculty when the concept is so ill-defined?" he asked.I'm Dan Novak. And I'm Gena Bennett.Part III. KEYQ1. C. 细节题。文章中提到:“Copying another person's writing without crediting them is called plagiarism.” 意为:“采用别人写作的内容而不注明出处被称为抄袭。” 因此答案为C。Q2. B. 细节题。文章中提到:“Recently, the leader of Harvard University stepped down over problems related to the use of other peoples' work in her writing.” 意为:“最近,哈佛大学的领导因在其写作中使用其他人的作品引发问题而辞职。” 因此答案为B。Q3. A. 细节题。文章中提到:“...the unlicensed use of copyrighted works under what is called fair use. Fair use can include criticism, comment, news reporting, education and research.” 意为:“……未经授权使用版权作品,称为合理使用。合理使用可以包括批评、评论、新闻报道、教育和研究。” 因此答案为A。Q4. D. 细节题。文章中提到:“students can include small parts of copyrighted work in their writing and research. But they must provide credit to the original creators through a citation which gives details about the source.” 意为:“学生可以在他们的写作和研究中包含版权作品的小部分。但是他们必须标明出处。” 因此答案为D。Q5. B. 细节题。文章中提到:“if English is not a student's first language, a professor might recognize a change in wording and writing style.” 意为:“如果英语不是学生的第一语言,教授可能会认出措辞和写作风格的变化。” 因此答案为B。Q6. A. 细节题。文章中提到:“Professors could simply warn a student not to do it again, lower their grade, or they might fail the student in that class.” 意为:“教授们可以简单地警告学生不要再这样做,降低他们的成绩,或者他们可能会让学生在那门课程中不及格。” 因此答案为A。Q7. C. 细节题。文章中D. Stephen Voss说:“...what she copied from his paper was 'trivial' and 'inconsequential.'” 意为:“她从他的文章中抄袭的部分是‘微不足道’和‘无关紧要’的。” 因此答案为C。Q8. B. 推理题。文章中Roger Kreuz提到:“if plagiarism is defined as taking words from another person's work, 'the opinion of (Voss) doesn't really matter.'” 意为:“如果剽窃被定义为取用他人作品中的话语,‘(沃斯的)观点并不重要’。” 他认为剽窃的定义并不依赖于个人意见。因此答案为B。Q9. A. 推理题。文章中提到:“If a problem arises, administrators might think they were just being careless with their citations or use of quotation marks.” 意为:“如果出现问题,管理者可能会认为他们只是在引用或使用引号时不够小心。” 这表明教职员工可能因为管理者认为他们仅仅是在引用上不够小心而受到较少的审查。因此答案为A。Q10. D. 主旨题。整篇文章讨论了在学术界中剽窃的定义、它如何被处理,以及学生与教职员工之间可能存在的双重标准。文章最后强调了“Many students consider this a double standard.” 意为:“许多学生认为这是一种双重标准。” 因此答案为D。 (本文图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

第12届教学大赛商务英语组二等奖贺静授课

授课点评:贺静老师授课效果较好,教学目标清楚、教学方法得当、教学程序井井有条。此外,贺静老师口齿清晰,语音语调比较纯正、流利;教态端庄自然,有亲和力,教学过程中与学生互动良好,体现了以学生为主体,教师为主导的教学原则。授课分两部分。第一部分介绍该单元(Empire of Wealth)的总教学安排,用了3分30秒,时间把握得比较好。另外,设计的PPT形式多样,各种图表清楚展现了教学安排。授课开始的第三分钟,PPT显示的该单元总教学目标及三篇课文的教学目标一览无遗,加上贺静老师的阐释,清晰地传递了教学目标和学习目标,这能帮助学生在课堂内外围绕主题有效学习。紧接着,贺静老师借助PPT上的流程图比较详细地介绍了授课课文In Praise of Competitive Urges的教学安排,其中的Problem-centred教学方法对学生发现、分析和解决问题有很大帮助。之后进入第二部分:比赛授课阶段。第二部分具体授课含四个阶段。进入第一阶段Warm-up时,贺静老师显得有点紧张,但很快就调整好了状态。该阶段有教师对课文理解的提问,请学生从课文中找到相关的依据回答问题,这种做法本来值得称道,因为授课不能离开课文。但是,Warm-up阶段是课前准备阶段,因此,贺静老师在Warm-up阶段讲解课文不妥,建议把重点放在教材中的Warm-up Activities上,适当设计一些附加的活动,才符合教学逻辑。此外,在总时间为20分钟且第一阶段用了3分30秒的情况下,Warm-up阶段用了5分1秒显得有点过长。之后是第二阶段Questionnaire Results,贺静老师分析解释了调查表中的信息,谈了自己对问题的看法,期间激励学生思考、回答问题,这对培养学生的独立思考能力及理解课文非常有益。Questionnaire之后进入授课第三阶段:Wealth-flaunting Motivations / Summarizing。炫富动机是课文包含的核心内容之一。因此,讨论炫富动机有助于学生理解课文。教师要求学生从PPT上(视频13')显示的课文段落寻找答案,并要求学生做pair work找到有关的词汇。另外,通过分析课文的修辞寓意,贺静老师阐释了文章作者的真实目的。这一点做得很好。另一方面,根据该单元内容,所授的是“综合商务英语”课程。因此,贺静老师应更多围绕语言难点、篇章结构、写作风格、文法修辞等方面进行解释,让学生对课文有更深层次的理解。第四阶段Assignment在视频18'15"开始。课后作业包括questionnaire设计、调研报告写作、相关阅读作业。这样较好兼顾了综合商务英语课程语言学习和商务实践的教学特点。建议更多以教材内容教学为主,重视语言、篇章教学,在帮助学生充分理解课文的前提下掌握一些商务知识和技能;需要结合课文融入更多的思政教育内容。点评专家:翁凤翔

第12届教学大赛商务英语组特等奖潘紫萌说课

说课点评:在30分钟的准备时间里,读完、理解一篇800多词的商务英语文章,记住文章的结构和要点,设计出一套有理论指导、教学理念清晰、目标合理、结构完整、方法得当,最好再带点创新的教学方案,然后在10分钟的时间里,用英语条理清晰地把它展示出来,这对任何商务英语教师来讲都是一项重大的挑战。潘紫萌老师首先分析了课文,根据内容将其解构成三大部分。选手将第二部分(第3-8段)归纳成 promotion, price and place 和将第三部分(第9段)归纳成对计划进入中国市场的外国企业的忠告,这都是正确的。但是,她把第一部分(第1-2段)归纳成product,进而把前两部分归纳成营销学中著名的4P战略,这种做法有待商榷。因为课文的第1段主要讲两个问题:1)营销战略如何在中国成功,2)这些战略如何根据中国人的喜好以及对产品或服务的认知进行调整,而不是具体的产品。也许是准备的时间非常紧迫,选手对课文的理解和归纳出现了偏差。然后,潘老师分析了学生的特点。在教学模式上,她采取以学生为中心、以产出为导向的教学模式。其教学目标包括商务英语知识、商务技能和伦理价值。在具体的教学方法上,她例举了基于任务的教学、基于讨论的教学、案例教学、学生参与的测评等,并强调要综合利用线上线下教学资源。在学习测评上,她采用师生共同参与的方式,以增强教学效果。至于具体的教学步骤,她采用BOPPPS模式,再加课后作业。以上教学方案应该说中规中矩,显示出潘老师对商务英语教学的理论、模式、方法和测评等各要素有比较全面的了解。潘老师最亮眼的表现是在10分钟的时间里,用流利的英语将其教学方案展现出来,而且条理清晰,相关的教学理论、教学方法、商务知识、商务案例均了然于胸,信手拈来,同时口到手到,同步将所讲内容写到白板上,手起笔落,一气呵成。在提问阶段,潘老师的表现依旧出色,理解到位,回答中肯,表现出较高的英语基本功和商务、人文素养。不过有的回答可以再精炼一些。比如在回答第一个问题时,把EGP,EOP,EAP,ESP 的定义都讲了一遍,有点啰嗦。总而言之,潘紫萌在说课中表现突出,是一位素质比较全面、经验比较丰富的优秀商务英语教师。点评专家:陈准民

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