双语阅读 | 嫦娥五号:为什么要去月球“挖土”?

Chang’e-5: Why has China sent a probe to collect soils from the moon? 嫦娥五号:为什么要去月球“挖土”?林晓洁 供稿China has successfully launched its Chang'e-5 lunar mission on November 24 to collect rocks from the moon — the first attempt by any country since the 1970s. 11月24日,中国成功发射了嫦娥五号,本次任务的目标为采集月球岩石,这是自上世纪70年代以来人类的首次尝试。The mission is to bring back 2kg of drilled and scooped samples to Earth. Recent failed landings on the Moon by an Israeli privately funded mission and the Indian Vikram lander show just how challenging such missions still are.这次任务将带回2公斤钻取的月壤样本。最近以色列私人资助的登月计划和印度的“维克拉姆号”登月计划都失败了,这表明此类任务仍然具有极大的挑战性。Chang'e-5 probe comprises an orbiter, a lander, an ascender and a returner. It is intended to collect samples from Mons Rümker in the Oceanus Procellarum Mare region of the Moon’s nearside.嫦娥五号探测器由轨道器、着陆器、上升器和返回器组成。它计划从位于月球正面的月海风暴洋北部吕姆克山脉附近收集样本。Its lander features multiple cameras, a spectrometerto assess the composition of the soil near the spacecraft and a ground-penetrating radar. A robot arm is equipped with a percussivedrill and scoopto pick up excavated rock and soil.嫦娥五号的着陆器装有多个摄像头,一个用于检测航天器附近土壤成分的光谱仪,以及一个探地雷达。机械臂装备有冲击钻机和铲子,用来收集挖掘出的岩石和土壤。Working by remote control from Earth, engineers will use the arm to move collected samples up to the ascent vehicle, which then will blast off, rendezvous with the Chang'e 5 orbiter and transfer the sample to the return craft for the trip back to Earth, an unprecedented feat.工程师们通过在地球上远程控制,将该机械臂收集到的样本转移到上升器上。随后上升器将在空中与轨道器对接,并将样本转移到返回器上返回地球,这是一项前所未有的壮举。The mission will last more than 20 days. Landing in Inner Mongolia is expected around December 16. The samples will be transferred to specially equipped laboratories for analysis.本次任务将持续20多天,嫦娥五号将于12月16日左右在内蒙古着陆。样本将被转移到装备特殊仪器的实验室进行分析。Why Do We Collect Lunar Soils?为什么要采集月壤?Rocks and soil at the Chang'e 5’s landing site are expected to date back about 1.1 billion years, much younger than the rocks collected by the Apollo astronauts.嫦娥五号着陆点附近的月岩和月壤预估有11亿年的历史,比阿波罗号宇航员收集的样本要短得多。Study of rock and soil samples from the Moon will yield useful information about the early history of the Moon, the Earth, and the inner solar system. If the mission succeeds, planetary scientists will be able to test some key theories about the origin of the Moon and the inner Solar System’s rocky planets.对月岩和月壤样本的研究将提供有关月球、地球和内太阳系早期历史的有用信息。如果任务成功,行星科学家将能够验证一些关于月球和内太阳系岩质行星起源的关键理论。These samples could also set the foundation for more complex sample retrieval missions in the future, potentially on other planets.这些样本还可能为未来在其他行星上进行更复杂的样本回收任务奠定基础。【VOCABULARY】1.scoopv. & n.(用勺)舀;(用铲)铲;铲子2.comprisev. 包含;由……组成3.spectrometern. 分光计;波长、能量、强烈程度等可以被测量的产生光谱的仪器4.percussiveadj.(声音)叩击的;敲击的;打击的5.featn.功绩;英勇事迹

双语阅读 | 美国的总统选举制度,你真的了解吗?

The US Electoral College美国选举人团制度林晓洁 供稿The United States is the only country that selects its president using a system called the Electoral College. With the 2020 US presidential election becoming a hotly debated topic recently, let’s learn more about the Electoral College, including its process, significance and historical origin.美国是全球唯一采用“选举人团制度”选举总统的国家。当前,2020美国大选已成为热门话题,让我们一起来了解选举团的流程、意义以及它的历史来源吧!What is the Electoral College?什么是选举人团制度The Electoral College is a unique system by which the president and vice president of the United States are chosen. It was devised by the framers of the United States Constitution. The Electoral College was never intended to pick the “perfect” president, but to provide a method of election that is feasible, desirable, and consistent with a republican form of government.选举人团制度是美国特有的一种选举总统及副总统的方式。它是由美国宪法的立宪者制定的,其目的并不是选出一名最“完美”的总统,而是设立一种能够与共和政体相互配合的灵活选举制度。How does the Electoral College work?选举人团制度是如何运作的?Every four years, the system calls for the creation of a temporary group consisting of 538 electors. Each state gets the same number of delegates as their Congressional representatives. Technically, it is these electors, but not the American people, who vote for the president. In modern elections, the first candidate to get 270 of the 538 total electoral votes wins the White House. Most States have a “winner-take-all” system that awards all electors to the Presidential candidate who wins the state's popular vote. This is also why, every so often, someone wins the presidency without winning the popular vote on a national scale.每隔四年,来自各州的538名代表组成选举人团,各州代表人数与该州在国会的参、众议员人数相等。严格来说,正是由这些选举人而非普通选民,投票选出美国总统。在现代大选中,首先得到270张选举人票的总统候选人将赢得选举。大多数州实行“赢家通吃”的策略,赢得某个州普选的候选人将获得该州全部的选举人票。这也是许多总统候选人在全国普选总票数落后的情况下,仍能竞选成功的原因。How was the Electoral College created?选举团制度的来源Historians have suggested a variety of reasons for the adoption of the Electoral College, including concerns about the separation of powers and the relationship between the executive and legislative branches, the balance between small and large states, slavery, and the perceived dangers of direct democracy. In fact, Electoral College is a compromise between a popular vote by citizens and a vote in Congress.历史学家们提出了一系列关于美国设立选举人团的原因。其中包括对权力分立、行政权与立法权的平衡、大小州的平衡、奴隶制以及直接民主的潜在危险等不同方面的考量。事实上,选举人团制度是公民普选以及国会选举之间的一种折中方案。At the time of the Philadelphia convention, no other country in the world directly elected its chief executive, so the delegates were wading into uncharted territory. Further complicating the task was a deep-rooted distrust of executive power. After all, the fledgling nation had just fought its way out from under a tyrannical king and overreaching colonial governors. They didn’t want another despot on their hands.在费城制宪会议召开之时,世界上没有任何一个国家的首脑是通过直接选举产生的。因此,制宪者们是在开辟一条全新的发展道路。他们对行政权力根深蒂固的不信任,使得总统选举的流程更加复杂。毕竟,这个羽翼未丰的国家刚刚摆脱了残暴的国君和蛮横的殖民总督统治,不希望自己手中又出现一个暴君。One group of delegates felt strongly that Congress shouldn’t have anything to do with picking the president. There’re simply too many opportunities for chummy corruption between the executive and legislative branches.一些制宪代表强烈认为国会不应与总统选举有任何关系。因为当行政部门和立法部门的关系过于密切时,腐败就容易产生。Another camp was dead set against letting the people elect the president by a straight popular vote. First, they thought 18th-century voters lacked the resources to be fully informed about the candidates, especially in rural outposts. Second, they feared a headstrong “democratic mob” steering the country astray. And third, a populist president appealing directly to the people could command dangerous amounts of power.而另一些代表则坚决反对让人民直接投票选出总统。首先,他们认为18世纪的选民,尤其是农村边远地区的人民,缺乏对总统候选人的充分了解。其次,他们担心部分顽固的“民主暴民”会将国家引向歧途。第三,一个深得民心的民粹主义总统可能会掌握过多的权力,将国家带入危险。Out of those drawn-out debates finally came with a compromise based on the idea of electoral intermediaries. These intermediaries wouldn’t be picked by Congress or elected by the people. Instead, the states would each appoint independent “electors” who would cast the actual ballots for the presidency.经过旷日持久的辩论,制宪者们最终达成了一项基于“选举中间人”的妥协方案。这些选举中间人不由国会挑选或人民选举产生。相反,各州将各自任命独立的“选举人”,由他们实际投票选举总统。But determining exactly how many electors to assign to each state was another sticking point. Here the divide was between slave-owning and non-slave-owning states. It was the same issue that plagued the distribution of seats in the House of Representatives: should or shouldn’t the Founders include slaves in counting a state’s population?但是,每个州应该分配多少选举人票也是一个关键问题。分歧主要存在于奴隶主州和非奴隶主州,这和困扰众议院席位分配的问题是一样的: 一个州的人口该不该将奴隶算上?The result was the controversial “Three-Fifths Compromise,” in which enslaved black people would be counted as three-fifths of a person for the purpose of allocating representatives and electors and calculating federal taxes. The compromise ensured that Southern states would ratify the Constitution and gave Virginia, home to more than 200,000 slaves, a quarter of the total electoral votes required to win the presidency.最后的结果是极具争议性的“五分之三妥协”。在该妥协中,黑人奴隶被算作五分之三的个人,以分配代表和选举人席位以及计算联邦税收。这一妥协确保了南方各州批准宪法,并使拥有20多万奴隶的弗吉尼亚州获得四分之一的总选举人票。Why does US still use the Electoral College today?为什么美国还在使用选举团制度So why does the Electoral College still exist, despite its contentious origins and awkward fit with modern politics?选举团制度的起源极具争议,且与现代政治格格不入。为什么美国至今还选用这种制度呢?Fundamentally, the party in power typically benefits from the existence of the Electoral College, and the minority party has little chance of changing the system because a constitutional amendment requires a two-thirds supermajority in Congress plus ratification by three-fourths of the states. Plus, the old-school electoral system has its benefits. With the Electoral College, for example, there’s no chance of a run-off election or a protracted national recount. That will make things much easier. The complicated situation we have witnessed so far during the 2020 presidential election, however, put a question mark on the fairness and validity of the system.究其根本,这是因为执政党通常会从现存的选举人团制度中获益,而少数党几乎没有机会改变这一制度,因为宪法修正案需要国会三分之二的绝对多数以及四分之三州的批准。此外,老式的选举制度也有它的好处。例如,有了选举团制度,就不用再进行决胜选举,也无需进行旷日持久的全国重新计票。这就为总统选举省下了许多麻烦。然而,2020年我们所目睹的选举之复杂情形,又给该制度的公平性和效度打上了问号。【Vocabulary】1. fledgling adj. 新的;无经验的2. despot n. 专制君主,暴君;独裁者3. chummy adj. 亲密的;合得来的4. populist adj. 民粹主义的5. astray adv. 误入歧途地;迷途地6. headstrong adj. 任性的;顽固的;刚愎的7. intermediary n. 中间人;仲裁者;调解者8. protractedadj. 延长的;拖延的;持久的

双语阅读 | 如何实现工作与生活的平衡?

How to Achieve Work-Life Balance?如何实现工作与生活的平衡?林晓洁供稿Recently,the working pattern of “996” and “007” have once again become hot topics, reflectingthe high-stress working ofyoung people.In the era of working at the cost ofhealth,the physical health and mental health of workers have become a particular concern.We all need to figure out ways tobalance work and life and relieve stress at work.近期,“996”“007”再次成为热议话题,反映了年轻人面临的高强度高压力的工作状态。在用健康换取业绩、用奋斗透支未来的当下,打工人的身体健康乃至心理健康都已成为人们关注的问题。我们都需要平衡工作与生活,缓解工作压力。How to achieve work-life balance is something that trouble many people, and pretty much anyone who works struggles with it.Work-life balance is the idea that a fulfilling life outside of work helps improve work performancewhile reducing stress. The time a person spends working should be balanced by time spent with friends and family, keeping fit, traveling, and doing other fulfilling hobbies. Whether your collar is blue, white, green, pink or just a hoodie; work-life balance is super important.如何实现工作与生活的平衡是困扰许多人的问题。几乎所有工作的人都会为此挣扎。“工作与生活的平衡”是一种理念,指的是在工作之外充实自己的生活,在减少个人压力的同时有助于提高工作业绩。一个人花在工作上的时间应该与花在朋友、家人、健身、旅行和做其他有意义的爱好中的时间相平衡。不管你是蓝领、白领、绿领、粉领还是穿着连帽衫的上班族,工作与生活的平衡都是非常重要的。Worldwide, according to a survey by EY(Ernst & Young), one-third of people have trouble managing their balance. Work-life balance is important, because the consequences of itsdismissal is a big old dose of stress. People who lack work-life balance have higher levels of stress. Stress is reallybad, as we all know.In a work survey on work-life balance and stress, 89 percent of the stress inCanadians’lives was due to work, and that stress led to both mental and physical health problems for many. For example, busy people could become lonely in their work, and loneliness compoundsthe problems.根据安永会计师事务所做的一项调查,全球约有三分之一的人难以实现工作与生活的平衡。工作与生活之间的平衡非常重要,因为平衡缺失的后果是带来大量的压力。那些无法在工作与生活间取得平衡的人往往压力更大,而我们都知道压力会带来许多糟糕的后果。一项关于工作与生活的平衡与压力的调查显示:加拿大人生活中89%的压力源于工作,而这种压力给许多人带来了身体和心理上的健康问题。例如,忙碌的人可能会在工作中变得孤独,而孤独感会使问题变得更加复杂。A study looked at workers in 12 countries and found: stressed-out workers have higher levels of absenteeism, anddisengagementmuch more than those with low stress; which makessense because physical and mental stresses reduce immune responseand open the body to hypertension, which can further decreaseproductivity.一项对12个国家的员工进行调查的研究结果显示,与压力较低的工人相比,压力过大的员工矿工率较高,离职的机率也高得多。这是因为身心压力会降低免疫反应,更容易患上高血压,从而进一步降低工作效率。This affects parental couples even more. When both spouseswork, and one falls sick, the other must often take sick days too, so the family is cared for the whole. Overall, people with no work-life balance took 1.8 times that number than the sick days of low-stress workers.这一点对已经有孩子的人影响更大。当夫妻双方都工作,其中一方生病时,另一方通常也必须请病假,这样才能照顾家庭。总体而言,不能掌控工作与生活平衡的人,请病假的时间是压力较低的工作者的1.8倍。So how can we strike a better work-life balance?那么,我们如何才能更好地平衡工作与生活呢?As long as you're working,jugglingthe demands of career and personal life will probably be an ongoing challenge. But by setting limits and looking after yourself, you can achieve the work-life balance that's best for you.只要我们还在工作,平衡事业和个人生活的需求可能都会是一个挑战。但是通过设定限制并照顾好自己,我们就能找到最适合自己的工作与生活间的平衡。Setting limits设定限制If wedon't set limits, work can leave uswith no time for the relationships and activities weenjoy. 如果我们不设定限制,工作就会剥夺我们发展人际关系和开展我们所喜欢的活动的时间。Manage thetime管理时间Give ourselves enough time to get things done. Don't over-schedule. Learn to say "no." Evaluate thepriorities at work and at home and try to shorten theto-do list. 给自己足够的时间去完成事情。不要给自己安排过多的计划。学会说“不”。评估工作和家庭的优先事项,尽量缩短待办事项清单。Detach from work从工作中抽离Whenweare done working each day, detach and transitionto home life by changing outfitsor doing an activity withfamily or friends.每天完成工作后,换一套衣服或和家人朋友一起做些活动,以将自己从工作中抽离出来,过渡到家庭生活。Relax放松Regularly set aside time for some activities, such as practicing yoga, gardening or reading. Hobbies can helppeoplerelax, take ourmind off of work and recharge. 定期留出时间做喜欢的活动,比如练习瑜伽、园艺或阅读。爱好可以帮助人们放松,把注意力从工作中转移出来,给自己重新充电。Adopting work-life balance doesn't mean you have to stop caringabout jobor not work hard.Creating work-life balance is a continuous process as your family, interests and work life change. Periodically examine ourpriorities — and make changes, if necessary — to make sure we arekeeping on track.保持工作与生活的平衡并不意味着停止关心工作,或者工作不努力。随着家庭、兴趣和工作生涯发生变化,实现工作与生活的平衡是一个持续不断的过程。定期检查我们的优先事项——如果有必要的话,做些改变——以确保我们没有偏离正轨。【VOCABULARY】1.hoodien.连帽运动衫2.EY(Ernst & Young)n.安永会计师事务所,一家总部位于英国伦敦的跨国性专业服务公司,与普华永道、德勤和毕马威合称四大会计师事务所。3.compoundv.使加重,使加剧,使恶化4.absenteeismn.旷工;旷课5.disengagement n.(从活动、组织或争端中的)脱离6.hypertensionn.高血压7.productivityn.生产力;生产率;生产能力8.spousen.配偶9.juggle v.尽量兼顾10.over-schedulen.日程安排表过满11.outfitn. 全套装备;一套服装12.rechargev.再充电

练习 | 科学美国人60秒:狗狗的年龄如何计算?

科学美国人60秒:狗狗的年龄如何计算?燕山大学 刘立军 供稿【TRANSCRIPT】This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Eliene Augenbraun.How old is your four-legged best friend? Common wisdom says that a dog ages seven years for every human year. But Tina Wang, a graduate student at the University of California, San Diego, wanted a more accurate assessment. Her quest started five years ago, when she rescued a dog from a shelter."I kind of just wanted to ask how old she was cause I felt like they were giving me an age that was very sensible, but I wasn't sure she was actually that old. So that kind of started this whole project."Wang worked in Trey Ideker's lab, where they study changing patterns of DNA methylationin humans. Small chemical entitiescalled methylgroups attach to stretches of DNA, which affects what sequences are active. As we age, some stretches of DNA get more methylated, and others less. The pattern is so consistent over the course of most people's lives that it can be used as an aging "clock." The same process happens in dogs - and published reports existed from other labs about methylation patterns in dogs changing over time.So Wang compared the age-related patterns in 320 humans and 104 Labrador retrievers."We knew that DNA methylation can predict age in many mammals, but we didn't know exactly how much of this was shared throughout the progression of life, and it wasn't clear if there was anything that was shared. And because of these similarities, we were able to identify a conserved aging signature that allows you to estimate dog years from human years based on this molecularprofile."The researchers say that dog years per human year change over the lifetime of a dog. For example, their method has a one-year-old dog being the equivalent of a 30-year-old human. A four-year-old dog is about 52. And dog aging per year slows considerably after that. To see a chart of the aging estimates, check out the paper at the bioRxiv Website.For Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Eliene Augenbraun.【VOCABULARY】1.sheltern.a building, usually owned by a charity, that provides a place to stay for people without a home, or protection for people or animals who have been badly treated (无家可归者或受虐待者的)收容所,庇护所。例如:an animal shelter动物收容处2.methylationn.甲基化;甲基化作用3.entity n.(formal) something that exists separately from other things and has its own identity 独立存在物;实体。例如:The unit has become part of a larger department and no longer exists as a separate entity. 这个单位已附属于一个大的部门,不再作为一个实体独立存在。4.methyln. 甲基;木精5.retrievern.a large dog used in hunting to bring back birds that have been shot 寻回犬6.molecularadj. 分子的【QUESTIONS】Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Eliene Augenbraun.How old is your four-legged best friend? Common(Q1) _______says that a dog ages (Q2) _______years for every human year. But Tina Wang, a graduate student at the University of California, San Diego, wanted a more (Q3) __________________________. Her quest started five years ago, when she rescued a dog from a shelter."I kind of just wanted to ask how old she was cause I felt like they were giving me an age that was very (Q4) _______________, but I wasn't sure she was actually that old. So that kind of started this whole project."Wang worked in Trey Ideker's lab, where they study (Q5) ___________________________of DNA methylation in humans. Small chemical entities called methyl groups attach to stretches of DNA, which affects what sequences are active. As we age, some stretches of DNA get more methylated, and others less. The pattern is so consistent over the course of most people's lives that it can be used as an aging "clock." The same process happens in dogs - and (Q6) _____________________existed from other labs about methylation patterns in dogs changing over time.So Wang compared the age-related patterns in 320 humans and 104 Labrador retrievers."We knew that DNA methylation can predict age in many (Q7) ________________, but we didn't know exactly how much of this was shared throughout the progression of life, and it wasn't clear if there was anything that was shared. And because of these similarities, we were able to identify a conserved aging (Q8) _____________________that allows you to estimate dog years from human years based on this molecular profile."The researchers say that dog years per human year change over the lifetime of a dog. For example, their method has a one-year-old dog being the (Q9) _______________________of a 30-year-old human. A four-year-old dog is about 52. And dog aging per year slows (Q10) _________________after that. To see a chart of the aging estimates, check out the paper at the bioRxiv Web site.For Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Eliene Augenbraun.【KEY】Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Eliene Augenbraun.How old is your four-legged best friend? Common(Q1)wisdomsays that a dog ages (Q2) sevenyears for every human year. But Tina Wang, a graduate student at the University of California, San Diego, wanted a more (Q3) accurate assessment. Her quest started five years ago, when she rescued a dog from a shelter."I kind of just wanted to ask how old she was cause I felt like they were giving me an age that was very (Q4) sensible, but I wasn't sure she was actually that old. So that kind of started this whole project."Wang worked in Trey Ideker's lab, where they study (Q5) changing patternsof DNA methylation in humans. Small chemical entities called methyl groups attach to stretches of DNA, which affects what sequences are active. As we age, some stretches of DNA get more methylated, and others less. The pattern is so consistent over the course of most people's lives that it can be used as an aging "clock." The same process happens in dogs - and (Q6) published reportsexisted from other labs about methylation patterns in dogs changing over time.So Wang compared the age-related patterns in 320 humans and 104 Labrador retrievers."We knew that DNA methylation can predict age in many (Q7) mammals, but we didn't know exactly how much of this was shared throughout the progression of life, and it wasn't clear if there was anything that was shared. And because of these similarities, we were able to identify a conserved aging (Q8) signaturethat allows you to estimatedog years from human years based on this molecular profile."The researchers say that dog years per human year change over the lifetime of a dog. For example, their method has a one-year-old dog being the (Q9) equivalentof a 30-year-old human. A four-year-old dog is about 52. And dog aging per year slows (Q10) considerablyafter that. To see a chart of the aging estimates, check out the paper at the bioRxiv Web site.For Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Eliene Augenbraun.

练习 | VOA常速:美国教育工作者抗议返校

VOA常速:美国教育工作者抗议返校燕山大学 刘立军 供稿【TRANSCRIPT】Thousands of parents, educators, students and community members marched in the streets of Manhattan in early August to demand safe and equitable schools. “We lost a co-worker to covid in April and we do not want any more teachers gone this fall. We need a hundred percent remote schooling in the fall to keep everyone safe.”In New York, like many states, schools will reopen based on regional conditions. In New York city itself, students will be in classes for only up to three days a week. “Here's the deal, for the vast majority of kids in the vast majority of schools, you'll be going to school, to the classroom either two days a week or three days a week, depending on the week. Again, certain other schools will have exceptional dynamics, we can talk about that as well.”If there is a confirmed case of covid-19 in a school, the whole class will be quarantinedfor two weeks. If there are two positive cases in two different classes, the whole school will be quarantined. But for many teachers at the protest, sending children and educators back to the classroom is premature.They point out that some one and a half million teachers or one in four have pre-existing conditions, which makes them more vulnerableif they contract the coronavirus. “Our schools have already been overcrowded without proper ventilationor facilities, and they want to send us back even though cases are increasing nationwide. And there's no plan in place and with budget cuts, no way. ”“This is my playground, I miss being on it. ”The school that fifth Grader Lawrence was attending has been closed since March. But he hopes to be back in the classroom soon. He's mindful of the pandemic, but dreams of playing with his friends, and taking his favorite classes in person and not online. “I miss my friends, I miss my teachers, and I want to come back to school. ”“I think that the reopening plan is a sham, because schools are going to be underfunded, under resource, and we will not have the classes that we need or the teachers that we need.” Sixteen-year-old Meryl Mussoom says her classmates share her opinion. New York city mayoralcandidate Diane Morales supports that view. “I am a former special education teacher, I am a former foster care social worker, and I am the parent of two young people with IEPs. And that is why I believe in and support teachers and students in the plan, to not go back to school until schools are safe. ”Despite the national day of protest, schools in Georgia, Mississippi and other states are reopening, though some cases of coronavirus have emerged among students and school employees.For Nina Vishneva New York Anna Rice VOA news【VOCABULARY】1. dealn.the way that sb./sth. is treated 待遇。例如:If elected, the party has promised a new deal (= better and fairer treatment) for teachers.该党承诺如果当选将给教师更好的待遇。2. quarantinev. to put an animal or a person into quarantine(对动物或人)进行检疫,隔离3. prematureadj.happening before the normal or expected time 未成熟的;过早的;提前的。例如:his premature death at the age of 37他37岁时早逝。4. vulnerableadj. weak and easily hurt physically or emotionally(身体上或感情上)脆弱的,易受……伤害的。例如:to be vulnerable to attack易受攻击5. ventilationn. 通风6.shamn. a situation, feeling, system, etc. that is not as good or true as it seems to be 假象;假情假义;伪善;伪装。例如:The latest crime figures are a complete sham.最新的犯罪统计数字完全是捏造的。7.mayoraladj. 市长的【QUESTIONS】Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Thousands of parents, educators, students and community members marched in the streets of Manhattan in early August to demand (Q1) _________________________schools. “We lost a co-worker to covid in April and we do not want any more teachers gone this fall. We need a hundred percent (Q2) ______________________in the fall to keep everyone safe.”In New York, like many states, schools will reopen based on (Q3) ________________conditions. In New York city itself, students will be in classes for only up to (Q4) _____________. “Here's the deal, for the vast majority of kids in the vast majority of schools, you'll be going to school, to the classroom either two days a week or three days a week, depending on the week. Again, certain other schools will have (Q5) __________________dynamics, we can talk about that as well.”If there is a confirmed case of covid-19 in a school, the whole class will be quarantined for (Q6) _________________. If there are two positive cases in two different classes, the whole school will be quarantined. But for many teachers at the protest, sending children and educators back to the classroom is (Q7) ___________.They point out that some one and a half million teachers or one in four have pre-existing conditions, which makes them more vulnerable if they contract the coronavirus.“ Our schools have already been overcrowded without proper ventilation or (Q8) _________________, and they want to send us back even though cases are increasing nationwide. And there's no plan in place and with budget cuts, no way.”“This is my playground, I miss being on it.” The school that fifth Grader Lawrence was attending has been closed since March. But he hopes to be back in the classroom soon. He's mindful of the pandemic, but dreams of (Q9) ____________________________________, and taking his favorite classes in person and not online. “I miss my friends, I miss my teachers, and I want to come back to school.”“I think that the reopening plan is a sham, because schools are going to be underfunded, under resource, and we will not have the classes that we need or the teachers that we need.”Sixteen-year-old Meryl Mussoom says her classmates share her opinion. New York city mayoral candidate Diane Morales supports that view. “I am a former special education teacher, I am a former foster care social worker, and I am the parent of two young people with IEPs. And that is why I believe in and (Q10) ___________________teachers and students in the plan, to not go back to school until schools are safe.”Despite the national day of protest, schools in Georgia, Mississippi and other states are reopening, though some cases of coronavirus have emerged among students and school employees.For Nina Vishneva New York Anna Rice VOA news【KEY】Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Thousands of parents, educators, students and community members marched in the streets of Manhattan in early August to demand (Q1) safe and equitableschools. “We lost a co-worker to covid in April and we do not want any more teachers gone this fall. We need a hundred percent (Q2) remote schoolingin the fall to keep everyone safe.”In New York, like many states, schools will reopen based on (Q3) regionalconditions. In New York city itself, students will be in classes for only up to (Q4)threedays a week. “Here's the deal, for the vast majority of kids in the vast majority of schools, you'll be going to school, to the classroom either two days a week or three days a week, depending on the week. Again, certain other schools will have (Q5)exceptionaldynamics, we can talk about that as well.” If there is a confirmed case of covid-19 in a school, the whole class will be quarantined for (Q6)two weeks. If there are two positive cases in two different classes, the whole school will be quarantined. But for many teachers at the protest, sending children and educators back to the classroom is (Q7)premature.They point out that some one and a half million teachers or one in four have pre-existing conditions, which makes them more vulnerable if they contract the coronavirus. “Our schools have already been overcrowded without proper ventilation or (Q8)facilities, and they want to send us back even though cases are increasing nationwide. And there's no plan in place and with budget cuts, no way.”“ This is my playground, I miss being on it.” The school that fifth Grader Lawrence was attending has been closed since March. But he hopes to be back in the classroom soon. He's mindful of the pandemic, but dreams of (Q9)playing with his friends, and taking his favorite classes in person and not online.“I miss my friends, I miss my teachers, and I want to come back to school.” “I think that the reopening plan is a sham, because schools are going to be underfunded, under resource, and we will not have the classes that we need or the teachers that we need. Sixteen-year-old Meryl Mussoom says her classmates share her opinion. New York city mayoral candidate Diane Morales supports that view.I am a former special education teacher, I am a former foster care social worker, and I am the parent of two young people with IEPs. And that is why I believe in and (Q10)supportteachers and students in the plan, to not go back to school until schools are safe. Despite the national day of protest, schools in Georgia, Mississippi and other states are reopening, though some cases of coronavirus have emerged among students and school employees.For Nina Vishneva New York Anna Rice VOA news.

练习 | VOA常速:英国脱欧谈判到最后一刻

VOA常速:英国脱欧谈判到最后一刻燕山大学 刘立军 供稿【TRANSCRIPT】Two-way trade between Britain and the EU is worth eight hundred and eighty five billion dollars a year. Fish make up less than half of one percent of that trade, but disagreements over fishing rights could yet torpedoany trade deal. Britain says it wants to take back control of its waters and restrict access to foreign boatsthat could devastateEuropean fishing fleets.“If we can't fish in the English waters, there is no Belgian fishing anymore, because eighty percent of the time, sometimes ninety percent of the time, we fish in English waters, all the Belgian ships.”It may appear Britain has the upper hand, but there's a big catch. Most British-caught fish is exported to Europe, and the EU could put tariffson those imports, hitting British fisherman hard. A trade deal is being held up by this fishing dispute, but there are also disagreements on State aid and on the system of governance that will oversee any trade deal.With the end of the transition period just six weeks away, talks are going to the wire. “Although the deadline is the end of the year, the 31st December, when the transition period ends. You need a bit of time for ratificationof any agreement.”So both sides see a breakthrough is needed in the coming days. Even if a deal is struck, Britain will still leave the EU’s Single Market and Customs Union.“There’s a lot of change on the 1st of January, deal or no deal. The danger for the government is if the prime minister brings home a deal, and says this is a great deal, then he owns any disruption.”Meanwhile, British prime minister Boris Johnson has been hit by domestic political turmoil as two political aideshave departed. Johnson is also having to self-isolate after meeting an MP who later tested positive for the coronavirus. The EU is also disrupted by its own domestic agenda. Hungary and Poland this week vetoedan agreement on the bloc’s annual budget, and then eight hundred and eighty eight billion dollar COVID recovery fund. Analysts say there's a danger that Brexit deal could be sidelined at Thursdays summit, as the EU deals with more pressing concerns. Henry Ridgewell for VOA news London.【VOCABULARY】1.torpedov.to completely destroy the possibility that sth. could succeed 彻底破坏,完全摧毁(某事成功的可能性)。例如:Her comments had torpedoed the deal.她的一番话使得那笔交易彻底告吹。2.devastatev.彻底破坏;摧毁;毁灭。例如:The bomb devastated much of the old part of the city.这颗炸弹炸毁了旧城的一大片地方。3.tariffn.a tax that is paid on goods coming into or going out of a country 关税4.wiren.(PHRASE) If something goes to the wire, it continues until the last possiblemoment.到最后一刻。例如:Negotiators again worked right down to the wire to reach an agreement. 谈判人员又是直到最后时刻才达成了协议。5.ratification n.批准;认可6.aiden.a person who helps another person, especially a politician, in their job (尤指从政者的)助手。例如:White House aides白宫助理7.vetov. to refuse to accept or do what sb. has suggested 拒不接受;反对;否定。例如:I wantedto go camping but the others quickly vetoed that idea.我想去野营,但这个想法很快遭到了其他人的反对。【QUESTIONS】Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Two-way trade between Britain and the EU is worth eight hundred and eighty five billion dollars a year. (Q1) __________make up less than half of one percent of that trade, but disagreements over fishing rights could yet torpedo any trade deal. Britain says it wants to take back control of its waters and restrict access to foreign boats, that could (Q2) ________________European fishing fleets. “If we can't fish in the English waters, there is no Belgian fishing anymore, because eighty percent of the time, sometimes ninety percent of the time, we fish in English waters, all the Belgian ships.” It may appear Britain has the upper hand, but there's a big catch. Most British-caught fish is (Q3) ________to Europe, and the EU could put (Q4) __________________on those imports, hitting British fisherman hard. A trade deal is being held up by this fishing (Q5) ______________, but there are also disagreements on State aid and on the system of governance that will oversee anytrade deal.With the end of the transition period just six weeks away, talks are (Q6) _______________________. “Although the deadline is the end of the year, the 31st December, when the transition period ends. You need a bit of time for ratification of any agreement.” So both sides see a (Q7) ____________is needed in the coming days. Even if a deal is struck, Britain will still leave the EU's Single Market and Customs Union. “There's a lot of change on the 1st of January, deal or no deal. The danger for the government is if the prime minister brings home a deal, and says this is a great deal, then he owns any disruption.”Meanwhile, British prime minister Boris Johnson has been hit by (Q8) ___________________________as two political aides have departed. Johnson is also having to self-isolate after meeting an MP who later tested (Q9) __________________for the coronavirus. The EU is also disrupted by its own domestic agenda. Hungary and Poland this week (Q10) ___________an agreement on the bloc's annual budget, and then eight hundred and eighty eight billion dollar COVID recovery fund. Analysts say there's a danger that Brexit deal could be sidelined at Thursdays summit, as the EU deals with more pressing concerns. Henry Ridgewell for VOA news London.【KEY】Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Two-way trade between Britain and the EU is worth eight hundred and eighty five billion dollars a year. (Q1) Fishmake up less than half of one percent of that trade, but disagreements over fishing rights could yet torpedo any trade deal. Britain says it wants to take back control of its waters and restrict access to foreign boats, that could (Q2) devastateEuropean fishing fleets. “If we can't fish in the English waters, there is no Belgian fishing anymore, because eighty percent of the time, sometimes ninety percent of the time, we fish in English waters, all the Belgian ships.” It may appear Britain has the upper hand, but there's a big catch. Most British-caught fish is (Q3) exportedto Europe, and the EU could put (Q4) tariffson those imports, hitting British fisherman hard. A trade deal is being held up by this fishing (Q5)dispute, but there are also disagreements on State aid and on the system of governance that will oversee anytrade deal.With the end of the transition period just six weeks away, talks are (Q6) going to the wire. “Although the deadline is the end of the year, the 31st December, when the transition period ends. You need a bit of time for ratification of any agreement.” So both sides see a (Q7) breakthroughis needed in the coming days. Even if a deal is struck, Britain will still leave the EU's Single Market and Customs Union. “There's a lot of change on the 1st of January, deal or no deal. The danger for the government is if the prime minister brings home a deal, and says this is a great deal, then he owns any disruption.” Meanwhile, British prime minister Boris Johnson has been hit by (Q8) domestic political turmoilas two political aides have departed. Johnson is also having to self-isolate after meeting an MP who later tested (Q9) positivefor the coronavirus. The EU is also disrupted by its own domestic agenda. Hungary and Poland this week (Q10) vetoedan agreement on the bloc's annual budget, and then eight hundred and eighty eight billion dollar COVID recovery fund. Analysts say there's a danger that Brexit deal could be sidelined at Thursdays summit, as the EU deals with more pressing concerns. Henry Ridgewell for VOA news London.

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