双语阅读 |为什么早餐通常会吃同样的食物?

双语阅读 |为什么早餐通常会吃同样的食物?
较难 4076

Why Do You Usually Eat the Same Thing for Breakfast?

Why do you usually eat the same thing for breakfast?
为什么早餐通常会吃同样的食物?

刘伟 供稿


Breakfast, the most important meal in the day, shoulders the responsibility of fueling us up and reviving the body and brain. Recently, a study conducted by Erasmus University examined the food diaries of 2,624 people living in France and 1,275 people living in the United States. The study discovered that 68% of the study subjects ate the same breakfast at least twice in one week, while only 9% repeated a dinner. So why do people avoid variety in the morning, yet later in the same day, seek variety in the choice of food?
早餐作为一天当中最重要的一餐,承担着补充体力、恢复身体和大脑机能的重任。最近,鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学进行了一项研究,调查了2624名法国居民和1275名美国居民的饮食记录。结果显示,68%的研究对象每周至少有两天吃同样的早餐,而只有9%的研究对象会吃同样的晚餐。所以,为什么人们的早餐单一重复,而午餐和晚餐则会变着花样?

Utilitarian vs. Hedonic Goals
实用目的与享乐目的

The answer resides in two different goals that govern the food choices in every meal: hedonic and utilitarian goals. Utilitarian goals propel people to have an efficient meal. Hedonic goals drive people to eat foods that provide pleasurable experiences and sensations. The study shows that as the day progresses, people switch from pursuing utilitarian goals for breakfast to maximizing the pleasure they derive from their lunch and dinner.
答案就在于对于每一顿饭选择吃什么东西,人们的目的有所不同,主要分为两种:享乐目的和实用目的。出于实用目的,人们往往在吃某顿饭时更讲究效率。而享乐目的则促使人们吃一些带来愉悦体验和感受的食物。研究表明,一天下来,人们用餐的目的会从追求早餐的实用高效,转变为尽可能享受午餐和晚餐所带来的愉悦。

Where do these goals come from? 
这些目标是如何产生的?

The study speculates the difference in goals is due to the combination of cultural and biological factors. In terms of biology, circadian rhythms play a part. Early in the day, when energy levels are higher, people are more prone to pursue utilitarian goals. They would therefore be satisfied with the same breakfast that they don’t have to think about too much. But later in the day, when their energy is flagging, pleasure-seeking becomes more important, so they are prone to crave a more delicious or delicate meal for lunch or dinner.
研究推测,这是由文化和生理方面的双重原因导致的。在生理方面,生物钟会发挥作用。清晨的时候,身体的能量水平更高,人们倾向于追求实用高效,就会满足于每天吃同样的早餐,不需要花太多脑力来抉择。但是,当身体能量随时间推移逐步衰弱,追求快乐就变得愈加重要,美味或精致的午餐或晚餐自然更受欢迎。

Culture swings people’s opinions by marketing. The study notes that breakfast foods tend to be marketed with words that emphasize utilitarian rather than hedonic goals. In over 3000 products’ name descriptions in Amazon, the study finds that breakfast foods are more associated with utilitarian words including nutritious, energized, and healthy. However, pleasure-related words like tasty and savory dominate the descriptions for lunch or dinner food. This causes people to seek less variety but value practicality and efficiency at breakfast.
文化则是通过市场营销来左右人们的想法。研究指出,早餐食品的广告词通常强调实用目的而不是享乐目的。在亚马逊3000多款产品的介绍当中,研究发现,早餐食品的介绍通常与“有营养”、“补充能量”以及“健康”等体现实用性的词语更为相关。然而,午餐和晚餐食品的介绍则满是“美味”和“可口”等与愉悦感相关的词汇。这导致人们对早餐不那么追求多样性,而是重视实用和高效。

How can we leverage the information to improve our diet? 
我们该如何利用这些信息改善饮食?

Habits are difficult to change, but easy to maintain. Our pursuit of efficiency at breakfast is a driver of a healthy eating habit. We can make a breakfast out of the foods we should be eating that are less appealing, like kale or spinach. Because we tend to repeat the same combination of foods and seek less variety and pleasure at breakfast, the healthy diet should be easier to stick to than trying to eat those foods for every lunch or dinner.
习惯很难改变,但很容易保持。对高效早餐的追求可以帮助我们养成健康的饮食习惯。我们做早餐时,可以选择一些我们应该吃但却不那么诱人的食物,例如羽衣甘蓝或菠菜。由于我们往往在早餐吃同样的食物,不太追求花样和愉悦感,所以比起在午餐或晚餐让自己去吃这些食物,在早餐吃它们,可以更容易地将健康的饮食习惯坚持下去。


【Vocabulary】

1.hedonic adj. 享乐的,与享乐有关的 
2.utilitarian adj. 实用主义的,功利主义的
3.derive v.(从……中)得到,获得 
4.circadian adj.(指每 24 小时人或动物体内变化)昼夜节律的,生理节奏的 
5.flag v. 疲乏;变弱 
6.crave v. 渴望;热望 
7.swing v.(使)改变(意见、情绪等)
8.leverage v. 利用 
9.appealing adj. 有吸引力的;有感染力的;令人感兴趣的 
10.kale n. 羽衣甘蓝(一种类似卷心菜的蔬菜)
11.spinach n. 菠菜

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  • 字数:490个
  • 易读度:较难
  • 来源:刘伟 2022-08-29