双语阅读 | 新娘为什么爱穿白色婚纱?

Why Do Brides Wear White?新娘为什么爱穿白色婚纱?曹艺凡 供稿In many societies the color white has long been associated with purity and virtue, and that is one reason why some brides choose to wear white, especially in the West. More often than not, though, you will hear claims that brides wear white because “it’s tradition.” ; but historically, white was not the only color considered for wedding dresses. In fact, other colors were chosen far more frequently than white. For many centuries in Western societies, wedding dresses were of all different colors. This was for reasons of practicality as much as anything else. Brides tended to buy a wedding dress that could be worn again, or they simply wore the best dress they already owned. And white does not lend itself to practicality: it is difficult to keep clean and is therefore not ideal for many situations or for repeat wear. Many brides chose to wear dresses of other colors for their wedding and beyond. So why do so many of today’s brides wear white? They do so largely thanks to a trend that started with Queen Victoria’s 1840 wedding to Prince Albert.在很多国家,白色长期以来象征着纯洁和美德,这也是一些新娘选择穿白色婚纱的原因之一,尤其是在西方。但更多时候,你会听人说起新娘选择白色婚纱是因为“遵循传统”。但是纵观历史,白色并不是婚纱礼服的唯一颜色。事实上,选择其他颜色的远比白色更多。在西方社会,几百年来,婚纱有各种不同的颜色。这既是出于实用性的考虑,也有其他方面的考量。新娘倾向于购买可以再次穿着的礼裙,或者是穿她们自己拥有的最漂亮的裙子。而白色本身并不实用:它很难保持干净,因此在许多场合或重复穿着时并不是一个理想的选择。许多新娘选择在婚礼和其他场合上穿其他颜色的礼服。那么,为什么今天有这么多新娘穿白色的礼裙?这种流行趋势很大程度上是始于1840年维多利亚女王与阿尔伯特王子的婚礼。Unlike today, royal weddings in yonder years received a lot of coverage—albeit not in as many different mediums as we have now—and thus had a tendency to be trendsetting. The nuptials of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were no exception. So when Victoria opted to wear a white gown (reportedly to show off the fine detailed Honiton lace produced by the British lace industry, which was floundering at the time), her fashion choice was widely reported in newspapers and magazines and was soon influencing domestic as well as international wedding trends. Initially embraced by wealthier brides, the trend of a white wedding gown eventually spread across all economic levels and was cemented as “tradition” in the 20th century.与今天不同的是,尽管不像我们现在有那么多不同的媒体,当年的皇家婚礼得到了大量的报道,所以容易引领潮流。维多利亚女王和阿尔伯特王子的婚礼也不例外。因此,当维多利亚选择穿白色礼裙时(据说是为了展示当时正处于困境的英国花边行业所生产的精致的霍尼顿花边),她的时尚选择被报纸和杂志广泛报道,并很快影响了国内和国际的婚礼潮流。最初只有较富裕的新娘选择的白色婚纱,后来成为所有经济阶层的新娘喜爱的礼服,并在20世纪固定下来成为了 “传统”。【Vocabulary】1. purity n. 纯洁2. practicality n. 实用性3. yonder adj. 那边的;那时的4. coverage n. 新闻报道5. albeit conj. 尽管6. nuptial n. (常作复数nuptials)婚礼7. flounder v. 困难重重;(在泥中)挣扎8. cement v. 加强;巩固(关系)(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 和宠物一起睡觉是否健康?

和宠物一起睡觉是否健康?Is It Healthy to Sleep with Your Pet?王淑怡 供稿People may wonder if they should share their bed with a pet. In fact, sharing your bedroom with your canine companion may improve your sleep, according to recent research published by Mayo Clinic Proceedings. People with depression or anxiety may benefit from having their pet in the bed because the pet is a big pillow, a big blanket, and they may feel that snuggly, cuddly, furry creature decreases their anxiety.很多人会好奇:究竟能不能和宠物同床睡觉。医学期刊《梅奥诊所学报》最近的一项研究显示,和犬类宠物同屋睡觉可能会改善睡眠。和宠物同睡可能会对抑郁或焦虑的人有好处,因为宠物就像一个大枕头、一条大毯子,这种温暖舒适、毛茸茸、让人想拥抱的感觉会减轻他们的焦虑情绪。“Today, many pet owners are away from their pets for much of the day, so they want to maximize their time with them when they are home,” stated Lois Krahn, M.D., study co-author and a sleep medicine specialist. “Having them in the bedroom at night is an easy way to do that. And, now, pet owners can find comfort knowing it won’t negatively impact their sleep.”“现在,很多主人白天不在宠物身边,因此,他们希望回家时能多花些时间陪伴它们,”这项研究报告的共同作者、睡眠医学专家Lois Krahn医学博士表示,“让宠物晚上和自己在一个房间睡觉就是很好的办法。另外,现在宠物主人也可以放心,他们的宠物不会对自己的睡眠造成负面影响。”The report left many pet owners puzzled, though. Pet experts have long advised pet owners not to sleep with their dogs or cats for at least two main reasons: poor behavior in the animal and illness in humans.不过,这项报告还是令不少宠物主人心生疑惑。长久以来,宠物专家一直建议宠物主人不要和他们的猫狗睡在一起,原因有两个:动物行为不老实,人类还容易患病。Animals may move, bark and disrupt sleep. Sleep in dogs (and cats) is not continuous and they will inevitably get up and walk on the bed, stepping on people. All of that activity will lead to sleep fragmentation. These micro-awakenings, which can happen without your awareness, are disruptive because they pull you out of deep sleep. They have been associated with the release of the stress hormone, cortisol, which can make sleep even worse."动物会动来动去,大声叫唤,干扰人类的睡眠。狗(和猫)的睡眠是间断性的,睡一会儿就必然会醒来,在床上走来走去踩到主人。这些活动都会导致主人睡眠片段化。这些你可能意识不到的短暂觉醒破坏性很强,因为它会打断深度睡眠。人们发现这种短暂觉醒还会影响压力激素——皮质醇——的分泌,使睡眠变得更糟。However, many vets now believe concerns over such issues are overstated or just incorrect. Data from the Mayo Clinic’s Center for Sleep Medicine in Phoenix found over half of pet owners seen in the clinic allowed their pet to sleep in the bedroom – and the majority found their pet “unobtrusive or even beneficial to sleep.” A 2021 study asked adolescents ages 13 to 17 to wear sleep trackers for two weeks and then undergo a state-of-the-art sleep test. About a third of the kids slept with a pet, the study noted, which didn’t appear to affect the quality of their rest.不过,现在很多兽医都认为这样的担心过于夸张,也不准确。凤凰城的梅奥诊所睡眠医学中心收集的数据表明,来诊所的超半数宠物主人都让宠物在卧室里睡觉,大部分人认为自己的宠物“没有干扰、甚至有助于自己的睡眠。”2021年的一项研究让13到17岁的青少年连续两周佩戴睡眠追踪器并接受最先进的睡眠测试。研究指出,约有三分之一的孩子和宠物一起睡,而且宠物似乎没有影响他们的睡眠质量。【VOCABULARY】1. canine adj. 犬的2. snuggly adj. 温暖舒适的3. cuddly adj. 令人想拥抱的4. furry adj. 覆盖毛皮的5. fragmentation n. 破碎,分裂6. cortisol n. [生化] 皮质醇7. tracker n. 追踪器8. state-of-the-art adj. (技术上)最先进的(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 如何停止打鼾?

How Can I Stop Snoring?如何停止打鼾?何雅蕙 供稿Snoringhappens when the muscles in the tongue, roof of your mouth and throat relax and constrict airflow. “You can’t get a full breath of air, so things startvibratingas they try to allow you to breathe — and the vibration is the snoring sound,” said Dr. Kent Smith, a sleep dentist in Dallas and former president of the American Sleep and Breathing Academy.当人们舌头、口腔顶部和喉咙的肌肉松弛时,它们会阻塞气道,导致人们打鼾。来自达拉斯的睡眠牙医、美国睡眠和呼吸学会前主席肯特·史密斯博士说:“当你不能呼入足够的空气时,你的肌肉组织会开始振动,以让你正常呼吸。而这个振动的过程就是鼾声的来源。”Men are about twice as likely to snore as women are, and it can be caused by a number of things, including allergies, aging, a cold or even just thedistinctiveshape of your throat. Your weight may also play a role.男性打鼾的可能性大约是女性的两倍。打鼾有很多诱因,包括过敏、衰老、感冒,甚至只是因为你的喉咙形状独特。同时,体重也有一定的影响。Once you know you are a snorer, even a subtle one, it might be worthwhile to get a sleep test from a sleep clinic, Dr. Smith said. Most of the time, the first one can be done at home in one night and will tell you if your snoring is a symptom of a larger problem, likesleep apnea, based on how many times per hour it interrupts your sleep. Whether or not your occasional wood sawing is tied to wider problems, there are steps you can take to lower the night noise.史密斯博士说,一旦你发现自己打鼾,即使不严重,也应该去睡眠科做一个睡眠测试。大多数情况下,第一次测试可以在家里用一晚上的时间完成。该测试会记录每小时打鼾干扰你睡眠的次数,然后可以诊断出打鼾是否表明你的身体其实有更严重的问题,比如睡眠呼吸暂停综合征。无论你那锯木头一样震耳欲聋的鼾声是否指示出身体有恙,以下这些缓解打鼾的招数都值得你参考。Sleep on your side.侧睡About half of snorers with sleep apnea in one Israeli study were found to stop when they changed positions. There are pillows available to help you sleep on your side and shirts that make it uncomfortable to roll on your back. For the D.I.Y.-types, you can trysewingsome tennis balls onto the back of your night shirt.以色列的一项研究发现,约有一半患有睡眠呼吸暂停综合征的打鼾者在改变睡眠姿势后会停止打鼾。专门设计的枕头可以帮助你维持侧身睡眠,还有特制的睡衣可以使你仰面朝天睡觉的时候感到不舒服。让你自己尝试的话,可以试试看把几个网球缝在睡衣的背面,能达到相似的效果。Strengthen your tongue.锻炼你的舌头One of the most common causes of snoring is when your tongue slides back in your throat. The simplest way to prevent this is with a daily set of tongue exercises. But doctors said it can take weeks to have an effect and most people are notdiligentin keeping them up.打鼾的一个最常见的原因是你的舌头滑向喉咙。预防这种情况的最简单方法是每天做一套舌头练习。但医生说,这可能需要几周时间才能见效,而且大多数人都做不到持之以恒。Weight loss.减肥Another way for some people to decrease snoring is to lose weight. Body Mass Index (BMI) is reliably connected to snoring and sleep apnea, doctors said, though every throat is different. Losing weight will decrease the pressure on yourwindpipeand allow more air to pass.还有一个缓解打鼾的方法便是减肥。医生表示,尽管每个人的喉咙都不尽相同,但身体质量指数与打鼾和睡眠呼吸暂停综合征有着密切的联系。减肥可以减少气管承受的压力,能让更多空气通过气管。There are also a wide range of “anti-snoring” devices available to buy online, most totally worthless. Chin straps, nose clips and strips, nostril dilators — be wary of them, doctors said, they don’t work for everyone. Ahumidifiermight help you sleep better by moisturizing your nose and throat, but it probably can’t stop you from snoring.网上也可以买到各式各样的“防打鼾”器具,但大多数完全无效。防打鼾产品包括下巴带、鼻夹和鼻带、鼻孔扩张器等,但医生建议大家谨慎购买,因为它们并不是对每个人都有效。加湿器或许可以通过湿润鼻腔和咽喉改善睡眠,但它无法防止你打鼾。【VOCABULARY】1.snorev.打鼾,打呼噜2.vibratev.振动3.distinctiveadj.独特的4.sleep apnea睡眠呼吸暂停综合征5.sewv.缝制,缝上6.diligentadj.勤奋的7.windpipen.气管8.humidifiern.加湿器(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 避免这五个园艺错误

Five Gardening Mistakes刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTMuch of gardening is learned by trial and error - that means, from mistakes. We have all been in that situation.The good news is we can learn from other people's mistakes and our own.Associated Press garden writer Jessica Damiano has this advice: "First, we need to admit we're not perfect."Many years ago, Damiano planted some morning glory seeds near the front gate of her garden. The seeds are often called a "fast-grower" and "self-sower." She was sure the vine would immediately bloom with leaves and flowers.But, the morning glory did its job too well. She now spends about a half hour every week during summer pulling up seedlings that grow as far as 15 meters away.Damiano said that was not her only trial and error in gardening. One summer, she planted some mint in a garden bed instead of a container. But the mint jumped the garden bed and spread everywhere. By the third year, Damiano had to dig up the whole bed to remove it. She learned not to plant invasive plants.Here is a list of Damiano's five common gardening mistakes with advice on how to avoid them.Not testing soilHaving the right pH level, a measure of acidity, for the soil is important for gardening success. Tomatoes, for example, grow best in soil with a pH between 6.0-6.8. Blueberry plants, however, will likely turn yellow and produce little if the pH is higher than 5.5.That is because nutrients are available to plants only at target pH levels, which are different for each kind of plant.Test kits for pH are not costly and you should test the soil in each garden bed individually. The pH level is often not the same in different parts of the garden. A reading of 7.0 is considered neutral. A lower number means the soil is acidic and a higher number means it is a base.It is best to select plants that do well in your garden conditions.Watering correctlyMost garden plants require 2.5 to nearly four centimeters of water weekly. The water could come from rainfall or from your home.Mold, mildew and bacterial diseases, however, could spread if too much water becomes trapped between plant parts. Too much water can spread these problems from infected leaves to healthy ones.Make sure to direct water to roots, where it is needed. Avoid watering leaves, fruit and flowers.Skipping compostCompost, made of food or plant waste, is a gardener's best friend. It improves the drainage of heavy clay soil, increases the water-holding ability of sand and adds high-quality nutrients.Add compost into new beds and borders, or add an amount equal to half the removed soil to individual planting holes.Wrong plant, wrong placeA plant that needs "full sun" will likely disappoint if planted in an area without sunshine. The same is true the other way around. And do not put "drought-tolerant" plants, or plants that can survive long periods without water, in "poorly-draining, soggy soil."Choose the plants that are right for your growing conditions. The result will be a better-looking, healthier garden that requires less care and less work.Improper mulchingMulch is material made out of old leaves, wood or compost. It can keep water and heat in the soil. It also suppresses unwanted plants, or weeds. So, it is an important part of every garden.Mulching incorrectly, however, can kill your plants.Always use mulch from natural materials such as tree bark, wood chips, straw or pine needles. They enrich the soil as they break down.Add five to seven centimeters of mulch around plants several times a year. Keep the material about seven centimeters away from trunks and stems to avoid blocking air and preventing water from escaping, which would result in rot.I'm Dan Friedell.VOCABULARY1. vine n. any climbing plant with long thin stems; one of these stems 藤本植物;攀缘植物2. mint n. a plant with dark green leaves that have a fresh smell and taste and are added to food and drinks to give flavour, and used in cooking as a herb and to decorate food 薄荷。例如:mint-flavoured toothpaste薄荷味的牙膏3. invasive adj. (especially of diseases within the body 尤指体内疾病) spreading very quickly and difficult to stop 侵入的;侵袭的4. acidic adj. containing acid 酸性的。例如:acidic soil酸性土壤5. compost n. a mixture of decayed plants, food, etc. that can be added to soil to help plants grow 混合肥料6. soggy adj. wet and soft, usually in a way that is unpleasant 湿而软的;潮湿的;受潮的7. mulch n. material, for example, decaying leaves, that you put around a plant to protect its base and its roots, to improve the quality of the soil or to stop weeds growing 覆盖物,护根(用以保护植物根基、改善土质或防止杂草生长)8. rot n. the process or state of decaying and falling apart 腐烂;腐败变质。例如:The wood must not get damp as rot can quickly result. 木头不能受潮,否则很快就会烂掉。QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.1. Having the right pH level, a measure of acidity, for the soil is important for gardening success.2. Test kits for pH are costly and you should test the soil in each garden bed individually.3. Most garden plants require 2.5 to nearly 4 centimeters of water monthly.4. Make sure to don’t direct water to roots, and avoid watering leaves, fruit and flowers.5. Compost could improve the drainage of heavy clay soil, decrease the water-holding ability of sand and add high-quality nutrients.6. A plant that needs "full sun" will likely disappoint if planted in an area without sunshine.7. Mulch can keep water and heat in the soil and suppress unwanted plants, or weeds.KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.(T) 1. Having the right pH level, a measure of acidity, for the soil is important for gardening success.(F) 2. Test kits for pH are costly and you should test the soil in each garden bed individually. (正确表达)Test kits for pH are not costly and you should test the soil in each garden bed individually.(F) 3. Most garden plants require 2.5 to nearly 4 centimeters of water monthly.(正确表达)Most garden plants require 2.5 to nearly 4 centimeters of water weekly.(F) 4. Make sure not to direct water to roots, and avoid watering leaves, fruit and flowers.(正确表达)Make sure to direct water to roots, and avoid watering leaves, fruit and flowers.(F) 5. Compost could improve the drainage of heavy clay soil, decrease the water-holding ability of sand and add high-quality nutrients.(正确表达)Compost could improve the drainage of heavy clay soil, increase the water-holding ability of sand and add high-quality nutrients.(T) 6. A plant that needs "full sun" will likely disappoint if planted in an area without sunshine.(T) 7. Mulch can keep water and heat in the soil and suppress unwanted plants, or weeds.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 追踪病毒变体

追踪病毒变体WHO’s Science in 5 on COVID 19: Tracking Variants刘立军供稿TRANSCRIPTVismita Gupta-Smith: How does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19? What are the challenges on the ground to tracking these variants, and how many variants are we tracking at this time? Hello and welcome to Science in 5. I’m Vismita Gupta-Smith. We are talking to Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove today. Welcome, Maria. Let’s start, Maria, with: how does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2?Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: It all starts with surveillance, making sure that we have really strong surveillance and testing around the world so we know where the virus is circulating. We know where it is spreading most intensively. And that testing needs to be supported by sequencing. Sequencing has expanded dramatically over the last couple of years, and this really helps us to track how the virus is changing. It’s natural for viruses to change. The more the virus circulates, the more opportunities it has to change. So strong surveillance, strong testing, including strong sequencing, helps WHO with scientists around the world to look at those changes and determine which of those changes is important and why.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So, Maria, since WHO is tracking the variants across the globe, tell us about the challenges that countries face and WHO faces while tracking the variants.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: So what is really difficult right now is as we are in the third year of this pandemic, it’s…it’s really important that we maintain and, in fact, enhance the surveillance systems that are on the ground. Now, countries are facing many many challenges, COVID-19, as well as many other challenges that they have to deal with, other diseases. And so keeping up with surveillance, keeping up with testing and making sure that we have good tracking of this virus in at-risk populations - people who are over the age of 60, people with underlying conditions, immunocompromised patients - to ensure that we are really understanding how the virus is spreading, where the virus is spreading is really critical. And to maintain that on the ground in the third year is quite difficult. But it is fundamental to the control strategy of COVID-19. Not only do we need to improve vaccine access, as you hear us talk about a lot, we also need to maintain public health services like surveillance and testing and sequencing. And this is critical for us to be able to determine how this virus is changing and importantly, what that means for us in terms of our counter-measures, looking at public health and social measures, looking at the use of antivirals and looking at different therapeutics, as well as ensuring that the COVID-19 vaccines remain effective. And I just want to highlight that the COVID 19 vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against the latest variant of concern, Omicron.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So let’s come now, Maria, to the variants that WHO is currently tracking.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: WHO is working with surveillance officers, public health officers, experts around the world to track this virus. We work with our technical advisory group for virus evolution to assess each of the variants and the mutations that are being detected. There are five variants of concern that WHO has classified as variants of concern at a global level. The latest is Omicron and in fact, we are following several sublineages of Omicron. You’ve heard us talk about BA.1 And BA.2. There are other sublineages that are circulating as well. So we work with experts around the world to look at the characteristics of the variants of concern. Are they more transmissible? And Omicron is more transmissible. In fact, a BA.2, of the sublineages, is even more transmissible than B.A.1. We’re also looking at severity and looking at are these variants of concern causing more or less severe disease? Now, we do know that Omicron is less severe compared to Delta, the other variant of concern that was circulating. But Omicron has now replaced Delta worldwide and it is not more, BA.2 is not more severe than BA.1, as I mentioned. But we’re also looking at antivirals, we’re looking at vaccines. And again, our vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against both of the sublineages of BA.1 and BA.2.Vismita Gupta-Smith: Thank you, Maria. That was Science in 5 today. Until next time then. Stay safe, stay healthy and stick with science.VOCABULARY1.variant n. a thing that is a slightly different form or type of sth. else 变种;变体2.surveillance n. the act of carefully watching a person suspected of a crime or a place where a crime may be committed (对犯罪嫌疑人或可能发生犯罪的地方的)监视3.immunocompromised adj. 免疫力低下的4. antiviral adj. (of a drug 药) used to treat infectious diseases caused by a virus 抗病毒的5.therapeutic adj. designed to help treat an illness 治疗的6.mutation n. (生物物种的)变异,突变QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Vismita Gupta-Smith: How does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19? What are the challenges on the ground to tracking these variants, and how many variants are we tracking at this time? Hello and welcome to Science in 5. I’m Vismita Gupta-Smith. We are talking to Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove today. Welcome, Maria. Let’s start, Maria, with: how does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2?Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: It all starts with (Q1) ____________, making sure that we have really strong surveillance and testing around the world so we know where the virus is circulating. We know where it is spreading most intensively. And that testing needs to be supported by (Q2) ___________. Sequencing has expanded dramatically over the last couple of years, and this really helps us to track how the virus is changing. It’s natural for viruses to change. The more the virus circulates, the more opportunities it has to change. So strong surveillance, strong testing, including strong sequencing, helps WHO with scientists around the world to look at those changes and determine which of those changes is important and why.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So, Maria, since WHO is tracking the variants across the globe, tell us about the (Q3) ____________ that countries face and WHO faces while tracking the variants.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: So what is really difficult right now is as we are in the third year of this pandemic, it’s…it’s really important that we maintain and, in fact, enhance the surveillance systems that are on the ground. Now, countries are facing many many challenges, COVID-19, as well as many other challenges that they have to deal with, other diseases. And so keeping up with surveillance, keeping up with testing and making sure that we have good tracking of this virus in at-risk populations - people who are over the age of 60, people with underlying conditions, immunocompromised patients - to ensure that we are really understanding how the virus is spreading, where the virus is spreading is really critical. And to maintain that on the ground in the third year is quite difficult. But it is (Q4) _______________ to the control strategy of COVID-19. Not only do we need to improve vaccine access, as you hear us talk about a lot, we also need to maintain public health services like surveillance and testing and sequencing. And this is critical for us to be able to determine how this virus is changing and importantly, what that means for us in terms of our counter-measures, looking at (Q5) ______________, looking at the use of antivirals and looking at different therapeutics, as well as ensuring that the COVID-19 vaccines remain effective. And I just want to highlight that the COVID 19 vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against the latest variant of concern, Omicron.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So let’s come now, Maria, to the variants that WHO is currently tracking.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: WHO is working with surveillance officers, public health officers, experts around the world to track this virus. We work with our technical advisory group for virus evolution to assess each of the variants and the (Q6) ________________ that are being detected. There are five variants of concern that WHO has classified as variants of concern at a global level. The latest is Omicron and in fact, we are following several sublineages of Omicron. You’ve heard us talk about BA.1 And BA.2. There are other sublineages that are circulating as well. So we work with experts around the world to look at the (Q7) _________________ of the variants of concern. Are they more (Q8) ______________? And Omicron is more transmissible. In fact, a BA.2, of the sublineages, is even more transmissible than B.A.1. We’re also looking at severity and looking at are these variants of concern causing more or less severe disease? Now, we do know that Omicron is less severe compared to Delta, the other variant of concern that was circulating. But Omicron has now replaced Delta worldwide and it is not more, BA.2 is not more severe than BA.1, as I mentioned. But we’re also looking at antivirals, we’re looking at vaccines. And again, our vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against both of the sublineages of BA.1 and BA.2.Vismita Gupta-Smith: Thank you, Maria. That was Science in 5 today. Until next time then. (Q9) __________________.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Vismita Gupta-Smith: How does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19? What are the challenges on the ground to tracking these variants, and how many variants are we tracking at this time? Hello and welcome to Science in 5. I’m Vismita Gupta-Smith. We are talking to Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove today. Welcome, Maria. Let’s start, Maria, with: how does WHO track the variants of SARS-CoV-2?Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: It all starts with (Q1) surveillance, making sure that we have really strong surveillance and testing around the world so we know where the virus is circulating. We know where it is spreading most intensively. And that testing needs to be supported by (Q2) sequencing. Sequencing has expanded dramatically over the last couple of years, and this really helps us to track how the virus is changing. It’s natural for viruses to change. The more the virus circulates, the more opportunities it has to change. So strong surveillance, strong testing, including strong sequencing, helps WHO with scientists around the world to look at those changes and determine which of those changes is important and why.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So, Maria, since WHO is tracking the variants across the globe, tell us about the (Q3) challenges that countries face and WHO faces while tracking the variants.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: So what is really difficult right now is as we are in the third year of this pandemic, it’s…it’s really important that we maintain and, in fact, enhance the surveillance systems that are on the ground. Now, countries are facing many many challenges, COVID-19, as well as many other challenges that they have to deal with, other diseases. And so keeping up with surveillance, keeping up with testing and making sure that we have good tracking of this virus in at-risk populations - people who are over the age of 60, people with underlying conditions, immunocompromised patients - to ensure that we are really understanding how the virus is spreading, where the virus is spreading is really critical. And to maintain that on the ground in the third year is quite difficult. But it is (Q4) fundamental to the control strategy of COVID-19. Not only do we need to improve vaccine access, as you hear us talk about a lot, we also need to maintain public health services like surveillance and testing and sequencing. And this is critical for us to be able to determine how this virus is changing and importantly, what that means for us in terms of our counter-measures, looking at (Q5) public health and social measures, looking at the use of antivirals and looking at different therapeutics, as well as ensuring that the COVID-19 vaccines remain effective. And I just want to highlight that the COVID 19 vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against the latest variant of concern, Omicron.Vismita Gupta-Smith: So let’s come now, Maria, to the variants that WHO is currently tracking.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove: WHO is working with surveillance officers, public health officers, experts around the world to track this virus. We work with our technical advisory group for virus evolution to assess each of the variants and the (Q6) mutations that are being detected. There are five variants of concern that WHO has classified as variants of concern at a global level. The latest is Omicron and in fact, we are following several sublineages of Omicron. You’ve heard us talk about BA.1 And BA.2. There are other sublineages that are circulating as well. So we work with experts around the world to look at the (Q7) characteristics of the variants of concern. Are they more (Q8) transmissible? And Omicron is more transmissible. In fact, a BA.2, of the sublineages, is even more transmissible than B.A.1. We’re also looking at severity and looking at are these variants of concern causing more or less severe disease? Now, we do know that Omicron is less severe compared to Delta, the other variant of concern that was circulating. But Omicron has now replaced Delta worldwide and it is not more, BA.2 is not more severe than BA.1, as I mentioned. But we’re also looking at antivirals, we’re looking at vaccines. And again, our vaccines remain incredibly effective at preventing severe disease and death, including against both of the sublineages of BA.1 and BA.2.Vismita Gupta-Smith: Thank you, Maria. That was Science in 5 today. Until next time then.(Q9) Stay safe, stay healthy and stick with science.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 助濒危鸟类回归自然

Bird Sellers Help Rare Bird Return to the Wild助濒危鸟类回归自然刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTWith its white feathers and blue skin, the Bali mynah has been sought after by collectors for more than a hundred years.Their capture for sale along with land loss on the island of Bali, Indonesia, led to the bird being listed as "threatened" in 1988. The International Union for Conservation of Nature moved it to "critically endangered" in 1994. And, by 2001, experts estimated only about six Bali mynahs were living in the wild, with thousands in captivity across the world.Now, conservationists are hoping to increase the mynah population by working with bird breeders and sellers to release them into the wild.Population and breeding programIn the 1980s, an organization now called BirdLife International started to work with the government to launch a breeding program for the birds.Breeders can seek government permits to breed the birds. If approved, they are given mynahs by the government and could keep 90 percent of the baby birds for private sale. The remaining birds are released at West Bali National Park, where they will be closely watched by park officials.Early mynah releases faced problems. Some birds were infected with a parasite that often caused death; others were killed by natural predators. Illegal hunting also continued - and the national park's breeding center was even robbed at gunpoint, with nearly 40 birds stolen.Yet conservation efforts in the last ten years have seen greater success, said Tom Squires of Manchester Metropolitan University.Squires said, "Bird keepers can still keep birds and follow their hobby without causing real problems for wild populations - which is, I think, a lot better than species going extinct in the world." To go extinct means to die off completely.Community involvementAgus Ngurah Krisna Kepakisan is head of the West Bali National Park. He believes the creation and spread of villages around the park have led to a successful breeding program. Villagers received to help in getting permits and bred Bali mynahs there."With the community being the breeders, they are helping us to take care of the birds that exist in nature," he said.Squires noted that there is clear evidence some released birds have produced young ones. "So that leads me to believe that the population is certainly self-sustaining to an extent," he said.The breeding program's results can be seen throughout the park, where Kepakisan says 420 Bali mynahs now live.Conservation efforts have also spread to Tabanan Regency - a three-hour drive from the park. The place is a recent release area for Friends of the National Parks Foundation, an Indonesia-based non-profit that works with breeders to release the birds.I Gede Nyoman Bayu Wirayudha founded the organization and has worked in Bali mynah conservation for years. He said, traditionally, communities around conservation areas have thought there is no money to be made from them. But the rare birds' presence will help draw tourists and their money like in other parts of Bali where mynahs have been released."You need to give something back to the community so they can feel that conservation gives them benefits," he said.Squires hopes the conservation model could be applied to other endangered birds in Indonesia such as the black-winged mynah. "For any of the lowland birds affected by the caged bird trade, this is the sort of approach that's going to be needed," he said.I'm John Russell.VOCABULARY1. mynah n. a bird that is native to SE Asia and has dark feathers, it can also can copy human speech 八哥(来自东南亚的一种能模仿人说话的黑羽鸟,本文所指为巴厘岛八哥)2. conservationist n. a person who takes an active part in the protection of the environment 自然环境保护主义者3. parasite n. a small animal or plant that lives on or inside another animal or plant and gets its food from it 寄生生物;寄生虫;寄生植物QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.1. The Bali mynah has white feathers and blue skin.2. By 2011, experts estimated only about six Bali mynahs were living in the wild.3. Now, conservationists are hoping to increase the mynah population by working with bird breeders and sellers to release them into the wild.4. In the 1990s, an organization now called BirdLife International started to work with the government to launch a breeding program for the birds.5. Because early mynah releases faced problems, conservation efforts in the last ten years have seen greater success.6. Agus Ngurah Krisna Kepakisan believes the creation and spread of villages around the park have led to a successful breeding program.7. Squires hopes the conservation model could be applied to other endangered birds in the world.KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.(T) 1. The Bali mynah has white feathers and blue skin.(F) 2. By 2011, experts estimated only about six Bali mynahs were living in the wild.(正确表达)By 2001, experts estimated only about six Bali mynahs were living in the wild.(T) 3. Now, conservationists are hoping to increase the mynah population by working with bird breeders and sellers to release them into the wild.(F) 4. In the 1990s, an organization now called BirdLife International started to work with the government to launch a breeding program for the birds.(正确表达)In the 1980s, an organization now called BirdLife International started to work with the government to launch a breeding program for the birds.(F) 5. Because early mynah releases faced problems, conservation efforts in the last ten years have seen greater success.(正确表达)Although early mynah releases faced problems, conservation efforts in the last ten years have seen greater success.(T) 6. Agus Ngurah Krisna Kepakisan believes the creation and spread of villages around the park have led to a successful breeding program.(F) 7. Squires hopes the conservation model could be applied to other endangered birds in the world.(正确表达)Squires hopes the conservation model could be applied to other endangered birds in Indonesia.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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