双语阅读 | 鱼是怎么睡觉的?

How Do Fish Sleep?鱼是怎么睡觉的?曹艺凡 供稿Sleep plays an essential role in our overall functioning, development, and how long we live. Without enough sleep, our health and cognitive performance suffers. The same goes for animals, including fish.睡眠对我们身体的整体机能、发育和寿命长短有着至关重要的影响。缺乏足够的睡眠,我们的身体健康和认知能力就会受损。这对动物也是如此,包括鱼类。While nearly all animals sleep, the way they sleep can be very different, especially in the case of fish. Fish sleep looks so different that many researchers prefer to call it rest instead of sleep.虽然几乎所有的动物都会睡觉,但它们的睡眠方式大相径庭,特别是鱼类。鱼类的睡眠看起来如此不同,许多研究人员更愿意称其为休息,而不是睡眠。Do Fish Sleep?鱼会睡觉吗?Many types of fish appear to sleep, but fish sleep differs from what we usually think of as sleep. Researchers have not been able to measure the familiar brain wave patterns that characterize human sleep and the sleep of many other animals in most fish, so researchers often refer to fish sleep as rest. Also, since most fish do not have eyelids, they can’t close their eyes during this rest.很多种类的鱼似乎都会睡觉,但鱼的睡眠与我们通常所认为的睡眠不同。人类和许多其他动物在睡眠中会伴随有各种脑电波波形,但在大多数鱼类身上,研究人员尚未检测到类似波形。因此,研究人员一般把鱼的睡眠称为休息。此外,由于大多数鱼没有眼睑,它们在这种休息中无法闭眼。Fish appear to be more alert than humans are during sleep, which may give them more time to react to potential threats in their environment. Still, fish do slow down metabolic processes in their resting state, much like humans. They physically slow down as well, with some fish floating in place.鱼在睡眠期间看起来比人类更警觉,这样,它们就可能有更多时间对环境中的潜在威胁作出反应。然而,就像人类一样,鱼在休息状态下的新陈代谢还是会放缓。它们的动作也会减慢,有些鱼会漂浮在适宜的地方。How Do Researchers Know That a Fish Is Sleeping?研究人员如何得知一条鱼在睡觉?Since fish do not look very different when they are asleep, it can be difficult to determine whether a fish is resting or awake. However, during a state of rest, fish are much less responsive. Some may appear to stop moving completely, and can even be touched or handled without waking up.由于鱼在睡着的时候看起来没有什么不同,所以很难确定一条鱼是在休息还是醒着。但在休息状态下,鱼的反应能力要弱得多。一些鱼可能看起来完全不动,甚至在被触碰或拿起来的时候都不会醒过来。Moreover, some fish are more vulnerable to being attacked by predators at night, which suggests that they are diurnal, or resting and less alert at night. Studies have found that certain fish species experience more deaths in the first two hours after sunset, which indicates that these fish tend to fall asleep at that time.此外,一些鱼在夜间更容易受到捕食者的攻击,这表明它们主要在白天活动,在夜间会进入休息状态因而不太警觉。研究发现,某些鱼类在日落后两小时的死亡数量更多,表明这些鱼在那个时间段更容易进入睡眠状态。A lack of responsiveness is often a sign of fish sleep, but researchers have found additional markers of sleep that fish share with humans and other animals. For example, studies show that melatonin may regulate the sleep-wake cycles in zebrafish. Zebrafish also appear to have distinct stages of sleep like humans, and follow a circadian rhythm.缺乏反应能力通常是鱼类进入睡眠的标志,但研究人员发现了鱼类和人类以及其他动物所共有的其他睡眠标志。例如,研究表明,褪黑素或许可以调节斑马鱼的睡眠—觉醒周期。斑马鱼似乎也像人类一样拥有明显不同的睡眠阶段,遵循着昼夜节律。The Stages of Fish Sleep鱼类睡眠的不同阶段Humans cycle through four stages of sleep, including two stages of light sleep, one stage of slow-wave, deep sleep, and one stage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Although fish do not have a neocortex like humans, researchers were able to monitor the brain activity, heart rate, and eye and muscle movement in zebrafish to document two stages of sleep that are similar to slow-wave sleep and REM sleep.人类睡眠可以分为四个阶段,包括两个轻度睡眠阶段、一个慢波深度睡眠阶段、以及一个快速眼动(REM)睡眠阶段。尽管鱼类不像人类那样拥有大脑新皮质,但研究人员还是能够监测到斑马鱼的大脑活动、心率、眼睛和肌肉运动,记录两个与慢波睡眠和快速眼动睡眠相似的睡眠阶段。When fish do not get enough sleep, they seem to be vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation. After a night of sleep deprivation, zebrafish experience a sleep rebound, in which they catch up on sleep.当鱼没有得到足够的睡眠时,它们似乎很容易受到睡眠不足的影响。整夜的睡眠不足会使斑马鱼出现睡眠反弹现象,在这个过程中它们会补足睡眠。This resting state is so essential to fish that they will find ways to maintain a bare minimum of sleep, just like other animals. For example, if fish are subjected to experiments in which their sleep is interrupted, they will eventually nod off into microsleeps, managing to obtain at least 5% to 10% of their normal amount of sleep.这种休息状态对鱼来说是非常重要的。它们会像其他动物一样,想办法维持最低水平的睡眠。例如,如果鱼经历了睡眠被打断的实验,它们最后会打瞌睡至微睡眠模式,从而获得至少5%—10%的正常睡眠量。【Vocabulary】1. predator n. 捕食者2. diurnal adj. 日间活动的3. melatonin n. 褪黑素4. circadian adj. (指每24小时人或动物体内变化)昼夜节律的,生理节奏的5. neocortex n. (大脑)新皮质6. deprivation n. 缺乏;剥夺7. rebound n. 反弹(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 和宠物一起睡觉是否健康?

和宠物一起睡觉是否健康?Is It Healthy to Sleep with Your Pet?王淑怡 供稿People may wonder if they should share their bed with a pet. In fact, sharing your bedroom with your canine companion may improve your sleep, according to recent research published by Mayo Clinic Proceedings. People with depression or anxiety may benefit from having their pet in the bed because the pet is a big pillow, a big blanket, and they may feel that snuggly, cuddly, furry creature decreases their anxiety.很多人会好奇:究竟能不能和宠物同床睡觉。医学期刊《梅奥诊所学报》最近的一项研究显示,和犬类宠物同屋睡觉可能会改善睡眠。和宠物同睡可能会对抑郁或焦虑的人有好处,因为宠物就像一个大枕头、一条大毯子,这种温暖舒适、毛茸茸、让人想拥抱的感觉会减轻他们的焦虑情绪。“Today, many pet owners are away from their pets for much of the day, so they want to maximize their time with them when they are home,” stated Lois Krahn, M.D., study co-author and a sleep medicine specialist. “Having them in the bedroom at night is an easy way to do that. And, now, pet owners can find comfort knowing it won’t negatively impact their sleep.”“现在,很多主人白天不在宠物身边,因此,他们希望回家时能多花些时间陪伴它们,”这项研究报告的共同作者、睡眠医学专家Lois Krahn医学博士表示,“让宠物晚上和自己在一个房间睡觉就是很好的办法。另外,现在宠物主人也可以放心,他们的宠物不会对自己的睡眠造成负面影响。”The report left many pet owners puzzled, though. Pet experts have long advised pet owners not to sleep with their dogs or cats for at least two main reasons: poor behavior in the animal and illness in humans.不过,这项报告还是令不少宠物主人心生疑惑。长久以来,宠物专家一直建议宠物主人不要和他们的猫狗睡在一起,原因有两个:动物行为不老实,人类还容易患病。Animals may move, bark and disrupt sleep. Sleep in dogs (and cats) is not continuous and they will inevitably get up and walk on the bed, stepping on people. All of that activity will lead to sleep fragmentation. These micro-awakenings, which can happen without your awareness, are disruptive because they pull you out of deep sleep. They have been associated with the release of the stress hormone, cortisol, which can make sleep even worse."动物会动来动去,大声叫唤,干扰人类的睡眠。狗(和猫)的睡眠是间断性的,睡一会儿就必然会醒来,在床上走来走去踩到主人。这些活动都会导致主人睡眠片段化。这些你可能意识不到的短暂觉醒破坏性很强,因为它会打断深度睡眠。人们发现这种短暂觉醒还会影响压力激素——皮质醇——的分泌,使睡眠变得更糟。However, many vets now believe concerns over such issues are overstated or just incorrect. Data from the Mayo Clinic’s Center for Sleep Medicine in Phoenix found over half of pet owners seen in the clinic allowed their pet to sleep in the bedroom – and the majority found their pet “unobtrusive or even beneficial to sleep.” A 2021 study asked adolescents ages 13 to 17 to wear sleep trackers for two weeks and then undergo a state-of-the-art sleep test. About a third of the kids slept with a pet, the study noted, which didn’t appear to affect the quality of their rest.不过,现在很多兽医都认为这样的担心过于夸张,也不准确。凤凰城的梅奥诊所睡眠医学中心收集的数据表明,来诊所的超半数宠物主人都让宠物在卧室里睡觉,大部分人认为自己的宠物“没有干扰、甚至有助于自己的睡眠。”2021年的一项研究让13到17岁的青少年连续两周佩戴睡眠追踪器并接受最先进的睡眠测试。研究指出,约有三分之一的孩子和宠物一起睡,而且宠物似乎没有影响他们的睡眠质量。【VOCABULARY】1. canine adj. 犬的2. snuggly adj. 温暖舒适的3. cuddly adj. 令人想拥抱的4. furry adj. 覆盖毛皮的5. fragmentation n. 破碎,分裂6. cortisol n. [生化] 皮质醇7. tracker n. 追踪器8. state-of-the-art adj. (技术上)最先进的(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 为什么刘畊宏突然爆火?

Why Has Liu Genghong Become an Online Hit为什么刘畊宏突然爆火?何雅蕙 供稿Millions of people in China now share a common routine: A fitness session with their new star personal trainer Liu Genghong.现在,中国老百姓有一个共同日常:跟着他们的明星私教刘畊宏跳健身操。The couple is usually seen exercising to the fast-paced tune of pop singer Jay Chou’s “Compendium of Materia Medica” and others. Snippets of the workout where Liu appears in a red tank top and black slacks with his wife have since gone viral on social media.刘畊宏夫妇的运动常以流行歌手周杰伦的各种快节奏音乐为背景音乐,如本草纲目等。在刘畊宏的直播片段里,他常常身着红色背心和黑色短裤,与妻子一起做运动。他的直播在社交媒体上爆火。Liu’s workout sessions have been so popular that they have broken Douyin’s livestreaming record for 2022 so far, according to data analysis platform Chanmama. Within one month, his livestreams have been viewed nearly 40 million times altogether, with his most popular session attracting over 1 million live views.蝉妈妈数据分析平台显示,刘畊宏的健身直播爆火,打破了2022年抖音的直播记录。仅一个月内,他的直播总浏览量为4000万次,而他最火爆的健身操的实时直播观众超过了100万人。Liu’s followers have also increased from 5 million to 33 million in just 10 weeks.仅仅10周,刘畊宏的粉丝量就从500万涨到了3300万。“Li Jiaqi empties our wallet, Liu Genghong empties our body,” has become one of the most popular comments on microblogging platform Weibo lately.最近微博上的一热评称:“被李佳琦榨干了钱包,被刘畊宏榨干了身体”。Opportunity favors the prepared机会总是留给有准备的人Liu has been a fitness fanatic for more than 30 years, and has published several books, including A Fitness Book by Kent-Hung in 2004, and Fitness Can Change Your Life in 2014.刘畊宏对健身的狂热从30多年前就开始了。这期间,他曾出版了几本书籍,比如2004年出版的《畊宏健身书》以及2014年出版的《健身,就能改变人生》。In 2013, Liu participated in the CCTV2 weight loss programme Super Diet King, aka The Biggest Loser, as a motivational coach, and later also became a fitness instructor for the Jiangsu TV show Changing My Life, in which he also helped overweight people to become fit. After that, more fitness programs followed, including the 2017 Challenge the Limit show.2013年,刘畊宏担任CCTV2台减肥节目《超级减肥王》的健身教练。随后,他在江苏卫视《减出我人生》中担任总教练,指导超重的选手减肥。在此之后,他还参与了很多健身节目,比如2017年的《全能极限王》。In an interview with China Daily, Liu saidhis current popularity is not something he achieved in several months. Instead, it’s the result of many years of work.在《中国日报》的采访中,刘畊宏表示他现在的名气不是短短几个月内得来的,而是长达数年努力付出的结果。The time produces its heroes时势造英雄The online fitness business has seen a significant surge in China. According to a March report by Douyin, the number of fitness videos in 2021 increased by 134% while followers of such content were up by 208% compared with the previous year.线上健身在中国火速发展, 抖音3月的一份报告显示,与2020年相比,2021年抖音上的健身视频增加了134%,而相关内容的粉丝则增长了208%。Liu Genghong isn’t the only icon who has been able to get the attention of fitness enthusiasts recently. With her workout videos, German fitness model Pamela Reif has also built a massive fanbase with over 8.3 million followers on social platform Xiaohongshu.而刘畊宏也不是唯一一个吸引健身爱好者的健身偶像。来自德国的帕梅拉也在中国吸引了大量粉丝,她在小红书上的粉丝量超过了830万。【VOCABULARY】1. snippets n.片段2. fanatic n.(对某项活动的)狂热者3. surge n. 激增(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 追踪病毒变体

追踪病毒变体WHO’s Science in 5 on COVID 19: Tracking Variants刘立军供稿TRANSCRIPTVismita Gupta-Smith: How does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19? What are the challenges on the ground to tracking these variants, and how many variants are we tracking at this time? Hello and welcome to Science in 5. I’m Vismita Gupta-Smith. We are talking to Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove today. Welcome, Maria. Let’s start, Maria, with: how does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2?Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: It all starts with surveillance, making sure that we have really strong surveillance and testing around the world so we know where the virus is circulating. We know where it is spreading most intensively. And that testing needs to be supported by sequencing. Sequencing has expanded dramatically over the last couple of years, and this really helps us to track how the virus is changing. It’s natural for viruses to change. The more the virus circulates, the more opportunities it has to change. So strong surveillance, strong testing, including strong sequencing, helps WHO with scientists around the world to look at those changes and determine which of those changes is important and why.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So, Maria, since WHO is tracking the variants across the globe, tell us about the challenges that countries face and WHO faces while tracking the variants.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: So what is really difficult right now is as we are in the third year of this pandemic, it’s…it’s really important that we maintain and, in fact, enhance the surveillance systems that are on the ground. Now, countries are facing many many challenges, COVID-19, as well as many other challenges that they have to deal with, other diseases. And so keeping up with surveillance, keeping up with testing and making sure that we have good tracking of this virus in at-risk populations - people who are over the age of 60, people with underlying conditions, immunocompromised patients - to ensure that we are really understanding how the virus is spreading, where the virus is spreading is really critical. And to maintain that on the ground in the third year is quite difficult. But it is fundamental to the control strategy of COVID-19. Not only do we need to improve vaccine access, as you hear us talk about a lot, we also need to maintain public health services like surveillance and testing and sequencing. And this is critical for us to be able to determine how this virus is changing and importantly, what that means for us in terms of our counter-measures, looking at public health and social measures, looking at the use of antivirals and looking at different therapeutics, as well as ensuring that the COVID-19 vaccines remain effective. And I just want to highlight that the COVID 19 vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against the latest variant of concern, Omicron.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So let’s come now, Maria, to the variants that WHO is currently tracking.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: WHO is working with surveillance officers, public health officers, experts around the world to track this virus. We work with our technical advisory group for virus evolution to assess each of the variants and the mutations that are being detected. There are five variants of concern that WHO has classified as variants of concern at a global level. The latest is Omicron and in fact, we are following several sublineages of Omicron. You’ve heard us talk about BA.1 And BA.2. There are other sublineages that are circulating as well. So we work with experts around the world to look at the characteristics of the variants of concern. Are they more transmissible? And Omicron is more transmissible. In fact, a BA.2, of the sublineages, is even more transmissible than B.A.1. We’re also looking at severity and looking at are these variants of concern causing more or less severe disease? Now, we do know that Omicron is less severe compared to Delta, the other variant of concern that was circulating. But Omicron has now replaced Delta worldwide and it is not more, BA.2 is not more severe than BA.1, as I mentioned. But we’re also looking at antivirals, we’re looking at vaccines. And again, our vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against both of the sublineages of BA.1 and BA.2.Vismita Gupta-Smith: Thank you, Maria. That was Science in 5 today. Until next time then. Stay safe, stay healthy and stick with science.VOCABULARY1.variant n. a thing that is a slightly different form or type of sth. else 变种;变体2.surveillance n. the act of carefully watching a person suspected of a crime or a place where a crime may be committed (对犯罪嫌疑人或可能发生犯罪的地方的)监视3.immunocompromised adj. 免疫力低下的4. antiviral adj. (of a drug 药) used to treat infectious diseases caused by a virus 抗病毒的5.therapeutic adj. designed to help treat an illness 治疗的6.mutation n. (生物物种的)变异,突变QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Vismita Gupta-Smith: How does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19? What are the challenges on the ground to tracking these variants, and how many variants are we tracking at this time? Hello and welcome to Science in 5. I’m Vismita Gupta-Smith. We are talking to Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove today. Welcome, Maria. Let’s start, Maria, with: how does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2?Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: It all starts with (Q1) ____________, making sure that we have really strong surveillance and testing around the world so we know where the virus is circulating. We know where it is spreading most intensively. And that testing needs to be supported by (Q2) ___________. Sequencing has expanded dramatically over the last couple of years, and this really helps us to track how the virus is changing. It’s natural for viruses to change. The more the virus circulates, the more opportunities it has to change. So strong surveillance, strong testing, including strong sequencing, helps WHO with scientists around the world to look at those changes and determine which of those changes is important and why.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So, Maria, since WHO is tracking the variants across the globe, tell us about the (Q3) ____________ that countries face and WHO faces while tracking the variants.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: So what is really difficult right now is as we are in the third year of this pandemic, it’s…it’s really important that we maintain and, in fact, enhance the surveillance systems that are on the ground. Now, countries are facing many many challenges, COVID-19, as well as many other challenges that they have to deal with, other diseases. And so keeping up with surveillance, keeping up with testing and making sure that we have good tracking of this virus in at-risk populations - people who are over the age of 60, people with underlying conditions, immunocompromised patients - to ensure that we are really understanding how the virus is spreading, where the virus is spreading is really critical. And to maintain that on the ground in the third year is quite difficult. But it is (Q4) _______________ to the control strategy of COVID-19. Not only do we need to improve vaccine access, as you hear us talk about a lot, we also need to maintain public health services like surveillance and testing and sequencing. And this is critical for us to be able to determine how this virus is changing and importantly, what that means for us in terms of our counter-measures, looking at (Q5) ______________, looking at the use of antivirals and looking at different therapeutics, as well as ensuring that the COVID-19 vaccines remain effective. And I just want to highlight that the COVID 19 vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against the latest variant of concern, Omicron.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So let’s come now, Maria, to the variants that WHO is currently tracking.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: WHO is working with surveillance officers, public health officers, experts around the world to track this virus. We work with our technical advisory group for virus evolution to assess each of the variants and the (Q6) ________________ that are being detected. There are five variants of concern that WHO has classified as variants of concern at a global level. The latest is Omicron and in fact, we are following several sublineages of Omicron. You’ve heard us talk about BA.1 And BA.2. There are other sublineages that are circulating as well. So we work with experts around the world to look at the (Q7) _________________ of the variants of concern. Are they more (Q8) ______________? And Omicron is more transmissible. In fact, a BA.2, of the sublineages, is even more transmissible than B.A.1. We’re also looking at severity and looking at are these variants of concern causing more or less severe disease? Now, we do know that Omicron is less severe compared to Delta, the other variant of concern that was circulating. But Omicron has now replaced Delta worldwide and it is not more, BA.2 is not more severe than BA.1, as I mentioned. But we’re also looking at antivirals, we’re looking at vaccines. And again, our vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against both of the sublineages of BA.1 and BA.2.Vismita Gupta-Smith: Thank you, Maria. That was Science in 5 today. Until next time then. (Q9) __________________.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Vismita Gupta-Smith: How does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19? What are the challenges on the ground to tracking these variants, and how many variants are we tracking at this time? Hello and welcome to Science in 5. I’m Vismita Gupta-Smith. We are talking to Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove today. Welcome, Maria. Let’s start, Maria, with: how does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2?Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: It all starts with (Q1) surveillance, making sure that we have really strong surveillance and testing around the world so we know where the virus is circulating. We know where it is spreading most intensively. And that testing needs to be supported by (Q2) sequencing. Sequencing has expanded dramatically over the last couple of years, and this really helps us to track how the virus is changing. It’s natural for viruses to change. The more the virus circulates, the more opportunities it has to change. So strong surveillance, strong testing, including strong sequencing, helps WHO with scientists around the world to look at those changes and determine which of those changes is important and why.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So, Maria, since WHO is tracking the variants across the globe, tell us about the (Q3) challenges that countries face and WHO faces while tracking the variants.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: So what is really difficult right now is as we are in the third year of this pandemic, it’s…it’s really important that we maintain and, in fact, enhance the surveillance systems that are on the ground. Now, countries are facing many many challenges, COVID-19, as well as many other challenges that they have to deal with, other diseases. And so keeping up with surveillance, keeping up with testing and making sure that we have good tracking of this virus in at-risk populations - people who are over the age of 60, people with underlying conditions, immunocompromised patients - to ensure that we are really understanding how the virus is spreading, where the virus is spreading is really critical. And to maintain that on the ground in the third year is quite difficult. But it is (Q4) fundamental to the control strategy of COVID-19. Not only do we need to improve vaccine access, as you hear us talk about a lot, we also need to maintain public health services like surveillance and testing and sequencing. And this is critical for us to be able to determine how this virus is changing and importantly, what that means for us in terms of our counter-measures, looking at (Q5) public health and social measures, looking at the use of antivirals and looking at different therapeutics, as well as ensuring that the COVID-19 vaccines remain effective. And I just want to highlight that the COVID 19 vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against the latest variant of concern, Omicron.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So let’s come now, Maria, to the variants that WHO is currently tracking.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: WHO is working with surveillance officers, public health officers, experts around the world to track this virus. We work with our technical advisory group for virus evolution to assess each of the variants and the (Q6) mutations that are being detected. There are five variants of concern that WHO has classified as variants of concern at a global level. The latest is Omicron and in fact, we are following several sublineages of Omicron. You’ve heard us talk about BA.1 And BA.2. There are other sublineages that are circulating as well. So we work with experts around the world to look at the (Q7) characteristics of the variants of concern. Are they more (Q8) transmissible? And Omicron is more transmissible. In fact, a BA.2, of the sublineages, is even more transmissible than B.A.1. We’re also looking at severity and looking at are these variants of concern causing more or less severe disease? Now, we do know that Omicron is less severe compared to Delta, the other variant of concern that was circulating. But Omicron has now replaced Delta worldwide and it is not more, BA.2 is not more severe than BA.1, as I mentioned. But we’re also looking at antivirals, we’re looking at vaccines. And again, our vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against both of the sublineages of BA.1 and BA.2.Vismita Gupta-Smith: Thank you, Maria. That was Science in 5 today. Until next time then.(Q9) Stay safe, stay healthy and stick with science.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 玩手机对大脑的影响

玩手机对大脑的影响Tech's Brain Effect: It's Complicated刘立军供稿TRANSCRIPT“Clearly, technology is helping us research the brain, but how is the brain responding to technology?”NYU neuroscientist Alexandra Ochoa Cohen.“There’s been a lot of mostly negative hype around this issue, often referred to as screen time, and how it’s ruining all of our lives. And while there’ve been a few studies that have examined these questions, the truth is that everything we encounter changes our brains. And we just don’t have the data right now to say how meaningful these changes actually are.”Cohen spoke March 21st, at the Cooper Union in Manhattan, during a discussion called Our Brain on A.I. (Artificial Intelligence): Who’s In Control, Me or the Machine?“In fact, a recent study examining over 350,000 adolescents found a small but negative association with technology use and well-being, but they also found similar relationships between eating potatoes and wearing eyeglasses and well-being. And yet we don’t ask if potatoes and eyeglasses have destroyed a generation.”That study, titled “The association between adolescent well-being and digital technology use,” appeared this January in the journal Nature Human Behaviour.“Part of the issue in studying how technology influences our brain is that there are so many different forms of technology that often all get lumped into one category. So how we use technology, what specific technology we use, and what we use it for will be important variables to define in future research.“And even as we do more and better research on these topics, the answer is still likely to be that it’s complicated. In a way, we’re all part of a massive experiment on how technology is influencing our brains, and there will almost certainly be both positive and negative outcomes. So studies that track individuals’ behavioral and brain development over time will be particularly important. Like the ABCD, or Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study, which is currently following over 10,000 kids for 10 years. And this kind of research will be especially important in helping us to figure out what lasting influences technology has on our brains.”VOCABULARY1. neuroscientist n. (医)神经科学家2. hype n.(不可数名词) (informal, disapproving) advertisements and discussion on television, radio, etc. telling the public about a product and about how good or important it is (电视、广播等中言过其实的)促销广告,促销讨论。例如:marketing / media hype 夸张的促销 / 媒体广告3. adolescent n. a young person who is developing from a child into an adult 青少年QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.“Clearly, technology is helping us research the brain, but how is the brain responding to technology?”NYU neuroscientist Alexandra Ochoa Cohen.“There’s been a lot of mostly (Q1) _______________ hype around this issue, often referred to as screen time, and how it’s ruining all of our lives. And while there’ve been a few studies that have examined these questions, the truth is that (Q2) _________________. And we just don’t have the data right now to say how meaningful these changes actually are.”Cohen spoke March 21st, at the Cooper Union in Manhattan, during a discussion called Our Brain on A.I. (Artificial Intelligence): Who’s In Control, Me or the Machine?“In fact, a recent study examining over 350,000 (Q3) ___________ found a small but negative association with technology use and well-being, but they also found similar relationships (Q4) __________________. And yet we don’t ask if potatoes and eyeglasses have destroyed a generation.”That study, titled “The association between adolescent well-being and digital technology use,” appeared this January in the journal Nature Human Behaviour.“Part of the issue in studying how (Q5) ___________ influences our brain is that there are so many different forms of technology that often all get lumped into one category. So how we use technology, what specific technology we use, and what we use it for will be important (Q6) __________to define in future research.“And even as we do more and better research on these topics, the answer is still likely to be that it’s (Q7) _______________. In a way, we’re all part of a massive experiment on how technology is influencing our brains, and there will almost certainly be (Q8) _________________. So studies that track individuals’ behavioral and brain development over time will be particularly important. Like the ABCD, or Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study, which is currently following over 10,000 (Q9) __________ for 10 years. And this kind of research will be especially important in helping us to figure out what (Q10) ______________ technology has on our brains.”KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.“Clearly, technology is helping us research the brain, but how is the brain responding to technology?”NYU neuroscientist Alexandra Ochoa Cohen.“There’s been a lot of mostly (Q1) negative hype around this issue, often referred to as screen time, and how it’s ruining all of our lives. And while there’ve been a few studies that have examined these questions, the truth is that (Q2) everything we encounter changes our brains. And we just don’t have the data right now to say how meaningful these changes actually are.”Cohen spoke March 21st, at the Cooper Union in Manhattan, during a discussion called Our Brain on A.I. (Artificial Intelligence): Who’s In Control, Me or the Machine?“In fact, a recent study examining over 350,000 (Q3) adolescents found a small but negative association with technology use and well-being, but they also found similar relationships (Q4) between eating potatoes and wearing eyeglasses and well-being. And yet we don’t ask if potatoes and eyeglasses have destroyed a generation.”That study, titled “The association between adolescent well-being and digital technology use,” appeared this January in the journal Nature Human Behaviour.“Part of the issue in studying how (Q5) technology influences our brain is that there are so many different forms of technology that often all get lumped into one category. So how we use technology, what specific technology we use, and what we use it for will be important (Q6) variables to define in future research.“And even as we do more and better research on these topics, the answer is still likely to be that it’s (Q7) complicated. In a way, we’re all part of a massive experiment on how technology is influencing our brains, and there will almost certainly be (Q8) both positive and negative outcomes. So studies that track individuals’ behavioral and brain development over time will be particularly important. Like the ABCD, or Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study, which is currently following over 10,000 (Q9) kids for 10 years. And this kind of research will be especially important in helping us to figure out what (Q10) lasting influences technology has on our brains.”(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 书写你的人生

书写你的人生Writing about Your Life刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTImagine you want to describe your life. You might begin with where and when you were born.In last week's report, Describing Your Life, we showed you how one of the most famous books of 20th century literature, Midnight's Children, described the beginning of a life.In this week's Everyday Grammar, we use a story from one of our readers, Luna, to teach you about subject-verb agreement, vocabulary, verb forms, and more.Luna's messageHere is the story that we received from Luna:My name is Luna.I was born in Seoul in South Korea.I have heard that my parent was very delighted for getting their first child.3 years later, my father had left home to make money.Mother, my younger sister and me always have been missed and waited for him to return home.But it was last time since he had left home.FeedbackLuna wrote an excellent story. It was very moving.Her first sentences are clear and direct:My name is Luna.I was born in Seoul in South Korea.The next sentence needs a small change in subject-verb agreement:I have heard that my parent was very delighted for getting their first child.Luna wrote "my parent was very delighted," but we generally use the plural form "parents" and corresponding BE verb agreement - "were." In other words: "my parents were very delighted."In general, we use the structure "to have" when talking about children. So, we can update the sentence to say the following:I have heard that my parents were very delighted to have their first child.Luna's next sentence says this:3 years later, my father had left home to make money.We recommend changing "3 years later" to "3 years after my birth" as well as changing the verb form to the simple past - "my father left home to make money." "Had left" would still be understood, but we usually use this verb form to describe an action that is completed before another action, as in "He had left by the time I arrived."So, this could be the updated sentence:3 years after my birth, my father left home to make money.PronounsIn the story's next sentence, we recommend changing some of the pronouns.Mother, my younger sister and me always have been missed and waited for him to return home.We recommend replacing the pronoun "me" with "I." In general, we use the object pronoun after the verb "miss," as in "missed him," or "missed her."We could change the sentence to the following:Mother, my younger sister and I always missed him and waited for him to return home.This was the final line:But it was last time since he had left home.We recommend including a determiner before "last time," as in "but it was the last time."We can simplify the rest of the line a bit further. The word "since" is not necessary, and the simple past works well in this situation.The line could say:But it was the last time he left home.Here is the complete story with the changes that we recommend:My name is Luna.I was born in Seoul in South Korea.I have heard that my parents were very delighted to have their first child.3 years after my birth, my father left home to make money.Mother, my younger sister and I always missed him and waited for him to return home.But it was the last time he left home.Thank you for sharing your story, Luna. We wish you continued success in your English studies.For all of our other readers and listeners, we hope that you have learned something from the suggestions we gave.I'm John Russell. And I'm Faith Pirlo.VOCABULARY1. begin with: 以……开始, 从……开始2. update v. to make sth. more modern by adding new parts, etc. 使现代化;更新。例如:It's about time we updated our software. 我们的软件应该更新了。3. as well as:和……一样QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Imagine you want to describe your life. You might begin with (Q1) _________________________.In last week's report, Describing Your Life, we showed you how one of the most famous books of 20th century literature, Midnight's Children, described the beginning of a life.In this week's Everyday Grammar, we use a story from one of our readers, Luna, to teach you about subject-verb agreement, vocabulary, verb forms, and more.Luna's messageHere is the story that we received from Luna:My name is Luna.I was born in Seoul in South Korea.I have heard that my parent was very delighted for getting their first child.3 years later, my father had left home to make money.Mother, my younger sister and me always have been missed and waited for him to return home.But it was last time since he had left home.FeedbackLuna wrote an excellent story. It was very moving.Her first sentences are clear and direct:My name is Luna.I was born in Seoul in South Korea.The next sentence needs a small change in subject-verb agreement:I have heard that my parent was very delighted for getting their first child.Luna wrote "my parent was very delighted," but we generally use the plural form "parents" and corresponding BE verb agreement - "were." In other words: "my parents were very delighted."In general, we use the structure "to have" when talking about children. So, we can update the sentence to say the following:(Q2) ______________________Luna's next sentence says this:3 years later, my father had left home to make money.We recommend changing "3 years later" to "3 years after my birth" as well as changing the verb form to the simple past - "my father left home to make money." "Had left" would still be understood, but we usually use this verb form to describe an action that is completed before another action, as in "He had left by the time I arrived."So, this could be the updated sentence:(Q3) _____________________________.PronounsIn the story's next sentence, we recommend changing some of the pronouns.Mother, my younger sister and me always have been missed and waited for him to return home.We recommend replacing the pronoun "me" with "I." In general, we use the object pronoun after the verb "miss," as in "missed him," or "missed her."We could change the sentence to the following:(Q4) _____________________________.This was the final line:But it was last time since he had left home.We recommend including a determiner before "last time," as in "but it was the last time."We can simplify the rest of the line a bit further. The word "since" is not necessary, and the simple past works well in this situation.The line could say:(Q5) _________________________.Here is the complete story with the changes that we recommend:My name is Luna.I was born in Seoul in South Korea.I have heard that my parents were very delighted to have their first child.3 years after my birth, my father left home to make money.Mother, my younger sister and I always missed him and waited for him to return home.But it was the last time he left home.Thank you for sharing your story, Luna. We wish you continued success in your English studies.For all of our other readers and listeners, we hope that you have learned something from the suggestions we gave.I'm John Russell. And I'm Faith Pirlo.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Imagine you want to describe your life. You might begin with (Q1) where and when you were born.In last week's report, Describing Your Life, we showed you how one of the most famous books of 20th century literature, Midnight's Children, described the beginning of a life.In this week's Everyday Grammar, we use a story from one of our readers, Luna, to teach you about subject-verb agreement, vocabulary, verb forms, and more.Luna's messageHere is the story that we received from Luna:My name is Luna.I was born in Seoul in South Korea.I have heard that my parent was very delighted for getting their first child.3 years later, my father had left home to make money.Mother, my younger sister and me always have been missed and waited for him to return home.But it was last time since he had left home.FeedbackLuna wrote an excellent story. It was very moving.Her first sentences are clear and direct:My name is Luna.I was born in Seoul in South Korea.The next sentence needs a small change in subject-verb agreement:I have heard that my parent was very delighted for getting their first child.Luna wrote "my parent was very delighted," but we generally use the plural form "parents" and corresponding BE verb agreement - "were." In other words: "my parents were very delighted."In general, we use the structure "to have" when talking about children. So, we can update the sentence to say the following:(Q2) I have heard that my parents were very delighted to have their first child.Luna's next sentence says this:3 years later, my father had left home to make money.We recommend changing "3 years later" to "3 years after my birth" as well as changing the verb form to the simple past - "my father left home to make money." "Had left" would still be understood, but we usually use this verb form to describe an action that is completed before another action, as in "He had left by the time I arrived."So, this could be the updated sentence:(Q3) 3 years after my birth, my father left home to make money.PronounsIn the story's next sentence, we recommend changing some of the pronouns.Mother, my younger sister and me always have been missed and waited for him to return home.We recommend replacing the pronoun "me" with "I." In general, we use the object pronoun after the verb "miss," as in "missed him," or "missed her."We could change the sentence to the following:(Q4) Mother, my younger sister and I always missed him and waited for him to return home.This was the final line:But it was last time since he had left home.We recommend including a determiner before "last time," as in "but it was the last time."We can simplify the rest of the line a bit further. The word "since" is not necessary, and the simple past works well in this situation.The line could say:(Q5) But it was the last time he left home.Here is the complete story with the changes that we recommend:My name is Luna.I was born in Seoul in South Korea.I have heard that my parents were very delighted to have their first child.3 years after my birth, my father left home to make money.Mother, my younger sister and I always missed him and waited for him to return home.But it was the last time he left home.Thank you for sharing your story, Luna. We wish you continued success in your English studies.For all of our other readers and listeners, we hope that you have learned something from the suggestions we gave.I'm John Russell. And I'm Faith Pirlo.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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