双语阅读 | 为什么一读书就犯困?

为什么一读书就犯困?Why Does Reading Make You Sleepy?王淑怡 供稿Most people enjoy reading a good book after a long day or over the weekends. However, do you ever notice how you start feeling sleepy three pages into a book no matter how exciting it is? If you can relate to this, you are not alone. So what is it about reading that can make us conk out?多数人都喜欢在漫漫长日的结尾或周末时光阅读一本好书。但你是否留意到,不管这本书多么精彩,你刚翻几页就会困意来袭?如果确实如此,其实像你这样的人为数不少。那么,我们到底为什么一读书就犯困呢?The act of reading requires regular eye movement as your eyes follow the words across the page. It also requires brain power as your brain interprets the letters your eyes see and convertsthem into meaningful words, sentences, and paragraphs. As your brain works hard and your eye muscles tire, it's only natural that they would need rest, leading to eyes slowly closing and sleep taking over.The concentration required to processevery word can be pretty exhausting, too, especially if your chosen tomeis dense. And reading line after line of anything can make you feel like giving your eyes a break.阅读行为要求眼睛随着文字在页面上进行有规律的眼球运动。阅读还需要动脑,因为大脑需要解释你所看到的字母,并将它们转换成有意义的单词、句子和段落。由于大脑在努力工作,眼部肌肉也会感到疲劳,它们自然而然想要休息,这时我们的眼睛就慢慢睁不开了,开始昏昏欲睡。逐字阅读需要集中注意力,这也特别劳心费神,尤其在读一本文字密密麻麻的大部头时。不论读什么书,一行又一行地看下来,都会让你想给眼睛放个假。The environment you create could be a big reason. People generally create a cosyand comfortable atmosphere that is quiet while they read. Experts say these are the very same conditions that are perfect for sleep. Reading is also a great way to escape from all your troubling thoughts as it helps you put your mind at ease. Reading is one of those activities that can be enjoyable and relaxing, which can help to put the mind and body in a calm state. This calm state can cause you to feel sleepy.你创造的阅读环境也可能是导致犯困的一大原因。人们通常会营造安静、舒适的阅读氛围。专家认为这些条件也很适合睡眠。阅读是摆脱烦恼的绝佳方式,因为它能让你放松心情。阅读会令人轻松愉悦,让你的身心平静下来,进而让你感到困倦。If you have a book that you really need to finish or you simply want to read longer without falling asleep, there are some techniques you can use. First, find a place to read that's comfortable, but not too comfortable.如果你需要读完一本书,或者仅仅想阅读时不犯困的话,可以试试这几种方法。首先,找一个舒适的地方阅读,但切忌过于舒适。Rather than lying down on your back, sit up in a comfortable chair, so you don’t feel like drifting offto sleep. Use lighting to reduce eye strain. Also make sure that the temperature isn't too hot. Reading in an environment that's too warm can make you sleepy.与其躺着看书,不如坐在一把舒服的椅子上看书,这样你就不会不知不觉睡过去。保证照明充足,减少眼睛疲劳。还要确保室温不要太高,在温暖的环境中阅读会让你昏昏欲睡。If you anticipate trouble staying awake and you really need to finish that book before bed, try waking yourself up before you start reading. Do some light exercise, drink a caffeinatedbeverage, or take a cool shower. If you're more alert when you start reading, you're more likely to make it to the end of that book!如果你感觉实在难以保持清醒,而且必须要在睡前读完那本书,试着在阅读前振奋精神。做少量运动,喝一杯含咖啡因的饮料,或者洗个冷水澡。你在开始阅读时越清醒,就越有可能坚持读完这本书!【VOCABULARY】1.conk out入睡;睡着2.convert v.(使)转变,(使)转换3.processv.审阅,审核,处理(文件、请求等)4.tome n.大部头巨著5.cosyadj.舒适的;惬意的6.drift off迷迷糊糊地睡去7.caffeinatedadj. 含咖啡因的(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 穿袜子睡觉背后的科学原理

穿袜子睡觉背后的科学原理TheScience Behind SleepingWith Socks On王淑怡 供稿Millions of people around the world go to bed wearing socks. But are you curious about the sciencebehind this practice and whether it is good for our sleep?许多人睡觉时都喜欢穿着袜子。但是,你是否好奇人们这么做的科学原理是什么,以及穿着袜子睡觉是否能够改善睡眠质量?To understand why, you first need to grasp the relationship between core body temperature and sleep. During daylight hours, the human body humsalong at an average temperature of37 degrees Celsius. But at night, your core body temperature dipsas much as 1.2 degrees Celsius over the course of six or seven hours of sleep. This gradual decrease in core body temperature, it turns out, is a key part of the complicated neurobiologicaldance of falling asleep and staying asleep. And the faster you can lower the core body temperature, the faster you will fall asleep.要理解其中原因,你首先需要了解核心体温和睡眠之间的关系。白天,人的平均体温为37℃。但到了晚上,人们在六到七个小时的睡眠中,核心体温会下降1.2℃。事实证明,核心体温的逐渐下降是入睡和保持睡眠这一复杂的神经生物学行为的关键。核心体温的下降速度越快,你就越快入睡。One of the ways that your body regulates its temperature is through blood vessels in your skin. If the brain decides the body is too hot, it will widen blood vessels, redistributing warmer blood from the body's core through the rest of the body to cool it down. If the body is too cold, the brain signals the opposite reaction, restricting the flow of blood to the surface.身体调节体温的方法之一是通过皮肤中的血管。如果大脑认为身体太热,会扩张血管,将温暖的血液从身体核心器官重新输送到其他部位,使其降温。如果身体太冷,大脑则会发出相反的信号,限制血液流向体表。The palms of your hands and solesof your feet are the body's most efficient heat exchangers, since they are hairless and less insulatedthan other skin surfaces. Researchers have shown that warming the feet before going to sleep using a warm foot bath or by wearing socks promotes vasodilation, which in turn lowers the body's core temperature faster than going to sleep with cold, bare feet. This can be especially critical during chilly weather when the feet can get so cold that tossing and turningthroughout the night becomes inevitable. 手掌和脚底是身体最有效的散热器,因为与其他部位的皮肤相比,手掌和脚底光滑无毛、绝缘性差。研究人员表明,睡前泡脚或穿袜子暖脚可以促进血管扩张,这样会比赤着冷脚睡觉更快地降低身体的核心温度。在寒冷的天气里,这一点尤为重要。如果手脚长时间捂不热,人们就会辗转反侧难以入眠。In addition to that, wearing socks can enhance our blood circulation.From heart failure to strokes and other life-threatening medical conditions, the lack of proper blood circulation can be detrimentalto your health in diverse ways. The good news is that sleeping in socks canramp up the supply of blood, oxygen, and nutrients to every part of the body, thus which keep the heart, liver, kidneys, and other important organs working at optimum levels.除此之外,穿着袜子睡觉有助于促进血液循环。血液循环不好会以多种方式损害人的健康,造成心力衰竭、中风等疾病,危及生命。但穿着袜子睡觉可以增加身体各个部位的血液、氧气和营养供应,从而使得心脏、肝脏、肾脏和其他重要器官保持最佳状态。【VOCABULARY】1.humv.活跃,繁忙2.dipn.(暂时的) 下降3.neurobiological adj.神经生物学的4.sole n.脚掌5.insulatedadj. 有隔热(或隔音、绝缘)保护的6.vasodilation n. 血管舒张7.tossing and turning辗转反侧;翻来覆去难以入睡8.detrimentaladj. 有害的,不利的9.ramp up增加; 使增加(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 你能克服“周一忧郁症”吗?

你能克服“周一忧郁症”吗?Monday Blues— Can You Beat Them?王淑怡 供稿Welcome to Monday! How was your sleep last night? Did you feel sick to the stomach knowing that you will wake up to 5 working days?Did you set an extra alarm to ensure you wake on time lest you get late to work? Having these unpleasant feelings is a result of Monday blues, but relax, everyone does experience this kind of laziness in them.欢迎来到周一!昨晚睡得好吗?想到一睁眼就是五个工作日,有没有烦得要命?有没有再额外定一个闹钟防止上班迟到?如果你有这些不愉快的经历,你可能患上了“周一忧郁症”,不过请放心,每个人都经历过这种倦怠感。What is meant by Monday blues?什么是“周一忧郁症”?Monday blues is a unique feeling which cannot be expressed in words. It starts late Sunday evening and persists until half your Monday. The closest the feeling comes to is – a mixture of hating yourselfand the urge to punchyour boss.In more professional terms, it is the feeling of laziness that pops up on the first day after your week offs. You badly want to remain in bed and no matter what you do, you fail to find the motivation to kickstartyour day productively.“周一忧郁症”很难用具体语言来描述。它从周日晚上开始,一直持续到周一上午。这种感觉近似于憎恶自己,外加想对老板拳打脚踢的冲动。用更专业一点的话来说,“周一忧郁症”是经过周末休息后在周一冒出来的疲倦感。你很想继续赖在床上,怎么样都无法鼓起干劲,高效地开启新的一天。Why do we get Monday blues?我们为什么会患上“周一忧郁症”?The reason why one hates Mondays varies from person to person. As per science, the primary reason is due to the change in sleep patterns over the weekend. Most people sleep and wake up late on Saturdays and Sundays. The modified sleep pattern can throw your internal body clock off balance on Mondayso that you will feel exhausted or tired.人们厌恶周一的原因各有不同。按照科学解释,造成“周一忧郁症”的主要原因是周末睡眠模式的改变,大多数人在周末的作息是晚睡晚起,而变化的睡眠模式会使生物钟在周一失去平衡,所以你才会如此困倦不堪。But here is the kicker. Scientists have recorded the emotions of people at random intervals. Surprisingly, during these trials, Monday turned no different than Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday in terms of stress.The study shows people hate the 4 working days equally. Fridays have a happier note due to the obvious reason of people looking forward to the weekend.但是,出人意料的事在这儿呢。科学家记录了人们在随机时间段的情绪变化。令人惊讶的是,在这些试验中,人们在周一的压力与周二、周三或周四并无不同。研究表明,人们对这四个工作日的厌恶程度是一样的。周五则会欢乐一点,很明显,这是因为人们正盼着周末来临。The pain of Monday is excruciatingdue to the sudden change from weekend to weekday. By Tuesday, we have accepted the change better. Sonext time when people ask “Why are Mondays so depressing?”, know that the main culprit is the change.周末到工作日的突然转变往往令周一痛苦不堪。到了周二,我们已经更好地适应了这种变化。因此,当人们问到“为什么周一会如此压抑”时,要知道罪魁祸首是改变。How to beat Monday blues?如何克服“周一忧郁症”?Have a good sleep on Sunday周日保持良好的睡眠Sleep has a tremendous effect on our mood. According to Harvard Medical School, “poor or inadequate sleep can cause irritabilityand stress, while healthy sleep can enhance well-being.”睡眠对我们的情绪有巨大影响。哈佛大学医学院称:“睡眠不足或不佳会导致易怒和压力,而健康的睡眠则能增强幸福感。”So, if you find yourself a little more short-tempered than normal, sleep may be the answer. Take a nap to energize or get to bed earlier tonight to make up for lost sleep. It’s worth taking this into account on Sunday to avoid a lack of energy on a Monday morning.因此,如果你发现自己比平时脾气暴躁,可能需要多睡觉。小睡一会儿,养精蓄锐,或者晚上早点睡,补补觉。为了避免星期一早上精力不足,周日晚上应该早点睡。Keep Monday’s schedule easy 安排轻松的周一日程After a weekend of fun and taking it easy, it might be best to keep Monday’s schedule a little lighter than other days. This doesn’t mean sitting around and drowningin your blues. It means that instead of facing the most complicated stuff on a Monday, put some time into the easier tasks. DiminishMonday blues and any anxiety or stress by allowing yourself to do Monday with more ease. Putting less pressure on yourself is a good way to beat the Monday blues.在度过一个轻松愉快的周末后,星期一的日程安排最好比其他时间轻松一点。这并不意味着闷闷不乐地呆坐一天。与其在星期一处理最复杂的工作,不如在这一天处理比较简单的任务。让自己更轻松地度过周一,减少周一的忧郁、焦虑或压力。给自己减压是战胜忧郁星期一的好方法。【VOCABULARY】1.bluesn. [pl.] (informal)忧郁、悲伤、沮丧2.punchv.用拳猛击3.pop up突然出现4.kickstartv.开始 5.kickern. (一连串事情的)意外结局6.excruciatingadj. 折磨人的;使苦恼的7.irritabilityn.暴躁、易怒8.short-temperedadj. 易怒的;脾气坏的9.drownv. 沉浸,淹没10.diminishv. 减弱,降低,减少(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 百年新征程——科技发展图自强

百年新征程——科技发展图自强China's centurygoal to be a "global scientific power" 刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTI'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn and here's what I'm watching: China's overarchingnational goals to become an "innovative nation" by 2020, to be in the "front ranks" of innovative countries by 2035, and a "global scientific power" by 2050. China has achieved the first goal - for example, the number of patentsfiled by Chinese entities now leads the world though quality, while improving, still lags.But now, in light of disruptinginternational conditions, led by U.S. sanctionsand pressures to decouplescience and technology, China has a laser focus on self-reliance in science and technology.In formulating the "14th Five-Year Plan," 2021-2025, and in setting a long-range 15-year plan to 2035 - both formalized by the National People's Congress during the 2021 Two Sessions - the CPC, in its 5th Plenumin October 2020, established a "new development stage," developing a "new development philosophy” and applying a “new development paradigm."Clearly, these new development stage, philosophy and paradigm demand that scientific and technological innovation be top priority in order to create new development momentum by accelerating key core technology capabilities and research. The 14th Five-year Plan emphasizes artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, integrated circuit design and manufacturing (semiconductor chips), quantum computing, life sciences and biotechnology (especially brain sciences), and new materials. Technological applications emphasize the digital economy, 5G, intelligent manufacturing, healthcare, alternative energy and new energy vehicles, and space and sea sciences, among others. Chinese experts cite three ways how China's national development over the next five years must stress technological independence and self-reliance. First: increase the proportion of original innovation, especially basic research. Currently, the proportion of China's basic research investment of its total R&D investment is below 6%, which is far lower than the 18% in the U.S. and 25% in France. Second: continue intelligent industrial upgrading and transformation, transitioning from "following" to "parallel running" or even to "leading" in some high-tech fields.Third: prepare for de-globalization and uncoupling of scientific and technological cooperation and supply chains; indigenousinnovation must alleviatebottlenecks and make up for shortcomings, particularly in semiconductor chips. China plans to spend $1.4 trillion during the next five years in emerging new technologies: AI, 5G, chips, data centers, and quantum computing. But there are challenges: When huge funds are allocated by government and time-periods are demanded to be short, it is all too easy for resources to be misallocated to well-connected but poorly equipped enterprises, causing inefficiencies, waste, distraction and disappointment. In response, the government is tightening peer-review procedures and engaging the private sector. One lens through which to view China's science and technology is that of the New Development Concepts, which fit the new development stage and drive the 14th Five-year Plan. I'm keeping watch. I'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn. VOCABULARY1. overarching adj.(常用于名词前)(formal) very important, because it includes or influencesmany things 非常重要的;首要的。2. patentn.an official right to be the only person to make, use or sell a product or an invention; adocument that proves this 专利权;专利证书。例如:to apply for/obtain a patent on an invention申请 / 获得发明专利权3.lagv. to move or develop slowly or more slowly than other people, organizations, etc. 滞后;落后于。例如:We still lag far behind many of our competitors in using modern technology. 我们在运用现代技术方面仍然远远落后于我们的许多竞争对手。4.disruptv.to make it difficult for sth. to continue in the normal way 扰乱。例如:Demonstratorssucceeded in disrupting the meeting. 示威者成功地扰乱了会议。5. sanction n. an official order that limits trade, contact, etc. with a particular country, in order to make it do sth., such as obeying international law 制裁。例如:The economic sanctions have been lifted. 经济制裁已被取消。6. decouplen.(formal) to end the connection or relationship between two things (使两事物)分离,隔断。7.plenum n.a meeting attended by all the members of a committee, etc.; a plenary meeting (委员会等的)全体会议,全会8.paradigmn. a typical example or pattern of sth. 典范。例如:a paradigm for students to copy供学生效法的榜样9.quantum computing量子计算10.indigenous adj. (formal) belonging to a particular place rather than coming to it from somewhere else 本地的;当地的;土生土长的11.alleviate v. to make sth. less severe 减轻;缓和;缓解QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.I'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn and here's what I'm watching: China's overarching national goals to become an "(Q1) ________________" by 2020,tobe in the "front ranks" of innovative countries by 2035, and a "global scientific power" by 2050. China has achieved the first goal - for example, the number of (Q2) __________ filed by Chinese entities now leads the world though quality, while improving, still lags.But now, in light of disrupting international conditions, led by U.S. (Q3) ______________ to decouple science and technology, China has a laser focus on self-reliance in science and technology.In formulating the "14th Five-Year Plan," 2021-2025, and in setting a long-range 15-year plan to 2035 - both formalized by the National People's Congress during the 2021 Two Sessions - the CPC, in its 5th Plenum in October 2020, established a "(Q4) _____________________," developing a "new development philosophy” and applying a “new development paradigm."Clearly, these new development stage, philosophy and paradigm demand that scientific and technological innovation be top priority in order to create new development momentum by accelerating key core technology capabilities and research. The 14th Five-year Plan emphasizes artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, integrated circuit design and manufacturing (semiconductor chips), quantum computing, life sciences and biotechnology (especially brain sciences), and new materials. Technological applications emphasize the (Q5) ______________, 5G, intelligent manufacturing, healthcare, alternative energy and new energy vehicles, and space and sea sciences, among others. Chinese experts cite three ways how China's national development over the next five years must stress technological independence and self-reliance. First: increase the proportion of (Q6) ___________________, especially basic research. Currently, the proportion of China's basic research investment of its total R&D investment is below 6%, which is far lower than the 18% in the U.S. and 25% in France. Second: continue intelligent industrial (Q7) ______________________, transitioning from "following" to "parallel running" or even to "leading" in some high-tech fields.Third: prepare for de-globalization and uncoupling of scientific and technological cooperation and supply chains; indigenous innovation must alleviate bottlenecks and make up for shortcomings, particularly in (Q8) _______________. China plans to spend $1.4 trillion during the next five years in emerging new technologies: AI, 5G, chips, data centers, and quantum computing. But there are challenges: When huge funds are allocated by government and time-periods are demanded to be short, it is all too easy for resources to be misallocated to well-connected but poorly equipped enterprises, causing inefficiencies, waste, (Q9) _______________. In response, the government is tightening (Q10) _________________ procedures and engaging the private sector. One lens through which to view China's science and technology is that of the New Development Concepts, which fit the new development stage and drive the 14th Five-year Plan. I'm keeping watch. I'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn. KEY Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.I'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn and here's what I'm watching: China's overarching national goals to become an "(Q1) innovative nation" by 2020,tobe in the "front ranks" of innovative countries by 2035, and a "global scientific power" by 2050. China has achieved the first goal - for example, the number of (Q2) patentsfiled by Chinese entities now leads the world though quality, while improving, still lags.But now, in light of disrupting international conditions, led by U.S. (Q3) sanctions and pressuresto decouple science and technology, China has a laser focus on self-reliance in science and technology.In formulating the "14th Five-Year Plan," 2021-2025, and in setting a long-range 15-year plan to 2035 - both formalized by the National People's Congress during the 2021 Two Sessions - the CPC, in its 5th Plenum in October 2020, established a "(Q4) new development stage," developing a "new development philosophy” and applying a “new development paradigm."Clearly, these new development stage, philosophy and paradigm demand that scientific and technological innovation be top priority in order to create new development momentum by accelerating key core technology capabilities and research. The 14th Five-year Plan emphasizes artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, integrated circuit design and manufacturing (semiconductor chips), quantum computing, life sciences and biotechnology (especially brain sciences), and new materials. Technological applications emphasize the (Q5) digital economy, 5G, intelligent manufacturing, healthcare, alternative energy and new energy vehicles, and space and sea sciences, among others. Chinese experts cite three ways how China's national development over the next five years must stress technological independence and self-reliance. First: increase the proportion of (Q6) original innovation, especially basic research. Currently, the proportion of China's basic research investment of its total R&D investment is below 6%, which is far lower than the 18% in the U.S. and 25% in France. Second: continue intelligent industrial (Q7) upgrading and transformation, transitioning from "following" to "parallel running" or even to "leading" in some high-tech fields.Third: prepare for de-globalization and uncoupling of scientific and technological cooperation and supply chains; indigenous innovation must alleviate bottlenecks and make up for shortcomings, particularly in (Q8) semiconductor chips. China plans to spend $1.4 trillion during the next five years in emerging new technologies: AI, 5G, chips, data centers, and quantum computing. But there are challenges: When huge funds are allocated by government and time-periods are demanded to be short, it is all too easy for resources to be misallocated to well-connected but poorly equipped enterprises, causing inefficiencies, waste, (Q9) distraction and disappointment. In response, the government is tightening (Q10) peer-reviewprocedures and engaging the private sector. One lens through which to view China's science and technology is that of the New Development Concepts, which fit the new development stage and drive the 14th Five-year Plan. I'm keeping watch. I'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn. 改编自 CGTN(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 鸭嘴兽有可能为我们揭开恐龙时代的最后时刻

鸭嘴兽有可能为我们揭开恐龙时代的最后时刻DuckbillLikelyUncovers the Last Moments of DinosaurAge刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTIn North America, fossils of duckbilldinosaurare abundant. So abundant that paleontologistssometimes ignore them in search of more exciting species, like T-Rex or Triceratops.“They were so common we often wouldn't collect them and just left them out in the field.”University of Bath evolutionary biologist Nick Longrich. But duckbills had never been found in Africa. So, Longrich did a double take when he was visiting the Natural History Museum of Marrakesh in Morocco and came across the 66-million-year-old jawbone of a previously undocumented duckbill species.“I instantly knew what it was, and I just couldn't figure out what it was doing there.”Its presence in North Africa was problematic because during the Late Cretaceous period the planet was warmer, which means sea levels were higher.“Africa was isolated from all the other continents by water, and there didn't seem to be any way that they could get there.”Unless, perhaps, duckbills swam hundreds of miles across open ocean from what is now Europe. It's not as far-fetched as it might sound. In fact, paleontologists once thought duckbill dinosaurs were aquatic, but that theory eventually fell out of favor. Nonetheless, there's evidence that duckbills were well-adapted for swimming.“They have these really big, powerful hind limbs. Great big feet. They've got a long, deep tail they could have used for sculling. So, they might have been pretty good swimmers.”Plus, other animal species have been known to cross oceans, albeitrarely. Elephants, monkeys, and even hippos, for example, have all colonized new places after swimming or floating there.“It's incredibly improbable. But over millions of years, these once-in-a-million-year events will happen on average once every million years.”To better understand the migrations of duckbill dinosaurs, Longrich and his colleagues reconstructed their evolutionary tree.“The duckbills seem to originate in North America. They migrate across the land bridge into Asia, jump over into Europe. And then finally this European lineage, one branch of that evolutionary tree, jumps into Africa.”Longrich's team dubbed the new species Ajnabia odysseus. Some duckbills were 50-feet long, but Ajnabia was perhaps the smallest of these Cretaceous vegetarians, about the size of a pony. And while North American duckbills were being hunted down by hungry T-Rex, in Africa, Ajnabia likely had to contend with fearsome Abelisaurs, which were smaller, but similar to T-Rex. The study is in the journal Cretaceous Research. Insights into Ajnabia could help answer questions about the end of the age of the dinosaurs.“This is just before the asteroidhit. So, we're getting a snapshot of the dinosaurs in their final moments. The sort of twilight of the dinosaurs. Along with things like T-Rex and Triceratops, these were the last dinosaurs on earth.”VOCABULARY1. duckbilln.鸭嘴兽2. paleobiologistn. 古生物学家3.aquaticadj. growing or living in, on or near water 水生的;水栖的。例如:aquatic plants/life/ecosystems 水生植物 / 生物 / 生态系统4. scullingn.(水生动物)摇鳍划水前进5. albeitconj. although 尽管;虽然。例如:He finally agreed, albeit reluctantly, to help us. 尽管勉强,他最后还是同意帮助我们。6. improbableadj. not likely to be true or to happen 不大可能真实的(或发生的);不大可能的。例如:an improbable story 大概不是真实的故事7. lineagen.血统,世系8. asteroidn.小行星QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.In North America, (Q1) _________ of duckbill dinosaur are abundant. So abundant that paleontologists sometimes ignore them in search of more exciting species, like T-Rex or Triceratops.“They were so common we often wouldn't collect them and just left them out in the field.”University of Bath evolutionary biologist Nick Longrich. But duckbills had never been found in Africa. So, Longrich did a (Q2) __________ when he was visiting the Natural History Museum of Marrakesh in Morocco and came across the 66-million-year-old jawbone of a previously undocumented duckbill species.“I instantly knew what it was, and I just couldn't (Q3) ____________what it was doing there.”Its presence in North Africa was (Q4) _____________ because during the Late Cretaceous period the planet was warmer, which means sea levels were higher.“Africa was isolated from all the other continents by water, and there didn't seem to be any way that they could get there.”Unless, perhaps, duckbills swam hundreds of miles across open ocean from what is now Europe. It's not as far-fetched as it might sound. In fact, paleontologists once thought duckbill dinosaurs were aquatic, but that theory eventually fell out of favor. Nonetheless, there's evidence that duckbills were well-adapted for (Q5) ___________.“They have these really big, powerful hind limbs. Great big feet. They've got a long, deep tail they could have used for sculling. So, they might have been pretty good swimmers.”Plus, other animal species have been known to cross oceans, albeit rarely. Elephants, monkeys, and even hippos, for example, have all colonized new places after swimming or floating there.“It's incredibly (Q6) ___________________. But over millions of years, these once-in-a-million-year events will happen on average once every million years.”To better understand the migrations of duckbill dinosaurs, Longrich and his colleagues reconstructed their (Q7) ____________________.“The duckbills seem to originate in North America. They migrate across the land bridge into Asia, jump over into Europe. And then finally this European lineage, one branch of that evolutionary tree, jumps into Africa.”Longrich's team dubbed the new species Ajnabia odysseus. Some duckbills were 50-feet long, but Ajnabia was perhaps the smallest of these Cretaceous vegetarians, about the size of a (Q8) _______. And while North American duckbills were being hunted down by hungry T-Rex, in Africa, Ajnabia likely had to contend with fearsome Abelisaurs, which were smaller, but similar to T-Rex. The study is in the journal Cretaceous Research. Insights into Ajnabia could help answer questions about (Q9) ___________________ of the dinosaurs.“This is just before the asteroid hit. So, we're getting a (Q10) ________________ of the dinosaurs in their final moments. The sort of twilight of the dinosaurs. Along with things like T-Rex and Triceratops, these were the last dinosaurs on earth.”KEY Read the passage. Then listen to the recordingand fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.In North America, (Q1) fossilsof duckbill dinosaur are abundant. So abundant that paleontologists sometimes ignore them in search of more exciting species, like T-Rex or Triceratops.“They were so common we often wouldn't collect them and just left them out in the field.”University of Bath evolutionary biologist Nick Longrich. But duckbills had never been found in Africa. So, Longrich did a (Q2) double takewhen he was visiting the Natural History Museum of Marrakesh in Morocco and came across the 66-million-year-old jawbone of a previously undocumented duckbill species.“I instantly knew what it was, and I just couldn't (Q3) figure outwhat it was doing there.”Its presence in North Africa was (Q4) problematicbecause during the Late Cretaceous period the planet was warmer, which means sea levels were higher.“Africa was isolated from all the other continents by water, and there didn't seem to be any way that they could get there.”Unless, perhaps, duckbills swam hundreds of miles across open ocean from what is now Europe. It's not as far-fetched as it might sound. In fact, paleontologists once thought duckbill dinosaurs were aquatic, but that theory eventually fell out of favor. Nonetheless, there's evidence that duckbills were well-adapted for (Q5) swimming.“They have these really big, powerful hind limbs. Great big feet. They've got a long, deep tail they could have used for sculling. So, they might have been pretty good swimmers.”Plus, other animal species have been known to cross oceans, albeit rarely. Elephants, monkeys, and even hippos, for example, have all colonized new places after swimming or floating there.“It's incredibly (Q6) improbable. But over millions of years, these once-in-a-million-year events will happen on average once every million years.”To better understand the migrations of duckbill dinosaurs, Longrich and his colleagues reconstructed their (Q7) evolutionary tree.“The duckbills seem to originate in North America. They migrate across the land bridge into Asia, jump over into Europe. And then finally this European lineage, one branch of that evolutionary tree, jumps into Africa.”Longrich's team dubbed the new species Ajnabia odysseus. Some duckbills were 50-feet long, but Ajnabia was perhaps the smallest of these Cretaceous vegetarians, about the size of a (Q8) pony. And while North American duckbills were being hunted down by hungry T-Rex, in Africa, Ajnabia likely had to contend with fearsome Abelisaurs, which were smaller, but similar to T-Rex. The study is in the journal Cretaceous Research. Insights into Ajnabia could help answer questions about (Q9) the end of the ageof the dinosaurs.“This is just before the asteroid hit. So, we're getting a (Q10) snapshotof the dinosaurs in their final moments. The sort of twilight of the dinosaurs. Along with things like T-Rex and Triceratops, these were the last dinosaurs on earth.”(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 伦敦大本钟将以新面貌在新年敲响

伦敦大本钟将以新面貌在新年敲响London's Big Ben will Ring with a New Lookin the New Year刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTBig Ben's famous clock will appear in time for it to do its most important yearly activity: marking the start of the New Year for thousands of people on London's streets and millions more watching on television.The clock tower of Britain's Houses of Parliament has been hidden in a repair project for over three years.Hundreds of workers are involved in the effort to fix the structure built in 1859.Nick Sturge, project manager for Sir Robert McAlpine's special projects, said removing the scaffoldingwas an important step in the $107 million project.Scaffolding is a movable structure on which workers stand or sit while working high above the ground."By New Year people will start to see a big difference; they'll start to get their tower back," he said."The roofs will be fully visible along with the four clock faces."Big Ben is an internationally-known symbol of London and Britain's parliamentarydemocracy.It is also one of the most photographed places in the city.The repair work includes replacing parts of the clock faces using handmade glass, Sturge said.The dials' hands, numbers and other details have been repainted bright blue rather than the black long familiar to Londoners.Sturge said an early painting of Big Ben showed a color that was confirmed by a paint study to be Prussian blue.Sturge said, "When you stand on the street it's a really nice nod to the past," meaning a recognition of the building's history.The symbols of the four parts of the United Kingdom - the thistle, shamrock, leekand rose - have also been repainted in the colors from the first design of the tower.The building was called the Clock Tower until 2012 when officials re-named it the Elizabeth Tower in honor of Britain's Queen.The tower's Great Bell, or Big Ben, marks the turning of the year with twelve strikes.That will be powered by an electric motor January 1.Alex Jeffrey, one of three clockmakers at the Palace of Westminster, said the clock had been transported to Cumbria, in northwestern England, to be taken apart and put back together.It was a big job."To give you an example, one of the hands weighs about 305 kilograms," he said.The clock's minute hand, he added, is about 4.3 meters long.The one dial showing the time when the scaffolding comes down is electric-driven.But starting in the spring, the gravity-powered clock will operate all four dials as first designed."It is famously accurate," Jeffrey said."The Great Clock is designed extremely well and it's accurate to one second to the first strike of each hour."VOCABULARY1. scaffoldingn.(不可数名词)poles and boards that are joined together to make a structure for workers to stand on when they are working high up on the outside wall of a building 脚手架(组);鹰架2. parliamentaryn. connected with a parliament; having a parliament 议会的;国会的;设有议会的。例如:parliamentary elections 议会选举3. democracyn. a system of government in which all the people of a country can vote to elect their representatives 民主政体;民主制度。例如:the principles of democracy 民主原则4. thistlen. a wild plant with leaves with sharp points and purple, yellow or white flowers made up of a mass of narrow petals pointing upwards. The thistle is the national symbol of Scotland. 蓟(野生植物,叶有刺,花呈紫色、黄色或白色,为苏格兰民族象征)5. shamrockn. a small plant with three leaves on each stem. The shamrock is the national symbol of Ireland. 三叶草(爱尔兰的国花)6. leekn. a vegetable like a long onion with many layers of wide flat leaves that are white at the bottom and green at the top. Leeks are eaten cooked. The leek is a national symbol of Wales. 韭葱(威尔士民族的象征)QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements. 1. The clock tower of Britain's Houses of Parliament has been hidden in a repair project for nearly three years.2. Thousands of workers are involved in the effort to fix the structure built in 1859.3. Scaffolding is a movable structure for workers to stand or sit while working high above the ground.4. Big Ben is a nationally-known symbol of London and Britain's parliamentary democracy.5. The repair work includes replacing parts of the clock faces using handmade glass.6. The dials' hands, numbers and other details have been repainted bright blue rather than the black.7. The symbols of the four parts of the United Kingdom have also been repainted in the colors from the last design of the tower.8. In 2012, officials re-named the Clock Tower the Elizabeth Tower in honor of Britain's Queen.9. The tower's Great Bell marks the turning of the year with onestrike.10. The clock had been transported to Cumbria to be taken apart and will be put back together in London.11. The clock's hour hand is about 4.3 meters long.12. The Great Clock is designed extremely well and it's accurate to one or two seconds to the first strike of each hour.KEY Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.(F) 1. The clock tower of Britain's Houses of Parliament has been hidden in a repair project for nearlythree years.(正确表达)The clock tower of Britain's Houses of Parliament has been hidden in a repair project for overthree years.(F) 2. Thousandsof workers are involved in the effort to fix the structure built in 1859.(正确表达)Hundredsof workers are involved in the effort to fix the structure built in 1859.(T) 3. Scaffolding is a movable structure for workers to stand or sit while working high above the ground.(F) 4. Big Ben is a nationally-knownsymbol of London and Britain's parliamentary democracy.(正确表达)Big Ben is an internationally-knownsymbol of London and Britain's parliamentary democracy.(T) 5. The repair work includes replacing parts of the clock faces using handmade glass.(T) 6. The dials' hands, numbers and other details have been repainted bright blue rather than the black.(F) 7. The symbols of the four parts of the United Kingdom have also been repainted in the colors from the lastdesign of the tower.(正确表达)The symbols of the four parts of the United Kingdom have also been repainted in the colors from the firstdesign of the tower.(T) 8. In 2012, officials re-named the Clock Tower the Elizabeth Tower in honor of Britain's Queen.(F) 9. The tower's Great Bell marks the turning of the year with onestrike.(正确表达)The tower's Great Bell marks the turning of the year with twelvestrikes.(F) 10. The clock had been transported to Cumbria to be taken apart and will be put back together in London.(正确表达)The clock had been transported to Cumbria to be taken apart and put back together.(F) 11. The clock's hour handis about 4.3 meters long.(正确表达)The clock's minute handis about 4.3 meters long.(F) 12. The Great Clock is designed extremely well and it's accurate to one or two secondsto the first strike of each hour.(正确表达)The Great Clock is designed extremely well and it's accurate to onesecondto the first strike of each hour.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

特色工具

系统产品

重点教材