George Eastman

George Eastman
较难 2077

乔治·伊斯曼,具有克服财政困难的能力,组织和管理的天份,他活跃而富有创造力的思维使其在 25 岁左右便成为一名成功的企业家,并带领他的伊士曼柯达公司走在美国业界的最前沿。

George Eastman


 


George Eastman (July 12, 1854 – March 14, 1932) founded the Eastman Kodak company and invented roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream. Roll film was also the basis for the invention of motion picture film in 1888 by the world's first Filmmaker Louis le Prince, and a decade later by his followers Léon Bouly, Thomas Edison, the Lumière brothers and Georges Méliès.


 


He was an American inventor and philanthropist, who played a leading role in transforming photography from an expensive hobby of a few devotees into a relatively inexpensive and immensely popular pastime.


 


Early life


 


He was born in Waterville, New York, and was self-educated. In 1884, Eastman patented the first film in roll form to prove practicable; in 1888 he perfected the Kodak camera, the first camera designed specifically for roll film. in 1892, he established the Eastman Kodak company, at Rochester, New York, one of the first firms to mass-produce standardized photography equipment. This company also manufactured the flexible transparent film, devised by Eastman in 1889, which proved vital to the subsequent development of the motion picture industry.


 


Eastman was associated with the company in an administrative and an executive capacity until his death and contributed much to the development of its notable research facilities. he was also one of the outstanding philanthropists of his time, donating more than $75 million to various projects. Notable among his contributions were a gift to the Massachusetts institute of technology and endowments for the establishment of the Eastman school of music in 1918 and a school of medicine and dentistry in 1921 at the University of Rochester.


 


Later years


 


In 1925, Eastman gave up his daily management of Kodak to become chairman of the board. He thereafter concentrated on philanthropic activities, to which he had already donated substantial sums. For example, he donated funds to establish the Eastman dental dispensary, in 1916. He was one of the major philanthropists of his time, ranking only slightly behind Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and a few others, but did not seek publicity for his activities. He concentrated on institution-building and causes that could help people's health. He donated to the University of Rochester, establishing the Eastman school of music and school of dentistry; to Tuskegee institute; and to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), donations that provided the capital to build several of their first buildings at their second campus along the Charles River.


 


In his final two years, Eastman was in intense pain, caused by a degenerative disorder affecting his spine. He had trouble standing and his walking became a slow shuffle. Today it might be diagnosed as Spinal Stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal caused by calcification in the vertebrae. Eastman grew depressed, as he had seen his mother spend the last two years of her life in a wheelchair from the same condition. On March 14, 1932, Eastman committed suicide with a single gunshot to the heart, leaving a note which read, "My work is done. Why wait?" His funeral was held at St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Rochester; he was buried on the grounds of the company he founded at Kodak park in Rochester, New York.


 


Legacy


 


During his lifetime, he donated $100 million, mostly to the University of Rochester and the Massachusetts institute of technology (under the alias "Mr. Smith"). The Rochester institute of technology has a building dedicated to Mr. Eastman, in recognition of his support and substantial donations. He endowed the Eastman school of music of the University of Rochester.


 


In recognition of his donation, MIT has a plaque of Eastman (the rubbing of the nose of which is traditionally considered by students to bring good luck). Eastman also made substantial gifts to the Tuskegee institute and the Hampton institute. Upon his death, his entire estate went to the University of Rochester, where his name can be found on the Eastman quadrangle of the river campus. The auditorium at Mississippi state universities Dave C. Swalm School of chemical engineering is named for Eastman in recognition of his inspiration to Mr. Swalm. His former home at 900 East Avenue in Rochester, New York was opened as the George Eastman house international museum of photography and film in 1949. In 1954, the 100th anniversary of his birth, Eastman was honored with a postage stamp from the United States post office.


 


Eastman had a very astute business sense. He focused his company on making film when competition heated up in the camera industry. By providing quality and affordable film to every camera manufacturer, Kodak managed to turn its competitors into de facto business partners.


 


In 1926, George Eastman was approached by Lord Riddell, the chairman of royal free hospital, to fund a dental clinic in London. He agreed to give £800,000 which was matched by £80,000 each from lord Riddell and sir Albert Levy, the Royal Free's honorary treasurer.


 


The Eastman dental clinic was opened in November 20, 1931, by the American ambassador in the presence of Neville chamberlain. The building, which resembled the Rochester dispensary, was totally integrated into the royal free hospital and included three wards for oral, ear, nose, and throat and cleft lip and palate surgery and was dedicated to providing dental care for children from the poor districts of central London.


 


In a similar manner, Eastman went on to establish dental clinics in Rome, Paris, Brussels and Stockholm.

  • 字数:920个
  • 易读度:较难
  • 来源: 2016-08-15