双语阅读 | 为什么你和镜子里的自己看上去不一样?

Why Do You Look Different In A Mirror?为什么你和镜子里的自己看上去不一样?王淑怡 供稿Usually the greatest fear after a wild night of partying isn't what you said that you might regret, but how you'll look in your friends' photos. If you left home looking like a 10, those awkward group selfies make you feel more like a 5, prompting you to wonder, "Why do I look different in pictures?" It's a weird phenomenon that is making people question their own mirrors. Are pictures the "real" you or is it your reflection? Have mirrors been lying to us this whole time?通常,一夜的狂欢派对过后最令你恐惧的不是你说了什么可能会让你后悔的事情,而是你在朋友拍的照片中长什么样子。如果你离开家时的样子是10分,那么,那些令人尴尬的自拍合照让你觉得自己只有5分,你不禁思考,“为什么我在照片中看起来不一样?”这是一个奇怪的现象,它让人们对自己的镜子产生了怀疑。照片和镜像,哪一个才是“真实”的你?镜子一直在对我们撒谎吗?The answer to that is a bit tricky. The good news is that there's a big chance that Quasimodo-looking creature that stares back at you in your selfies isn't an accurate depiction of the real you. But your mirror isn't completely truthful either.问题的答案可能有点绕。好消息是,在你的自拍中长得像卡西莫多的那个人有很大概率不是你最真实的样子。然而,你在镜子里看到的也不完全是真实的自己。The mirror is a reflection. It's not the real you.镜子里的只是你的映像,并不是真实的你Although we're the most comfortable and familiar with the face staring back at us while we brush our teeth in the morning, the mirror isn't really the real us. It's a reflection, so it shows how we look like in reverse. Because we're so used to seeing the reverse version of ourselves, seeing how we look in pictures can be jarring. And unless you're blessed with a perfectly symmetrical face, the photo version of yourself can be even more wonky.在我们早上刷牙时,镜子里的脸是我们最为舒服、熟悉的,但这不是我们真实的样子。它只是一个映像,呈现的是我们翻转过来的样貌。因为我们早已习惯了镜子中翻转的自己,所以看到照片难免会觉得令人不快。除非你有幸长了一张完美对称的脸,否则照片里的形象还要更加靠不住。“We see ourselves in the mirror all the time—you brush your teeth, you shave, you put on makeup,” Pamela Rutledge, director of the Media Psychology Center, told The Atlantic. “Looking at yourself in the mirror becomes a firm impression. You have that familiarity. Familiarity breeds liking. You’ve established a preference for that look of your face.”媒体心理中心主任帕梅拉·拉特利奇在接受《大西洋月刊》采访时说:“我们总是通过镜子看自己——刷牙、刮胡子和化妆的时候都是。你已经把镜子里的模样已铭刻在心,非常熟悉了。熟悉就会带来喜爱。你已经对这副样貌产生了偏好。”Scientists call this the "mere-exposure" effect. Basically, it's a behavior concocted by psychologist Robert Zajonc that says people react favorably to things they're most familiar with. So, when you see a flipped version of yourself, you immediately hate it or even find it grotesque because it's the opposite of what you're used to.科学家将这种现象称为“曝光效应”。简单来说,这是由心理学家罗伯特·扎荣茨提出的一种行为,即人们会对自己最为熟悉的事物产生好感。因此,当你看到翻转过来的自己时,你会立即产生厌恶心理,甚至觉得它很怪异,因为它与你所习惯的样子截然相反。The camera lens also plays a part.相机的镜头也在作祟So if your reflection isn't the real you, does that mean your ugly selfies are your "true self"? Although mirrors show a flipped version of yourself, the myth that "pictures never lie" isn't completely true either. After all, most people take more than one selfie before they find their most flattering one, and usually it takes a combination of angles and lighting before landing one Instagram-worthy.那么,如果镜像并非真实的你,这是否意味着不好看的自拍才展现了“真实的自己”?虽然镜子呈现的是我们翻转过来的样子,但“照片从不说谎”的神话也不完全属实。毕竟,大多数人自拍的时候不会只拍一张,然后会结合拍摄角度和灯光挑出一张最动人、最符合Instagram审美的再上传。But the problem might not be your angles, it could be lens distortion. Because of the proximity of your face to the camera, the lens can distort certain features, making them look larger than they are in real life. Depending on your features, if you have a soft, round face, photos can flatten your features and further distort the "real" you.但问题可能不在于你的拍摄角度,而在于镜头畸变。由于你的脸离相机很近,镜头会扭曲某些特征,使它们看起来比现实中的更大。根据你的脸部特征,如果你的脸庞柔和圆润,照片会弱化你的特点,进一步扭曲“真实”的你。Your smile could also be the culprit.你的笑容也是一个原因Everyone knows what it's like to pose for an awkward photo, like a driver's license or a passport. The photos never turn out looking nice, and they hardly look like our natural smiles. When you're looking at yourself in the mirror, you're relaxed, confident, and more likely to smile and act naturally. If someone shouting "Say cheese!" at you, maybe you're going to tense up and have a photo that looks different and foreign from the version you see in the mirror. It's best to relax when taking pictures and try to focus on something else. That tense, forced awkwardness will always translate to a bad photo.我们都知道,摆拍一张尴尬的照片是怎样的,比如驾驶执照或护照。这些照片都不好看,而且笑容也很不自然。当你照镜子时,你会相对放松和自信,笑容、举止也会更自然一点。如果有人对你喊“茄子!”,你可能就会紧张起来,拍出的照片与你在镜子里看到的自己截然不同,让你感到陌生。因此,拍照时最好能够放松,把注意力转移到其他事情上。紧张、被迫的尴尬表情往往会变成一张糟糕的照片。【VOCABULARY】1.Quasimodo n. 卡西莫多(维克多·雨果的小说《巴黎圣母院》中的驼背人的名字)2.jarring adj. 令人不快的3.symmetrical adj. 对称的4.wonky adj. 不稳的,歪斜的;靠不住的5.concoct v. 虚构,杜撰,编造(故事、借口等)6.lens distortion 光学变形;透镜畸变7.culprit n. 引起问题的事物(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 为什么通勤16分钟是通往幸福之路的关键?

Why the key to happiness is a 16-minute commute?为什么通勤16分钟是通往幸福之路的关键? 王淑怡 供稿 Many people look forward to a lengthy work commute as it provides them with an opportunity to awaken their senses before entering the office and starting their workday. Others, however, prefer commutes under half an hour in length, as long ones make them feel drained and exhausted before even stepping foot into their place of work.许多人喜欢漫长的通勤时间,因为这可以让他们在到达办公室、开启一天的工作之前唤醒身体感官。然而,另一些人更喜欢通勤时间在半小时以内,因为长时间的通勤会让他们在到达办公室之前就已经筋疲力尽。 It’s perhaps not surprising that our commutes make us miserable. The UK’s Office for National Statistics has found that “commuters have lower life satisfaction, a lower sense that their daily activities are worthwhile, lower levels of happiness and higher anxiety on average than non-commuters”. In fact, if your commute takes longer than an hour, feelings of happiness decrease with every successive minute of travel. If a lengthy commute makes us unhappy, then it should follow that a shorter commute improves our happiness levels.通勤让我们苦不堪言,这也许并不奇怪。英国国家统计局调查发现“相比非通勤人员,通勤人员通常生活满意度较低、更不容易体会到日常活动的意义、幸福指数更低,而焦虑感更高”。事实上,如果你的通勤时间超过一小时,时间每增加一分钟,你的幸福感也会随之相应下降。既然漫长的通勤时间剥夺了我们的幸福感,那么就应该缩短通勤时间,以提高我们的幸福指数。 What’s the ideal commute that is necessary to ensure work efficiency and general happiness? Prepare to be surprised. It turns out that the ideal commute is actually not no commute at all. A study of more than 1,000 workers in San Francisco found that their ideal one-way commute was 16 minutes. Fewer than two per cent of people wanted a commute time shorter than four minutes, while only 1.2 per cent wanted no commute time at all.多少时间才称得上是理想的通勤,既能保证工作效率,又能确保整体幸福感?答案出乎人们的意料。研究表明理想的通勤并不是完全不需要通勤。通过对旧金山1000多名工人进行调查发现,他们理想中的单程通勤时间为16分钟。只有不到2%的人希望通勤时间小于4分钟,另外仅有1.2%的人希望完全避免通勤。 It seems that people do appreciate some separation between work and home – using the travel time as a psychological tool to decompress from the day. And it’s backed up by science. An increasing amount of research shows that ‘active commutes’, which involve walking or cycling, can make life better – even as important to wellbeing as a marriage or a pay rise.人们希望办公地点与住所能保持适当的距离,这样他们可以利用这段通勤时间缓解一天的心理压力。这在科学上是有根据的。现在越来越多的研究表明“积极通勤”(包括步行或骑单车)能够让生活变得更美好,其对于幸福的意义甚至如同婚姻或加薪一样重要。 If the ideal commute for most people is a 16-minute stroll each way, how should businesses respond? “Gone are the days of making employees spend unproductive time traveling to a central location and working to fixed hours that date back to Victorian times,” says Richard Morris, UK CEO at Regus. “Businesses of every size [should be] investigating flexible work options that enable employees to work closer to home and to vary their hours to better suit their circumstances.”如果大多数人理想的通勤时间是每天单程步行16分钟,那么企业对此如何回应呢?“自维多利亚时代以来,员工每天在路上花费一段毫无成果的时间前往中心区域并按照固定时间工作,这样的日子已经一去不复返了,”雷格斯英国首席执行官Richard Morris表示,“各种规模的企业[应该]研究可行的弹性工作制,使员工能够在离家较近的地方工作,并能改变自己的上班时间,以更好地适应的各自不同的生活状况。” If, as the ancient Athenian historian Thucydides suggests, “The secret to happiness is freedom”, the opportunity to choose where to work and how to get there could make all the difference to weary commuters across the world.古希腊历史学家修昔底德说:“幸福的秘诀是自由。”对于世界各地疲惫的通勤者来说,如果能够自己选择工作地点和通勤方式,那将具有非凡的意义。  【VOCABULARY】 1. drain v. 耗尽2. commuter n. 通勤者;每日往返上班者3. decompress v. 使减压;使解除压力4. stroll n. 漫步;闲逛5. unproductive adj. 非生产性的;徒劳的6. weary adj. 疲倦的;厌烦的 7. Athenian adj. 雅典的;雅典人的 (封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 耳虫现象:为什么有些歌曲会一直在脑海里萦绕?

The phenomenon of earworms: why do songs get stuck in the head?耳虫现象:为什么有些歌曲会一直在脑海里萦绕?王淑怡 供稿Have you ever had a song stuck in your head and, no matter how hard you tried, you could not dislodge it? The song played on and on, whether you were loading the dishwasher, weaving in and out of traffic, or attempting to clear your mind at the start of yoga class. Variously called "earworms," "sticky songs" or "involuntary musical imagery," one study found that nearly 92% of people report having such an experience once a week or more frequently.你是否曾经有过这样的经历:一段音乐的旋律在你的脑海里挥之不去,不管你怎么努力,都无法摆脱掉它?无论你是在往洗碗机里放盘子,还是在车流中穿梭,或是在瑜伽课上试图清除杂念,这段音乐一直在你的脑中循环往复。这种现象叫做“耳虫”(Earworms),也叫“粘人音乐”(Sticky Songs)或者“不自觉的音乐幻象”(Involuntary Musical Imagery)。一项研究发现,近92%的人每周都至少会有一次这样的体验。But how do songs get stuck in our heads in the first place? In a study on 3000 people from 2016, researchers surveyed the popularity of earworms and used 83 different summaries of musical composition to figure out what makes a song more likely to be an earworm. The study shows earworms are usually faster, with a fairly generic and memorable melody. They also demonstrate unique intervals, such as leaps or repetitions that set them apart from just your ‘average’ pop song. Among the most popular earworm tunes in the study were Bad Romance by Lady Gaga, Can't Get You Out Of My Head by Kylie Minogue and Don't Stop Believing by Journey.但是这些歌曲一开始是如何进入我们的大脑的呢?2016年,在一项针对3000人的研究中,研究人员调查了耳虫现象的流行情况,并通过83首不同类型的音乐作品,探究哪些些歌更容易成为耳虫。研究显示,耳虫歌曲通常节奏较快,旋律朗朗上口,令人难忘。它们还表现出独特的音程,如跳跃或重复,使它们不同于普通的流行歌曲。该研究发现排名耳虫神曲前三位的分别是Lady Gaga的《坏浪漫》、Kylie Minogue的《无法让你离开我的脑海》和Journey的《不要停止相信》。In addition, it is a common assumption that earworms are generally songs that get more radio time and spend more time in the charts, which the study scientifically confirms, but it goes further in investigating the actual elements of the song that make it catchy in the first place.此外,一个普遍的假设是,“耳虫神曲”通常是那些在广播中播放较多,并且在排行榜上停留时间较长的歌曲。这项研究科学地证实了这一点,并且进一步研究了使歌曲起初展现出吸引力的具体因素。Earworms can be triggered by hearing a few notes as you might expect, but it can also be triggered by seeing something related to the song. For example, if you see a man walking down the street wearing a red leather jacket, it’s possible that Thriller might pop into your head. According to researchers, two out of three people say that they get earworms, which is a positive experience and they enjoy it. But if you are the minority and cannot stand them, there are definitely some ways to get round it.耳虫现象可能是因为听到几个你期待的音符而出现,也有可能通过看到与歌曲有关的事物而产生。举个例子,如果你在大街上看到一个男人身穿红色皮夹克,你的脑海中可能就浮现出歌曲《颤栗》的旋律。据调查,三分之二的人认为耳虫现象于他们而言是一种积极的体验,可以带来享受。然而,如果你属于少数派,无法忍受耳虫,肯定也有办法避而远之。Fortunately, psychologists can provide some advice on how to deal with an uncontrollable mind. Consider the famous "White Bear Effect", which has shown that trying to avoid a thought makes it even more active in your mind. For earworms, the solution may be the same. This is a part not under our control, so just sending in instructions to "shut up" is unlikely to be of much help (and has been shown to make it worse). Experts suggest that you can go on a music diet. If your mind is poisoned by Brittany Spears' Toxic, for instance, then try singing Kylie Minogue's Can't Get You Out Of My Head. Or if a song is stuck in your head, you just listen to it all way through. Because maybe you don’t know all the lyrics, but by listening to the tune, you may get some sort of completion.幸运的是,心理学家对于不受控制的思绪提出了一些应对建议。想一想著名的“白熊效应”,即你越想忘记什么事,反而越会记住它。对于耳虫现象,解决方法可能也是一样的。它已经不受我们控制,所以仅仅发出“闭嘴”的指令很难有什么帮助(而且事实已经证明,这只会让情况更加糟糕)。专家建议可以试一下音乐疗法。例如,Brittany Spears的《中你的毒》一直在你的脑海里环绕不去,那么就试着唱唱Kylie Minogue的《无法让你离开我的脑海》。或者当耳虫来袭,你就索性把这首歌听完。因为你可能不知道全部的歌词,而聆听整首歌曲可以带给你某种完整感。VOCABULARY1.dislodge v. (把某物)强行去除,取出,移动2.earworms n. 耳朵虫,洗脑音乐,余音绕梁(指某段音乐在脑中不断重复的现象)3.composition n. (音乐、艺术、诗歌的)作品4.generic adj. 一般的;普通的;通用的5.chart n. 每周流行唱片排行榜6.catchy adj. 悦耳易记的;引人注意的(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 美国12岁青少年开始接种疫苗

美国12岁青少年开始接种疫苗U.S. authorized vaccines for use in children as young as 12刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThis is VOA News. Reporting by remote, I'm Joe Ramsey. British health officials said Friday the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines in Britain has prevented daily 12,000 deaths and more than 30,000 hospitalizations in older people. Britain has given two-thirds of its adult population at least one shot of COVID-19 vaccine, helping Prime Minister Boris Johnson in his efforts to reopen the economy by the summer. The analysis by government agency Public Health England says the estimate accounts only for the direct effects of vaccines and evidence that vaccines help reduce transmission means the numbers of deaths and hospitalizations is likely higher. There have been 127,000 deaths in Britain from COVID-19 - the sixth highest death toll globally, according to a Reuters analysis.More teenagers in the United States began receiving COVID-19 vaccines on Thursday. U.S. regulators authorized Pfizer's vaccines for use in children as young as 12 earlier in the week, the first coronavirus shot to be approved in the United States for ages 12 to 15. Thursday was the first day the shots went into the arms of the age group in some U.S. states. Vaccinating younger ages is considered an important step for getting children back into school safely.Pfizer repeatedly offered to sell its COVID-19 vaccine to Brazil's Health Ministry between August and November last year but got no answer from the government, Pfizer's chief executive for Latin America told lawmakers on Thursday. A Senate commission is investigating whether President Jair Bolsonaro's government mishandled the pandemic by failing to secure vaccines in time to curb a surge that has killed more than 430,000 Brazilians - the worst COVID-19 death toll outside the United States. The letter went unanswered for two months, the parliamentary commission has established. The Brazilian government eventually negotiated with Pfizer for 100 million doses in a contract signed in March, with the first one million doses arriving in late April. I'm Joe Ramsey, VOA News.VOCABULARY1. rollout n. 首次展示2. hospitalization n.住院治疗3. curb v. to control or limit sth., especially sth. bad 控制,抑制QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is VOA News. Reporting by remote, I'm Joe Ramsey. British health officials said Friday the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines in Britain has prevented daily 12,000 deaths and more than 30,000 (Q1) ________________________ in older people. Britain has given two-thirds of its adult population at least one shot of COVID-19 vaccine, helping Prime Minister Boris Johnson in his efforts to (Q2) _________________________ by the summer. The analysis by government agency Public Health England says the estimate accounts only for the direct effects of vaccines and evidence that vaccines help (Q3) _________________________________ means the numbers of deaths and hospitalizations is likely higher. There have been 127,000 deaths in Britain from COVID-19 - the sixth highest death toll globally, according to a Reuters analysis.More teenagers in the United States began receiving COVID-19 vaccines on Thursday. U.S. regulators authorized Pfizer's vaccines for use in (Q4) ___________________ as young as 12 earlier in the week, the first coronavirus shot to be approved in the United States for ages 12 to 15. Thursday was the first day the shots went into the arms of the age group in some U.S. states. (Q5) __________ younger ages is considered an important step for getting children back into school safely.Pfizer repeatedly offered to (Q6) _______________ its COVID-19 vaccine to Brazil's Health Ministry between August and November last year but got no answer from the government, Pfizer's chief (Q7) __________________ for Latin America told (Q8) ________________ on Thursday. A Senate commission is investigating whether President Jair Bolsonaro's government mishandled the pandemic by failing to (Q9) _______________ vaccines in time to curb a surge that has killed more than 430,000 Brazilians - the worst COVID-19 death toll outside the United States. The letter went unanswered for two months, the parliamentary commission has established. The Brazilian government eventually negotiated with Pfizer for 100 million doses in a (Q10) _____________ signed in March, with the first one million doses arriving in late April. I'm Joe Ramsey, VOA News.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is VOA News. Reporting by remote, I'm Joe Ramsey. British health officials said Friday the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines in Britain has prevented daily 12,000 deaths and more than 30,000 (Q1) hospitalizations in older people. Britain has given two-thirds of its adult population at least one shot of COVID-19 vaccine, helping Prime Minister Boris Johnson in his efforts to (Q2) reopen the economy by the summer. The analysis by government agency Public Health England says the estimate accounts only for the direct effects of vaccines and evidence that vaccines help (Q3) reduce transmission means the numbers of deaths and hospitalizations is likely higher. There have been 127,000 deaths in Britain from COVID-19 - the sixth highest death toll globally, according to a Reuters analysis.More teenagers in the United States began receiving COVID-19 vaccines on Thursday. U.S. regulators authorized Pfizer's vaccines for use in (Q4) children as young as 12 earlier in the week, the first coronavirus shot to be approved in the United States for ages 12 to 15. Thursday was the first day the shots went into the arms of the age group in some U.S. states. (Q5) Vaccinating younger ages is considered an important step for getting children back into school safely.Pfizer repeatedly offered to (Q6) sell its COVID-19 vaccine to Brazil's Health Ministry between August and November last year but got no answer from the government, Pfizer's chief (Q7) executive for Latin America told (Q8) lawmakers on Thursday. A Senate commission is investigating whether President Jair Bolsonaro's government mishandled the pandemic by failing to (Q9) secure vaccines in time to curb a surge that has killed more than 430,000 Brazilians - the worst COVID-19 death toll outside the United States. The letter went unanswered for two months, the parliamentary commission has established. The Brazilian government eventually negotiated with Pfizer for 100 million doses in a (Q10) contract signed in March, with the first one million doses arriving in late April. I'm Joe Ramsey, VOA News.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

带练习 | 硬化道路有助于减排

Hardening the roads helps to save energy硬化道路有助于减排刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more energy than striding down a sidewalk—because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for vehicles driving on roads."The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow indentation or, you know, deflection in the pavement—and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."Jeremy Gregory, a sustainability scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved—and greenhouse gases avoided—by simply hardening the nation's roads and highways.And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades—that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.To put those emissions savings into context - that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground—or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could mix small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual hurdles."You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also driver behavior, which involves millions and millions of people—as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our pavements. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."And when it comes to retrofitting our streets and highways - those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.VOCABULARY1. stride v. to walk with long steps in a particular direction 大步走;阔步行走。例如:She camestriding along to meet me. 她大步走上前来迎接我。2. sidewalk n.人行道3. indentation n. a cut or mark on the edge or surface of sth. 缺口;凹陷;凹痕。例如:The horse'shooves left deep indentations in the mud. 马蹄在泥地里留下了深深的蹄印。4. deflection n.(尤指击中某物后)突然转向,偏斜,偏离。例如:the angle of deflection偏斜度5. pavement n. (North American English) the surface of a road 路面。例如:Two cars skidded on the icy pavement. 两辆汽车在结冰的路面上打滑。6. stiffen v.(使)变硬7. offset v. 抵消;弥补;补偿8. nanotubes 纳米管9. asphalt n. 沥青;柏油10. retrofit v. 给机器设备装配(新部件);翻新;改型QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more (Q1) __________________ than striding down a sidewalk—because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for vehicles driving on roads."The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow (Q2) __________________ or, you know, deflection in the pavement—and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."Jeremy Gregory, a (Q3) ________________________ scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved—and greenhouse gases avoided—by simply (Q4) ______________ the nation's roads and highways. And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades—that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.To put those (Q5) _________________________________into context—that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground—or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could (Q6) _________________ small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual (Q7) __________________. "You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also (Q8) _________________, which involves millions and millions of people—as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our (Q9) ________________________. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."And when it comes to retrofitting our (Q10) __________________________________—those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more (Q1) energy than striding down a sidewalk—because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for vehicles driving on roads."The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow (Q2)indentation or, you know, deflection in the pavement—and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."Jeremy Gregory, a (Q3) sustainability scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved—and greenhouse gases avoided—by simply (Q4) hardening the nation's roads and highways. And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades—that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.To put those (Q5) emissions savings into context - that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground—or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could (Q6) mix small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual (Q7)hurdles."You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also (Q8) driver behavior, which involves millions and millions of people—as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our (Q9) pavements. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."And when it comes to retrofitting our (Q10) streets and highways—those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 宇航员

Astronauts宇航员燕山大学 刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTAs more companies start selling tickets to travel into space, people are asking: Who gets to call themselves an astronaut?It is no longer an easy question to answer. People who are very rich are able to pay to go into space.Russian space officials have been calling them spaceflight participants for many years.The new supervisorof the U.S. space agency NASA is Bill Nelson. He does not consider himself an astronaut although he spent six days in space in 1986. He was a congressmanthen.He told The Associated Pressthat he believes the term "astronaut" should be for professionals.Richard Garriott is a computer game developer. He paid a lot of money for his trip to the International Space Station in 2008 on a Russian spacecraft. He hates the term space tourist. He said in an email, "I am an astronaut." He said he trained for two years to go into space.Axiom Space's Michael Lopez-Alegria is a former NASA astronaut. He will join three businessmen on a SpaceX spacecraft on a trip to the space station planned for January.They each paid $55 million for the trip. Lopez-Alegria said they do not consider themselves space tourists since they will be doing research.Recently, Axiom Space said there will be a second flight to the space station next year. Peggy Whitson will be on that flight. She is a retired NASA astronaut who has spent 665 days in space.Whitson will bring John Shoffner. He is a businessman and race car driver from Knoxville, Tennessee. He is also paying about $55 million. Shoffner said he asked Peggy to make the training difficult for him. He said, "Make me an astronaut."The word astronaut comes from the Greek words for star and sailor. The idea is easy to market and astronauts appear in movies and popular culture.Jeff Bezos is the owner of the rocket company, Blue Origin. It will call future clients "astronauts." It is selling a place on its first spaceflight with people, planned for July. NASA even has a new term for this kind of trip: PAM for Private Astronaut Mission.Many individuals want to work as astronauts. More than 12,000 people applied to join NASA's upcoming class. Only about 12 will be chosen in December.But many passengers are expected to travel into space soon. There will be Russian actress and movie director, Yulia Peresild, who will fly to the space station in October. And Japanese businessman, Yusaku Maezawa, will go in December with an assistant to documenteverything. In each case, there will be a professional astronaut supervising things. But, Blue Origin and SpaceX's spacecraft do not need pilots.Asif Siddiqi is a history professor at Fordham University and the writer of several space books. He said it might be necessary to retire the term once hundreds if not thousands of people reach space. He questioned, "Are we going to call each and every one of them astronauts?"Mike Mullane is a retired NASA astronaut. He suggests using astronaut first class, second class, third class. He said this could depend on the person's involvement.However, Mullane noted, "astronaut is not a copyrightedword. So anybody who wants to call themselves an astronaut can call themselves an astronaut, whether they've been in space or not."I'm Jill Robbins.VOCABULARY1. supervisorn. a person who supervises sb. / sth. 监督人;指导者;主管人。例如:I have a meeting with my supervisor about my research topic.我要就我的研究课题同导师见一次面。2.congressmann.a member of Congress in the US, especially the House of Representatives (尤指美国众议院的)国会议员3.professionaln. a person who does a sport or other activity as a paid job rather than as a hobby 职业运动员;(从事某活动的)专业人员。例如:a top golf professional顶级高尔夫球职业选手4.documentv. to record the details of sth. 记录,记载(详情)。例如:Causes of the disease have been well documented.这种疾病的起因已有完备的记载。5.pilotn.a person who operates the controls of an aircraft, especially as a job 飞行员;(飞行器)驾驶员。例如:an airline pilot民航飞机飞行员6.copyrightv. to get the copyright for sth. 获得……的版权QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. People who are very rich are able to pay to go into space.2. Russian space officials have been calling them spaceflight participants for many years.3. Bill Nelsonbelieves the term "astronaut" should be for professionals.4. Richard Garriott paid a lot of money for his trip to the International Space Station in 2018 on a Russian spacecraft. 5. Michael Lopez-Alegria is a former NASA astronaut. 6. Peggy Whitson is a retired NASA astronaut who has spent 665 days in space.7. John Shoffneris a sportsman and race car driver from Knoxville, Tennessee. 8. The word astronaut comes from the Latinwords for star and sailor. 9. Jeff Bezos is the owner of the rocket company, Blue Origin. 10. Yulia Peresildwill fly to the space station in December. 11. Yusaku Maezawawill go in December with ascientistto document everything. 12. Mike Mullane suggests using astronaut first class, second class, third class. KEY Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(T) 1. People who are very rich are able to pay to go into space.(T) 2. Russian space officials have been calling them spaceflight participants for many years.(T) 3. Bill Nelsonbelieves the term "astronaut" should be for professionals.(F)4. Richard Garriott paid a lot of money for his trip to the International Space Station in 2018on a Russian spacecraft. (正确表达)Richard Garriott paid a lot of money for his trip to the International Space Station in 2008on a Russian spacecraft. (T) 5. Michael Lopez-Alegria is a former NASA astronaut. (T) 6. Peggy Whitson is a retired NASA astronaut who has spent 665 days in space.(F)7. John Shoffneris a sportsmanand race car driver from Knoxville, Tennessee.(正确表达)John Shoffneris a businessmanand race car driver from Knoxville, Tennessee. (F)8. The word astronaut comes from the Latinwords for star and sailor.(正确表达)The word astronaut comes from the Greekwords for star and sailor. (T) 9. Jeff Bezos is the owner of the rocket company, Blue Origin. (F)10. Yulia Peresildwill fly to the space station in December. (正确表达) Yulia Peresildwill fly to the space station in October. (F)11. Yusaku Maezawawill go in December with ascientistto document everything.(正确表达)Yusaku Maezawawill go in December with an assistantto document everything. (T) 12. Mike Mullane suggests using astronaut first class, second class, third class.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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