双语阅读 | 人的性格会随着年龄增长而改变吗?

人的性格会随着年龄增长而改变吗?Do People’s Personalities Change with Age?林晓洁 供稿People go through a host of changes intheir life — jobs, haircuts and relationships that come and go. But as people grow older, do their personalities change?人的一生会经历许多改变——工作、发型和人际关系的更替,但人的性格也会随着年龄增长而改变吗?Personality is the pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviors unique to a person. People tend to think of personality as fixed. But according to psychologists, that's not how it works. "Personality is adevelopmental phenomenon. It's not just a staticthing that you're stuck with and can't get over," said Brent Roberts, a psychologist at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.性格是一个人特有的思维、感觉和行为模式。人们往往认为性格是固定不变的,但心理学家表示事实并非如此。来自伊利诺伊大学香槟分校的心理学家布伦特·罗伯茨说:“性格是一种发展中的现象。它不是你无法改变或摆脱的静态事物。”But in the short term, change can be nearly imperceptible. Longitudinalstudies, in which researchers survey the personalities of participants regularly over many years, suggest that our personality is actually stable on shorter time scales.但从短期来看,性格的改变几乎是察觉不到的。在多年的纵向研究中,研究人员对参与者的性格进行了定期调查。结果显示,人的性格在较短时间内确实是稳定的。Earlier temperamentseems to affect later life experience. For example, one 1995 study published in the journal Child Developmentfollowed children from the age of 3 until the age of 18. The researchers found, for instance, that children who were shyer and more withdrawn tended to grow into unhappier teenagers.早年的性情似乎会对以后的生活经历造成影响。举例来说,1995年一项发表在《儿童发展》期刊上的研究对3-18岁的儿童进行了跟踪调查。研究人员发现,比较害羞内向的孩子到了青少年时期通常更不快乐。But those decades add up. Throughout all those years, our personality is changing, but slowly, Roberts said. "It's something that's subtle," he added. You don't notice it on that five-to-10-yeartime scale, but in the long term, it becomes pronounced. In 1960, psychologists surveyed over 440,000 high school students. The students answered questions about everything from how they reacted to emotional situations to how efficiently they got work done. Fifty years later, researchers tracked down 1,952 of these former students and gave them the same survey. The results, published in 2018 in the Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, found that in their 60s, participants scored much higher than they had as teenagers on questions measuring calmness, self-confidence, leadership and social sensitivity.但是一个又一个10年会对性格产生影响。罗伯茨称,我们的性格会随时间改变,不过这种改变的过程是缓慢的。他补充道:“这种变化很微妙。”5到10年内你察觉不到,但是长期来看,变化很明显。1960年,心理学家对逾44万名高中生进行了调查。这些学生回答了涉及对情绪状况的反应和完成工作的效率在内的各种问题。50年后,研究人员跟踪调查了1952名当年的学生,并对他们进行了同样的调查。调查结果发表于2018年的《性格与社会心理学杂志》上。结果表明,这些年逾60岁的参与者在评估冷静、自信、领导力和社会敏感性的问卷中的得分比他们青少年时的得分要高得多。Again and again, longitudinal studies have found similar results. Personality tends to get "better" over time. Psychologists call it "the maturity principle." People become more extroverted, emotionally stable, agreeable and conscientious as they grow older. Over the long haul, these changes are often pronounced.各种纵向研究一次又一次地得出了相似的结果。随着时间的流逝,人们的性格通常会“变好”。心理学家将其称之为“成熟法则”。随着年龄增长,人们变得更外向,情绪更稳定,更随和,也更有责任心。长期来看,这些改变往往很明显。Some individuals might change less than others, but in general, the maturity principle applies to everyone. There's good evidence that the average self-control of a 30-year-old is higher than a 20-year-old. At the same time, people who are relatively self-controlled at 18 also tend to be relatively self-controlled at age 30.一些人可能改变得比其他人少,但总体来看,“成熟法则”适用于每个人。有充分证据表明,30岁的人平均自制力高于20岁的人。与此同时,18岁时自制力相对较强的人往往到了30岁自制力也相对较强。So why do our personalities change so much? Evidence suggests it's not because of dramatic life events, such as marriage, the birth of a child or loss of a loved one. Some psychologists suggest these events reinforcepeople’spersonalities as peoplebring theircharacteristics with themto that particular situation.那么,为什么人的性格会改变这么多?证据显示,性格改变不是因为人生大事,比如结婚、孩子出生或失去所爱之人。一些心理学家指出,这些大事会强化性格,因为人们会将自己的性格带入到那个特定的情境中。Instead, changing expectations placed on us — as we adjust to university, the work force, starting a family — slowly wears us in, almost like a pair of shoes, Roberts said. "Over time you are asked in many contexts across life to do things a bit differently," he said. "There's not a user manual for how to act, but there's very clear implicit norms for how we should behave in these situations. So we adapt."罗伯茨指出,在我们适应大学、职场和成家时,外界对我们期望值的改变在慢慢地打磨我们,就像打磨一双鞋一样。他说:“随着时间的流逝,人生的许多境遇都会要求你用与以往不同的方式去做事。没有用户手册来指导你如何行动,但是有非常清楚的不成文规范告诉你在这些情况下应该如何表现。于是我们就改变自己去适应。”【VOCABULARY】1.static adj. 静态的2.imperceptible adj.察觉不到的3.longitudinal adj.纵向的4.temperament n.性情5.pronounced adj.明显的6.reinforcev. 强化(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网享有)

双语阅读 | 为什么通勤16分钟是通往幸福之路的关键?

Why the key to happiness is a 16-minute commute?为什么通勤16分钟是通往幸福之路的关键?王淑怡 供稿Many people look forward to a lengthy work commute as it provides them with an opportunity to awaken their senses before entering the office and starting their workday. Others, however, prefer commutes under half an hour in length, as long ones make them feel drainedand exhausted before even stepping foot into their place of work.许多人喜欢漫长的通勤时间,因为这可以让他们在到达办公室、开启一天的工作之前唤醒身体感官。然而,另一些人更喜欢通勤时间在半小时以内,因为长时间的通勤会让他们在到达办公室之前就已经筋疲力尽。It’s perhaps not surprising that our commutes make us miserable. The UK’s Office for National Statistics has found that “commutershave lower life satisfaction, a lower sense that their daily activities are worthwhile, lower levels of happiness and higher anxiety on average than non-commuters”. In fact, if your commute takes longer than an hour, feelings of happiness decrease with every successive minute of travel.If a lengthy commute makes us unhappy, then it should follow that a shorter commute improves our happiness levels.通勤让我们苦不堪言,这也许并不奇怪。英国国家统计局调查发现“相比非通勤人员,通勤人员通常生活满意度较低、更不容易体会到日常活动的意义、幸福指数更低,而焦虑感更高”。事实上,如果你的通勤时间超过一小时,时间每增加一分钟,你的幸福感也会随之相应下降。既然漫长的通勤时间剥夺了我们的幸福感,那么就应该缩短通勤时间,以提高我们的幸福指数。What’s the ideal commutethat is necessary to ensure work efficiency and general happiness? Prepare to be surprised. It turns out that the ideal commute is actually not no commute at all. A study of more than 1,000 workers in San Franciscofound that their ideal one-way commute was 16 minutes. Fewer than two per cent of people wanted a commute time shorter than four minutes, while only 1.2 per cent wanted no commute time at all.多少时间才称得上是理想的通勤,既能保证工作效率,又能确保整体幸福感?答案出乎人们的意料。研究表明理想的通勤并不是完全不需要通勤。通过对旧金山1000多名工人进行调查发现,他们理想中的单程通勤时间为16分钟。只有不到2%的人希望通勤时间小于4分钟,另外仅有1.2%的人希望完全避免通勤。It seems that people do appreciate some separation between work and home – using the travel time as a psychological tool to decompressfrom the day. And it’s backed up by science. An increasing amount of research shows that ‘active commutes’, which involve walking or cycling, can make life better – even as important to wellbeing as a marriage or a pay rise.人们希望办公地点与住所能保持适当的距离,这样他们可以利用这段通勤时间缓解一天的心理压力。这在科学上是有根据的。现在越来越多的研究表明“积极通勤”(包括步行或骑单车)能够让生活变得更美好,其对于幸福的意义甚至如同婚姻或加薪一样重要。If the ideal commute for most people is a 16-minute strolleach way, how should businesses respond? “Gone are the days of making employees spend unproductivetime traveling to a central location and working to fixed hours that date back to Victorian times,”says Richard Morris, UK CEO at Regus. “Businesses of every size [should be] investigating flexible work options that enable employees to work closer to home and to vary their hours to better suit their circumstances.”如果大多数人理想的通勤时间是每天单程步行16分钟,那么企业对此如何回应呢?“自维多利亚时代以来,员工每天在路上花费一段毫无成果的时间前往中心区域并按照固定时间工作,这样的日子已经一去不复返了,”雷格斯英国首席执行官Richard Morris表示,“各种规模的企业[应该]研究可行的弹性工作制,使员工能够在离家较近的地方工作,并能改变自己的上班时间,以更好地适应的各自不同的生活状况。”If, as the ancient Athenianhistorian Thucydides suggests, “The secret to happiness is freedom”, the opportunity to choose where to work and how to get there could make all the difference to wearycommuters across the world.古希腊历史学家修昔底德说:“幸福的秘诀是自由。”对于世界各地疲惫的通勤者来说,如果能够自己选择工作地点和通勤方式,那将具有非凡的意义。【VOCABULARY】1.drain v.耗尽2.commuter n.通勤者;每日往返上班者3.decompress v.使减压;使解除压力4.strolln.漫步;闲逛5.unproductive adj.非生产性的;徒劳的6.weary adj.疲倦的;厌烦的 7.Athenian adj.雅典的;雅典人的(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 握手礼节的来源

The origin of handshaking握手礼节的来源林晓洁供稿Handshaking seems like a gesture that has been around forever. Indeed, a throne base from the reign of ancient Assyria's Shalmaneser III in the 9th century BC clearly shows two figures clasping hands. As an ancient custom, the root of handshaking seems lost to the sands of time.握手作为一种打招呼的方式似乎一直都存在。确实,公元前9世纪亚述国王撒缦以色三世统治时期的宝座上就刻着两个人握手的图案。握手作为一种古老的习俗,随着时间的流逝,看起来似乎已经难寻根源。Historians who have pored over old etiquette books have noticed that handshaking in the modern sense of a greeting doesn't appear until the mid-19th century, when it was considered a slightly improper gesture that should only be used with friends.熟读礼仪典籍的历史学家注意到,握手作为现代问候方式直到19世纪中期才出现,当时握手被认为是一种有点不得体的姿势,只有在朋友之间才能使用。Traditionally, the origin of handshaking is often given to the Quakers. But as Dutch sociologist Herman Roodenburg—the chief authority for the history of handshaking—wrote in a chapter of an anthology called A Cultural History of Gesture, "More than in any other field, that of the study of gesture is one in which the historian has to make the most of only a few clues".传统上,人们通常认为贵格会信徒是最早用握手来打招呼的人。但荷兰社会学家赫尔曼·卢登伯格——研究握手史的权威人物——在选集《手势的文化历史》的一章中写道:“和其他领域相比,历史学家只能通过寥寥无几的线索来研究手势。”One of the earliest clues he cites is a 16th-century German translation of the French writer Rabelais's Gargantua and Pantagruel. When one character meets Gargantua, Rabelais writes (in one modern English translation), "he was greeted with a thousand caresses, a thousand embraces, a thousand good-days."他提到的最早的一个线索是16世纪法国作家拉伯雷的《巨人传》的德语译本。在现代英语译本中,当一个角色遇到卡冈都亚时,拉伯雷写道:“欢迎他的是一千个爱抚、一千个拥抱和一千个问候。”There's additional evidence for a handshaking tradition in that era: In 1607 the author James Cleland (believed to have been a Scotsman living in England) proclaimed that instead of things like bowing down to everyone's shoes and kissing hands, he'd rather "retain our good old Scottish shaking of the two right hands together at meeting".还有一个握手传统起源于那个年代的证据:1607年作家詹姆士·克雷兰德(据认为是生活在英格兰的一个苏格兰人)宣称,与其让他深深地鞠躬和亲吻别人的手,他宁愿“保持古老的苏格兰习俗,在会面时伸出右手相握”。A popular hypothesis suggests that Cleland's statements against bowing were actually a wish to go back to a potentially very traditional (though poorly recorded) method of greeting in Europe. As the centuries progressed, handshaking was replaced by more 'hierarchical' ways of greeting—like bowing. According to Roodenburg, handshaking survived in a few niches, like in Dutch towns where they'd use the gesture to reconcile after disagreements. Around the same time, the Quakers—who valued equality—also made use of the handshake. Then, as the hierarchies of the continent weakened, the handshake re-emerged as a standard greeting among equals—the way it remains today.一个流传较广的假说认为,克雷兰德反对鞠躬的声明其实是想重新采用欧洲传统的问候方式(尽管鲜有记载)。几百年间,握手被更为“等级化”的问候方式取代了——比如鞠躬。卢登伯格称,握手作为打招呼的方式在一些偏僻的地方保留了下来,比如荷兰的某些城镇居民会用握手来言和。大约在同一时期,重视平等的贵格会信徒也采用了握手的问候方式。随着欧洲大陆的等级制度被削弱,握手重新成为地位相同的人之间通用的打招呼方式,并一直延续至今日。As for why shaking hands was deemed a good method of greeting, rather than some other gesture, the most popular explanation is that it incapacitates the right hand, making it useless for weapon holding. In the 19th century it was argued that shaking hands without removing gloves was quite rude and required an immediate apology. One 1870 text explains that "this idea would also seem to be an occult remnant of the old notion that the glove might conceal a weapon."至于为什么是握手而非其他手势被视为一种打招呼的好方法,最普遍的解释是它占用了右手,使人无法持有武器。在19世纪,人们认为戴着手套握手是一种相当无礼的行为,需要立即为之道歉。1870年的一段文字解释说“这种想法似乎也是老观念的一种神秘延续,旧时认为手套可能会隐藏武器”。【VOCABULARY】1. reign n. 君主统治时期2. throne n. 王座3. etiquette n. 礼节4. hypothesis n. 假说5. hierarchical adj. 分层的6. reconcile vt. 使和解7. incapacitate vt. 使不能8. occult adj. 神秘的(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 拜登停建特朗普边境墙

拜登停建特朗普边境墙燕山大学 刘立军 供稿【TRANSCRIPT】This is VOA news. Via remote, I'm Marissa Melton. U.S. President Joe Biden signed executive orders Tuesday to continue dismantlingformer President Donald Trump's restrictive immigration policies. During the signing, Biden said "I'm not making new law. I'm eliminating bad policy." Biden's immigration plans include an attempt to reunite families that were separated at the U.S.-Mexican border. In the first hours of his presidency two weeks ago, Biden acted to haltconstruction of Trump's $16 billion wall along the border with Mexico and sent a far-reaching immigration bill to Congress. U.S. lawmakers have been stalematedbetween liberalslooking to ease the path to U.S. citizenship and conservativesseeking to stem unauthorized immigration. Biden's immediate focus is on the 3,100-kilometer southern border with Mexico, where Mr. Trump tried to keep thousands of migrants from Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala from entering the United States. Trump led repair and expansion of a border wall and imposed tough detentionand deportationpolicies for those who made it across the desolateborder terrain and into the United States.Amazon.com Inc. on Tuesday said founder Jeff Bezos will step down as CEO and become executive chairman as the company reported its third consecutive record profit and quarterly sales above $100 billion for the first time. Net sales rose to $125.56 billion as consumers turned to the world's largest online retailer for their holiday shopping. Bezos, who started the company 27 years ago, said in a note to employees he would stay engaged in important initiatives but also want the time and energy for other projects. From Washington D.C., you're listening to VOA news.【VOCABULARY】1.dismantlev. to end an organization or system gradually in an organized way (逐渐)废除,取消。2.halt v. to stop; to make sb. / sth. stop (使)停止,停下3.stalematen.a disagreement or a situation in a competition in which neither side is able to win ormake any progress (辩论或竞赛中出现的)僵局,僵持局面。例如:The talks ended in (a)stalemate. 谈判陷入僵局,无果而终。4.liberal n.自由党人,自由主义者5.conservative n.保守党人,保守派6.detention n.the state of being kept in a place, especially a prison, and prevented from leaving 拘留,扣押,监禁7. deportation n. 驱逐出境8.desolate adj.empty and without people, making you feel sad or frightened 无人居住的,荒无人烟的,荒凉的。例如:a bleak and desolate landscape一片荒凉的景色【QUESTIONS】Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. U.S. President Joe Biden signed executive orders Tuesday to dismantle former President Donald Trump's restrictive immigration policies. 2. One of Biden's immigration plans is to reunite farmers that were separated at the U.S.-Mexican border. 3. Biden's immediate focus is on the 3,100-kilometer southern border with Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala. 4. Jeff Bezos is the founder of Amazon.com Inc. 5. Jeff Bezos will step down as executive chairman and become CEO.6. Bezos started the company 29 years ago.【KEY】Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(T) 1. U.S. President Joe Biden signed executive orders Tuesday to dismantle former President Donald Trump's restrictive immigration policies. (F) 2. One of Biden's immigration plans is to reunite farmersthat were separated at the U.S.-Mexican border.(正确表达)One of Biden's immigration plans is to reunite familiesthat were separated at the U.S.-Mexican border. (F) 3. Biden's immediate focus is on the 3,100-kilometer southern border with Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala.(正确表达)Biden's immediate focus is on the 3,100-kilometer southern border with Mexico. (T) 4. Jeff Bezos is the founder of Amazon.com Inc. (F) 5. Jeff Bezos will step down as executive chairman and become CEO.(正确表达)Jeff Bezos will step down as CEO and become executive chairman.(F) 6. Bezos started the company 29 years ago.(正确表达)Bezos started the company 27 years ago.(封面图片来自于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 美国公司推出只做重活机器人

美国公司推出只做重活机器人燕山大学 刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThe American robotics company Boston Dynamics recently made public a new robot called Stretch. It is designed to do only one job: to move containers, or boxes, in large storage buildings called warehouses.Michael Perry is vice president of business development for Boston Dynamics. He said Stretch is the first robot designed for one job that the company has built. He added that the robot was developed because of requests from companies around the world."We heard pretty much universally across warehousing that truck unloading is one of the most physically difficult and unpleasant jobs. And that's where Stretch comes into play," Perry told Reuters.Stretch has a small base that permits it to move around small spaces in existing warehouses without having to redesign them. The robot also has an arm with highly developed cameras that can identify and deal with boxes of many shapes and sizes.Perry said Stretch can pick up boxes that weigh about 23 kilograms. He adds that the robot can move about 800 boxes in one hour.Boston Dynamicsis known for YouTube videos of its dog-like ‘Spot’and humanoid‘Atlas’robots.Perry said now is a good time for its latest robot to benefit from increasing demand for speedy home delivery.Experts say the warehousing industry experienced strong growth in 2020. That growth is expected to continue this year. They say online buying during the coronavirus health crisis drove the need for a huge expansion in delivery services.Boston Dynamics has not released a price for Stretch. But the company said the system can be set up without costly redesigns or investments in new buildings or structures.I'm Jonathan Evans.VOCABULARY1.warehouse: a building where large quantities of goods are stored, especially before they are sent to shops / stores to be sold 仓库;货栈;货仓2.Boston Dynamics波士顿动力公司3. humanoidn. a machine or creature that looks and behaves like a human 仿真机器人QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. Stretch is designed to do only one job: to move containers, or boxes, in small storage buildings. 2. Michael Perry is president of business development for Boston Dynamics. 3. Stretch was developed because of requests from companies around the world.4. Stretch has an arm with highly developed cameras that can identify and deal with boxes of many shapes and sizes.5. Perry said Stretch can move about 800 boxes in one day.6. Boston Dynamics is known for YouTube videos of its monkey-like ‘Spot’ and humanoid ‘Atlas’ robots.7. Online buying during the coronavirus crisis drove the need for a huge expansion in delivery services.8. Boston Dynamics has released a price for Stretch. KEY Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(F) 1. Stretch is designed to do only one job: to move containers, or boxes, in smallstorage buildings.(正确表达)Stretch is designed to do only one job: to move containers, or boxes, in largestorage buildings. (F) 2. Michael Perry is presidentof business development for Boston Dynamics. (正确表达)Michael Perry is vice presidentof business development for Boston Dynamics. (T) 3. Stretch was developed because of requests from companies around the world.(T) 4. Stretch has an arm with highly developed cameras that can identify and deal with boxes of many shapes and sizes.(F) 5. Perry said Stretch can move about 800 boxes in one day.(正确表达)Perry said Stretch can move about 800 boxes in one hour.(F) 6. Boston Dynamics is known for YouTube videos of its monkey-like‘Spot’ and humanoid ‘Atlas’ robots. (正确表达)Boston Dynamics is known for YouTube videos of its dog-like‘Spot’ and humanoid ‘Atlas’ robots.(T) 7. Online buying during the coronavirus crisis drove the need for a huge expansion in delivery services.(F) 8. Boston Dynamics has releaseda price for Stretch.(正确表达)Boston Dynamics has not releaseda price for Stretch. (封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 众多日本国民反对举办东京奥运会

众多日本国民反对举办东京奥运会燕山大学刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTA majority of Japanese people are opposed to holding the Tokyo Olympic Games this year due to concerns over the global health crisis. As Reuters Brian Wood reports, that's according to a Yomiuri Daily poll released on Wednesday.While 70 percent of those surveyed said they were at least "somewhat interested" in the Summer Games, Yomiuri found that 58 percent were against holding the event this year. If the Games were to go on, over 90 percent said the crowd should be kept to a minimum or not allowed at all. The poll was conducted between mid-January through February, when much of the country remained under a state of emergency. A Reuters poll last month showed nearly two-thirds of Japanese companies also oppose holding the Games this year, a shift from the last survey which showed most in favor. As for now, Greater Tokyo remains in a state of emergency, with restrictions on gathering, business hours and foreign travel into the country. That's Reuters Brian Wood.VOCABULARY1. Reuters 英国路透社2. Yomiuri Daily 日本《读卖日报》QUESTIONSListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.Q1: Why are many Japanese people against to hold the Tokyo Olympic Games this year?A. Due to concerns over the global health crisis.B. Due to concerns over the Japanese economic crisis.C. Due to concerns over the global environment crisis.D. Due to concerns over the Japanese nuclear leak crisis.Q2: According to a Reuters poll last month, how many Japanese companies oppose holding the Games this year?A. Nearly 70%.B. Over 58%C. Nearly two-thirds.D. Over 90%.KEYQ1: A。细节题。命题出处:A majority of Japanese people are opposed to holding the Tokyo Olympic Games this year due to concerns over the global health crisis.Q2: C。细节题。命题出处:While 70 percent of those surveyed said they were at least "somewhat interested" in the Summer Games, Yomiuri found that 58 percent were against holding the event this year. If the Games were to go on, over 90 percent said the crowd should be kept to a minimum or not allowed at all. The poll was conducted between mid-January through February, when much of the country remained under a state of emergency. A Reuters poll last month showed nearly two-thirds of Japanese companies also oppose holding the Games this year, a shift from the last survey which showed most in favor.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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