练习 | Avoid Ineffective Study Methods

练习 | Avoid Ineffective Study Methods

4.3分钟 794 118wpm

避免无效的学习方法

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VOA: Avoid Ineffective Study Methods
VOA慢速: 避免无效的学习方法

燕山大学 刘立军 宋葳 编写

◇TRANSCRIPT

Imagine you have a test in school. It could be for a class in history or mathematics. Even worse, you could have an English test. How should you prepare for this terrible event? What can you do before the big day to help you do better?

Should you reread your history or math books? What about underlining important words or sentences?

If you are like many students, you probably use both rereading and underlining. But are these truly the best methods?

Today, on our Education Report, we will explore effective and ineffective ways to study for tests. You might learn that some study habits you used in the past might not be the best methods.

Rereading and highlighting are common strategies that you will see in schools around the world. Students look at information they have already read in an effort to remember what is important. Students often combine rereading with highlighting. They underline important information in what they read with a writing instrument such as a marker.

American Mary Pyc is a cognitive scientist. She studies the human mind and its processes. Pyc says that both rereading and highlighting are ineffective study tools. While better than not studying at all, she believes they are not as useful as other habits.

"For example, with rereading, it's maybe not as effective because you are not trying to actively retrieve the information. You are not seeing "what do I actually know about what I read?" With rereading what is going to happen is that it is going to feel like you already know the information because you've already read it. So, you have this sense of fluency that is leading you to think "Ok, yes, I know the information."

The problem with highlighting, Pyc says, is that students have a false sense of understanding - similar to when they reread information. Also, there is a second problem that comes with highlighting. "Students aren't always aware of what the most important information is. So it's possible that they are maybe highlighting details that aren't as important as the higher level concepts."

So what should you do if rereading and highlighting are not the best ways to study for a test? One idea is to test yourself. We have discussed self-testing strategies in other education stories. Simple flashcards and practice exams can help when you want to make sure that you have learned something.

Another strategy is what education experts have called "spaced practice." This means to practice remembering the new information over time, instead of doing everything all at once. We will discuss spaced practice in a future Education Tips story.

Regardless of which strategy you chose, you should know that effective learning takes time and it takes effort.

The next time you have a test coming, try to plan for the big day so that you can give yourself time to engage in different study habits. And remember, rereading and highlighting are better than not studying at all, but there are better methods out there!

I'm John Russell.


VOCABULARY

1. strategy n. (可数名词) stategy (for doing sth.) | strategy (to do sth.): a plan that is intended to achieve a particular purpose 策略;计策;行动计划。例如:
·to develop a strategy for dealing with unemployment制订解决失业问题的对策
·It's all part of an overall strategy to gain promotion. 这都不过是一个向上爬的完整计划的一部分。
·the government's economic strategy政府的经济策略
2. cognitive adj. (常用于名词前) connected with mental processes of understanding 认知的;感知的;认识的。例如:
·a child's cognitive development儿童的认知开发
·cognitive psychology认知心理学
3. retrieve v. (computing 计) to find and get back data or information that has been stored in the memory of a computer 检索数据。例如:
·to retrieve information from the database从数据库检索资料
·The program allows you to retrieve items quickly by searching under a keyword. 这个程序通过关键词进行搜索,能让你迅速获取数据项。

QUESTIONS

1. Which of the following statements are TRUE about rereading and highlighting strategies?
(A) They are uncommon strategies among students.
(B) They are effective study tools for many students. 
(C) They are better than not studying at all. 
(D) They are as useful as other learning strategies.

2. What's wrong with rereading strategy?
(A) You are trying to actively retrieve the information. 
(B) It is going to feel like you already know the information. 
(C) It is going to feel like you have more problems with the information.
(D) You are trying to actively remember the information.

3. What's wrong with the highlighting strategy?
(A) Students may have a false sense of understanding.
(B) Students are always aware of what the most important information is.
(C) Students maybe highlight details that are as important as the higher level concepts.
(D) Students may have a true sense of understanding.

4. Which of the following methods for a test is not given by the scientist?
(A) Test yourself.
(B) Try "spaced practice" method.
(C) Try to plan first.
(D) Rote learning. 

KEY

1. C。命题根据:Rereading and highlighting are common strategies that you will see in schools around the world. Pyc says that both rereading and highlighting are ineffective study tools. While better than not studying at all, she believes they are not as useful as other habits.

2. B。命题根据:For example, with rereading, it's maybe not as effective because you are not trying to actively retrieve the information. With rereading what is going to happen is that it is going to feel like you already know the information because you've already read it. 

3. A。命题根据:The problem with highlighting, Pyc says, is that students have a false sense of understanding - similar to when they reread information. Also, there is a second problem that comes with highlighting. "Students aren't always aware of what the most important information is. So it's possible that they are maybe highlighting details that aren't as important as the higher level concepts."

4. D。 命题根据:  One idea is to test yourself. Another strategy is what education experts have called "spaced practice." Regardless of which strategy you chose, you should know that effective learning takes time and it takes effort. The next time you have a test coming, try to plan for the big day so that you can give yourself time to engage in different study habits. And remember, rereading and highlighting are better than not studying at all, but there are better methods out there!

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  • 时长:4.3分钟
  • 语速:118wpm
  • 来源:刘立军、宋葳 2017-09-18