“影响者”的影响力

During the recent Singles’ Day shopping frenzy, Li Jiaqi has again proved his influences as an online celebrity, attracting millions of viewers to his live broadcast on the e-commerce platform Taobao. Dubbed “iron-lipped man”, this male beauty blogger in his 20s once tested over 300 types of lipstick on his lips in a seven-hour live video streaming. His effort and competence earned trust from his audience and makeup brands. It took him less than a year to increase his bank balance to over 10 million yuan.在不久前的“双十一”购物热潮中,网络红人李佳琦在电子商务平台淘宝上的直播吸引了几百万人观看,再次证明了自己的影响力。这位九零后男性美妆博主曾在一次七小时的直播中给300多只口红试色,由此被称为“铁唇哥”。他的敬业与能力赢得了许多观众与美妆品牌的信任,不到一年时间,他的收入已经超过千万人民币。The success of this online celebrity demonstrated the significant impact of a group of people: influencers. An influencer, in this specialized use, refers to a person with the ability to reach a huge audience and persuade others to act based on their recommendations. Not from the entertainment inidustries like traditional celebrities, an influencer may be anyone from a blogger to a celebrity to an an online entrepreneur.这位网络红人的成功显示出“影响者”这个群体不容小觑的影响力。“影响者”在此特指能够接触到大量受众,并且有能力说服他人采纳他们的建议行事的人。与出身于娱乐圈的传统名人不同,“影响者”的身份多样,可能是博主、名人或网络创业者。Most influencers make a living on social meidia. Based on their established credibility in a specific industry, influencers monetize their influences by sharing sponsored social media posts, becoming a brand ambassador and starting their own business.这些“影响者”中的大部分都在社交媒体上谋生。他们依靠自身在特定行业建立的信誉,通过发布广告贴、品牌代言或自主创业等方式将影响力变现。In fact, influencers have a long history in marketing. Initially, companies signed endorsement deals with compelling figures like TV stars and athletes to help sell their products through television and radio ads. The rise of social media has created a new class of celebrity and some of them have seized the opportunities to translate their massive followings into millions of yuan each year. However, if you take a look behind the scene of the wonderful influencer lifestyle, uncertain incomes, performative vulnerability and the hustle for sponsorship can take a toll. Some influencers have quit their social media platforms due to the rise in competition and psychological strain.事实上,“影响者”的营销由来已久。起初企业会请电视明星、运动员等大众信赖的名人来为产品代言,通过电视、广播等渠道进行广告宣传。而社交媒体的兴起创造出一类新的名人,他们当中一些人抓住机遇,将可观的粉丝数转化为每年上百万的收入。然而,他们光鲜的生活背后也不乏隐患,如收入不稳、表现不佳、缺乏赞助等都会给其带来负面影响。因为竞争加剧和心理压力,一些“影响者”最终选择离开社交媒体平台。“In the business world, influencer culture is already an established force,” according to Kevin Roose, a writer for The New York Times. As influenncer marketing moves forward, the key to success will still be a greater sense of trust and credibility between brands and consumers.《纽约时报》专栏作家凯文•罗斯称,“在商业世界,影响者文化已经成为公认的发展推动力”。随着“影响者”营销的进一步发展,成功的关键仍在于培养品牌与消费者之间更牢固的信任感和可信度。VOCABULARYdemonstrate v. 展示entrepreneur n. 创业者endorsement n. 广告宣传take a toll (on) 产生恶果

对猫咪不再过敏

Good news for cat lovers who can't stop sneezing around their furry friends: researchers have developed a potential new cat allergy vaccine.喜欢“撸猫”却饱受过敏困扰的朋友们,好消息来啦!研究人员研发了一种新的疫苗,能够显著降低猫咪的致敏水平,让爱猫一族都能抱上毛茸茸的可爱猫咪。The preliminary study showed that the vaccine called "HypoPet" is able to target and neutralize the major cat allergen "Fel d 1" — a cat protein that's secreted into a cat's saliva and tears, as well as found on the animal's pelt — that causes humans' allergic reactions. The researchers reported that the vaccine is "well-tolerated".初步研究结果表明,这款名为“HypoPet”的疫苗能够中和宠物猫身上含有的过敏原“Fel d 1”蛋白。该蛋白存在于猫咪的唾液和泪液以及全身的毛发中,而此物质便是导致人类过敏的罪魁祸首。研究人员表示,该疫苗当前在猫咪身上“耐受良好”。But unlike most vaccines, the shot is for the cat — not its human owners. In other words, the vaccine immunizes cats "against their own major allergen, Fel d 1," according to the study.和大多数的疫苗不同,这款疫苗的接种对象不是猫的主人,而是猫咪。换句话说,该疫苗让猫咪具备“抵抗自身Fel d 1过敏原”的免疫能力。The vaccine would help millions of pet owners who are allergic to their animals. The proteins found in a pet's dander, skin flakes, saliva and urine can cause an allergic reaction, like sniffling, sneezing, itchiness and watery eyes, or aggravate asthma symptoms in some people.这款疫苗将使数百万对宠物过敏的主人受益。宠物的毛发、皮屑、唾液和尿液中含有的过敏原常常会导致易敏人群发生过敏反应,轻者会出现打喷嚏、皮肤瘙痒和眼睛流泪等症状,重者则会加重哮喘。The vaccine has the potential to lead to a lower allergenic cat, and the benefits of that are two-fold. Both human subjects and animals could profit from this treatment because allergic cat owners would reduce their risk of developing chronic diseases, such as asthma, and become more tolerant of their cats, which therefore could stay in the households and not need to be relinquished to animal shelters.这款疫苗能够降低猫的致敏性,带来双重好处:无论是猫的主人还是猫咪都能从中获益,猫主人患上诸如哮喘等慢性病的风险降低,从而增加对猫咪的容忍度,改变猫咪被遗弃或被送往动物收容所的命运。However, more research is still needed — including with human subjects — and it will be a while before the vaccine is available. In the meantime, you can help keep sneezing and watery eyes at bay by keeping pets out of your bedroom. Professionals also recommend using a double or micro-filter bag in the vacuum to reduce the amount of pet allergen in carpeting, which can end up in the air you breathe, and use HEPA air cleaners, which help remove allergenic particles from the air so you can breathe easier.然而,此疫苗上市仍需时日,在正式推出前还需要进一步研究,包括其对人类的潜在影响。在此期间,宠物主可以通过防止猫咪进入卧室活动来减少过敏反应。专家还推荐,在清洁地毯时,在吸尘器内安装双重尘袋或者微滤尘袋,从而减少空气中的宠物过敏原。此外,使用带有HEPA滤网的空气净化器,也能过滤空气中的致敏微粒,让呼吸更为通畅。VOCABULARYpreliminary: adj. 初步的allergen: n. 过敏原pelt: n. (动物的)毛皮relinquish: v. 放弃

NASA宇航服焕新升级

After 50 years since humans first set foot on the Moon during the Apollo program, NASA is now working on the Artemis program which aims to land the first woman and the next man on the lunar surface by 2024. This program is named after another god of Greek mythology, Artemis, who is both the twin sister of Apollo and the goddess of the Moon.在人类首次登月50年后的今天,美国国家航空航天局(NASA)着手开启“阿尔忒弥斯计划”,预计在2024年前将首位女性登月宇航员和一位男性宇航员送上月球。这一计划以希腊神话中的女神阿尔忒弥斯命名,阿尔忒弥斯是阿波罗的孪生姐姐,也是一位月亮女神。To make full preparation for this long-awaited return to the Moon, NASA unveiled two new spacesuits in October. The next-generation spacesuits upgrading the classic ones worn by astronauts during the Apollo program in the 1960s and 1970s give astronauts more comfort and mobility on the Moon. Here are some highlights of the new spacesuits.为了给这次期待已久的重返月球计划做好充分准备,NASA在十月份公布了两款新型宇航服。新一代宇航服对20世纪六七十年代“阿波罗计划” 所使用的的经典款宇航服进行了升级,更加舒适、灵活。下面一起来看看本次公布的新款宇航服有哪些亮点吧!Improve Mobility灵活性提升During the Apollo program, astronauts had to bunny hop on the surface of the Moon and could easily stumble due to the limited mobility of their suits, which led to low efficiency and could cause unimaginable danger. The new suits with advanced materials and flexible bearings allow for a greater range of movement at the waist, arms and legs. Astronauts will be able to reach across their body, perform squats and even bend down to pick up a rock and then lift it overhead. Now humans are really going to be able to walk rather than jump on the surface of the Moon.由于宇航服设计不够灵活,“阿波罗计划”时代的宇航员不得不在月球表面以“兔子跳”的方式行进,很容易不慎跌倒,这不仅影响了他们的工作效率,还可能带来意想不到的危险。新款宇航服采用先进的材料和灵活的轴承,让宇航员的腰部、双臂和双腿都能做出更大幅度的动作,他们可以触摸到自己身体各个部位,还可以下蹲,甚至可以弯腰捡起一块石头,再将它举过头顶。如今,人类终于可以真正在月球上漫步,而不是蹦蹦跳跳了。Dust-tolerant design防尘设计On the Moon, astronauts have to contend with various environmental challenges. One of the biggest concerns is lunar dust. Engineers working for Moon landing missions worried that the powdery lunar dust wouldn't be stable enough to support the lunar lander or even astronauts walking on it. But after Apollo missions, they realized that there is a greater hazard which might be caused by the dust. The dust on the Moon composed of tiny glass-like shards can stick to surfaces of the spacesuits and even work its way into every nook and cranny. Once it infiltrates the suits’ life support systems, the astronauts’ health and safety can be seriously threatened. To keep the dust out, the new spacesuits are designed to have fewer seams and no zippers. Besides, the flexible parts of the suits are made from as many as 16 layers of advanced material which perform different functions including protecting astronauts from space dust.登月宇航员往往需要面对月球上各种各样的环境挑战,最令人担忧的问题之一就来自于月尘。登月计划的工程师曾担心月球表面粉末状的尘土难以支撑着陆器和出舱行走的宇航员。但“阿波罗计划”之后他们才意识到,除此之外,月尘还隐藏着更大威胁。月球表面的尘土包含极其细小的玻璃状碎屑,很容易附着到宇航服表面,甚至穿透宇航服的各个边边角角。一旦月尘侵入宇航服的生命支持系统,则将严重威胁宇航员的健康和安全。为达到防尘效果,新款宇航服减少缝合处,并避免采用拉链。另外,宇航服的可活动部分采用了多达16层的先进材料,每层材料发挥着不同作用,其中一大作用就是保护宇航员免受太空尘埃的威胁。Upgraded communications system通信系统升级Astronauts no longer have to wear the so-called “Snoopy caps” which are given the name because they look like the aviator cap worn by the cartoon character. These communications caps, though having a cute name, can become sweaty and uncomfortable and their microphones do not always track well with the astronauts’ movements. The upgraded communications system includes multiple, embedded, voice-activated microphones that automatically pick up the astronauts’ voices when they speak, enabling them to communicate more efficiently with other crew members and mission control.宇航员再也不用戴“史努比帽”了。曾经宇航员的通信帽外形酷似卡通形象史努比戴的飞行员头盔,因此被称为“史努比帽”。这种通信帽虽然名字颇为可爱,但很容易捂汗,舒适性较差,并且麦克风经常无法跟随宇航员的肢体运动收声。升级版的通信系统内置多个嵌入式声控麦克风,可以在宇航员讲话时自动捕捉他们的声音,让他们能够更加高效地与其他宇航员以及地面指挥中心保持联络。More sizes and better customization尺寸更丰富,实现定制化Earlier this year, NASA had to cancel the first all-female spacewalk because the agency didn’t have enough medium-sized suits to fit both of the women aboard the International Space Station. Now, the new suits are designed to give the wearer a customized fit whatever their size. Besides, each astronaut will have a full body, 3D scan while wearing the suit and performing basic motions and postures expected during spacewalks. That can help NASA match the astronaut to the best suit components to ensure that they are given the greatest comfort and the broadest range of motion.今年, NASA不得已取消了国际空间站首次全女性太空行走计划,部分原因就在于无法提供两套女性宇航员合身的中号宇航服。本次全新推出的新一代宇航服则可以为不同身材的宇航员量身定制。另外,每位宇航员还将身着宇航服接受一项全身3D扫描,在接受扫描的过程中,他们需要做出太空行走时可能会做的动作和姿势,这样一来,NASA便可以为每位宇航员定制最适合他们的宇航服组件,最大程度地确保他们身穿宇航服时感到舒适,并且能够做出更多动作。What do you think of NASA’s new spacesuits? Do you have any idea of other innovative features that can be added to the future-generation spacesuits?NASA的新一代宇航服怎么样?你认为未来的宇航服还可以增加哪些创新之处呢?VOCABULARYbearing n. 轴承contend with (a problem/difficulty)处理,应对shard n. 碎片every nook and cranny 每个角落infiltrate v. 渗入;潜入

练习 | VOA慢速:吃巧克力能改善视力吗

VOA慢速:吃巧克力能改善视力吗燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTResearchers have sad news for chocolate lovers. They found that eating dark chocolate does not improve people's eyesight as had been thought.An earlier report suggested that some aspects of eyesight improved within one or two hours of eating chocolate. The new study found no changes in vision or blood flow after volunteers ate about 20 grams of dark chocolate. Both studies, however, involved only a small number of test subjects.With two similar-sized tests producing opposite results, "more research is needed," said the organizers of the latest study. The lead researcher was Jacob Siedlecki of Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich, Germany.Additional testing with larger sample sizes would be needed to rule in or out possible long-term benefits," the researchers wrote. Their report appears in the medical publication JAMA Ophthalmology.The reason for suspecting dark chocolate might help with vision is that the sweet treat has plenty of flavonoids, which are antioxidants.Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some forms of cell damage. Studies have shown that foods with high levels of antioxidants can reduce the risk of an age-related vision problem called macular degeneration.To see if the earlier study on chocolate could be repeated, Siedlecki and his team found 22 healthy volunteers, ages 20 to 62, who had good eyesight.The volunteers were asked to eat either a 20-gram piece of dark chocolate or a 7.5-gram piece of milk chocolate. The piece of dark chocolate contained 400 milligrams of flavanoids, while the milk chocolate had about 5 milligrams of flavanoids.Volunteers' eyes were examined with a relatively new, high-tech scanner that shows blood vessels in detail. The volunteers were tested before they ate the chocolate and again two hours later.Siedlecki's team was looking for signs that the chocolate had enlarged blood vessels in the eye. This means volunteers were getting better blood flow.Volunteers were also given low-technology vision tests similar to the ones used in the earlier chocolate study.A week after the test, the people who got dark chocolate the first time were given milk chocolate, and those who had milk chocolate the first time were given dark chocolate.The researchers said they found no difference in either test when volunteers ate dark chocolate or milk chocolate.Doctor Gareth Lema was a little sad to read the latest findings. "I like chocolate," he explained.While the new study failed to show any health benefit to eating a single piece of chocolate, "that doesn't mean eating it over the long term isn't beneficial," said Lema. He works at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai in New York City."Neither study really showed that if you eat a piece of chocolate, you'll have (great) vision," Lema added.Doctor Jay Chhablani agreed."Someone has to do a long-term study comparing dark chocolate to milk chocolate," he said. Chhablani is an associate professor of ophthalmology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.Both men know it will be easy to find volunteers.I'm Susan Shand.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201910/596151.shtml VOCABULARY1. ophthalmology n. (不可数名词) the scientific study of the eye and its diseases 眼科学2. flavonoids n. (医)黄酮类3. antioxidant n. (biology 生) a substance such as vitamin C or E that removes dangerous molecules , etc., such as free radicals from the body 抗氧化物质(如维生素C或E,可消除体内自由基等有害分子)4. macular adj. 有斑点的 QUESTIONSRead the following statements and decide whether they are true or false. 1. Researchers found that eating dark chocolate does not improve people's eyesight as had been thought. 2. An earlier report suggested that some aspects of eyesight improved within one or two hours of eating chocolate. 3. Both study involved only a small number of test subjects. 4. The reason for suspecting dark chocolate might help with vision is that the sweet treat has plenty of flavonoids, which are antioxidants. 5. Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some forms of cell damage. 6. Studies haven’t shown that foods with high levels of antioxidants can reduce the risk of an age-related vision problem called macular degeneration. 7. The researchers said they found some difference in both tests when volunteers ate dark chocolate or milk chocolate. KEYRead the following statements and decide whether they are true or false.T 1. Researchers found that eating dark chocolate does not improve people's eyesight as had been thought.T 2. An earlier report suggested that some aspects of eyesight improved within one or two hours of eating chocolate.F 3. Neither study involved only a small number of test subjects. (正确表达) Both studies involved only a small number of test subjects.T 4. The reason for suspecting dark chocolate might help with vision is that the sweet treat has plenty of flavonoids, which are antioxidants.T 5. Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some forms of cell damage.F 6. Studies haven’t shown that foods with high levels of antioxidants can reduce the risk of an age-related vision problem called macular degeneration. (正确表达) Studies have shown that foods with high levels of antioxidants can reduce the risk of an age-related vision problem called macular degeneration.F 7. The researchers said they found some difference in both tests when volunteers ate dark chocolate or milk chocolate. (正确表达) The researchers said they found no difference in either test when volunteers ate dark chocolate or milk chocolate.

练习 | VOA慢速:大学院校排名有啥用

VOA慢速:大学院校排名有啥用燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTLists that rate colleges and universities are very popular among parents and students in the United States. But are published lists the best way to choose the right school?The best known ranking is probably by the magazine U.S. News & World Report. On top of the magazine's list this year are schools known around the world. They include Princeton University in New Jersey, Harvard University in Massachusetts, Columbia University in New York City, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston, The University of Chicago and Yale University in Connecticut.U.S. News & World Report published its first "America's Best Colleges" report in 1983. Since then, some educators have questioned the published rankings and how useful they are.A number of magazines publish lists of college rankings once every year. High school students use the lists as reference guides when considering where to continue their education. There are plenty of schools to choose from. Across the country, more than 4,000 colleges and universities offer undergraduate degree programs.Last month, Forbes published its college ratings for 2019. It listed 650 schools. That represents only about 15 percent of all U.S. institutions of higher learning.The magazine's top five are a little different from those of U.S. News & World Report. They are: Harvard University, Stanford University in California, Yale University, MIT and Princeton University.Like other lists, Forbes considers things like student satisfaction, how successful college graduates are and how much money they make. The magazine adds another important piece of information: how much debt students will owe after they graduate.We spoke with education experts and people whose job is to help high school students choose the right college. All of them said students and parents should look at more than just rankings because they do not tell the whole story about a school.Ray Anderson of Virginia is a former high school principal. He now works with a service called AGM-College Advisors. It provides guidance on higher education to students and their families.Anderson says what is most important to him is knowing what the student wants, likes and is capable of doing."The focus is on who you are, and then what schools match you," Anderson said, "not matching you to the school."Anderson told VOA the published rankings can help because they have valuable information about the schools.Jeffrey Stahl agrees that rankings have limited value. In his job as a counselor at Yorktown High School in Virginia, he talks with students about colleges.Stahl says choosing a college is a very personal decision. He said that the rankings "can be helpful," but some students place too much attention on the name of a school and its position in rankings."So much about the campus environment, students, professors, cannot be shown just by ranking," Stahl said. He suggests that families use the ranking information as a starting point. Then, they should widen their search, make their own list, and go see the colleges for themselves.But David Hawkins is critical of the college rankings. He is with the National Association for College Admission Counseling. He told VOA that rankings "are not mathematically proven to measure the quality of any single college, much less to provide comparisons between colleges."Hawkins said lower ranked schools may have difficulty getting students interested in their programs."As such," he said, "the rankings have been known to create ethical problems, as institutions misreport data or otherwise seek to manipulate their ranking." Like the other experts we spoke with, he said students must look past those ratings to a gain a more factual opinion about the schools for themselves.In July, U.S. News & World Report "de-ranked" five institutions from its list for misreporting information. Because of this, the magazine said, their ranking number was "higher than they otherwise would have been." The five included the well-known University of California at Berkeley.Hawkins noted that people overseas might think the rankings come from the U.S. government. That is not true, he notes. "We try to emphasize that these are commercial publications, rather than 'official' rankings of any sort."Richard DeMillo heads the Center for 21st Century Universities at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He also is a professor at Georgia Tech - a school that moved up 13 positions on Forbes' latest list.DeMillo says, while the higher rank is "nice, it does not matter." He believes that Forbes, U.S. News & World Report and other publications are providing a service, "if you ignore the ranking part of it."For example, he finds the information about all the study programs to be useful. The ratings sometimes list lesser-known schools that might be strong in a field of study that a student is interested in.All the experts VOA spoke with had similar advice for students looking for the right college. Go visit the school, talk to the admissions officers and talk with current students."There are so many hidden gems out there!" Jeffrey Stahl said. "Just because a college doesn't make the "list" doesn't mean it doesn't have great programs and resources!"I'm Anne Ball. And I'm Dorothy Gundy.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201909/594968.shtml VOCABULARY1. counselor n. 顾问2. even / much / still less: and certainly not 更不用说;更何况。例如:No explanation was offered, still less an apology. 连个解释都不给,就更不用说道歉了。3. ethical adj. connected with beliefs and principles about what is right and wrong (有关)道德的;伦理的。例如: ethical issues/standards/questions有关道德的问题;道德标准 / 问题 the ethical problems of human embryo research人类胚胎研究的伦理问题4. manipulate v. manipulate (sb. into sth./into doing sth.) (disapproving) to control or influence sb./sth., often in a dishonest way so that they do not realize it (暗中)控制,操纵,影响。例如: She uses her charm to manipulate people. 她利用自身的魅力来摆布别人。 As a politician, he knows how to manipulate public opinion. 身为一位政客,他知道如何左右公众舆论。 They managed to manipulate us into agreeing to help. 他们设法促使我们答应了提供帮助。5. gem n. ( also less frequent gemstone) a precious stone that has been cut and polished and is used in jewellery(经切割打磨的)宝石。例如:a crown studded with gems镶有宝石的皇冠 QUESTIONSRead the following statements and decide whether they are true or false.( ) 1. Lists that rate colleges and universities are very popular among universities in the United States.( ) 2. The best known ranking is probably by the magazine U.S. News & World Report.( ) 3. A number of magazines publish lists of college rankings once every year.( ) 4. Forbes magazine adds another important piece of information: how much debt students will owe after they graduate.( ) 5. Students and parents should look at more than just rankings because they do not tell the whole story about a school.( ) 6. Stahl told VOA the published rankings can help because they have valuable information about the schools.( ) 7. Anderson says choosing a college is a very personal decision and suggests that families use the ranking information as a starting point.( ) 8. Hawkins said lower ranked schools may have difficulty getting students interested in their programs.( ) 9. Hawkins noted that people in the U.S. might think the rankings come from the U.S. government.( ) 10. All the experts VOA spoke with had similar advice for students looking for the right college. Go visit the school, talk to the admissions officers and talk with current students. KEYRead the following statements and decide whether they are true or false.(F) 1. Lists that rate colleges and universities are very popular among universities in the United States. (正确表达) Lists that rate colleges and universities are very popular among parents and students in the United States.(T) 2. The best known ranking is probably by the magazine U.S. News & World Report.(T) 3. A number of magazines publish lists of college rankings once every year.(T) 4. Forbes magazine adds another important piece of information: how much debt students will owe after they graduate.(T) 5. Students and parents should look at more than just rankings because they do not tell the whole story about a school.(F) 6. Stahl told VOA the published rankings can help because they have valuable information about the schools. (正确表达) Anderson told VOA the published rankings can help because they have valuable information about the schools.(F) 7. Anderson says choosing a college is a very personal decision and suggests that families use the ranking information as a starting point. (正确表达) Stahl says choosing a college is a very personal decision and suggests that families use the ranking information as a starting point.(T) 8. Hawkins said lower ranked schools may have difficulty getting students interested in their programs.(F) 9. Hawkins noted that people in the U.S. might think the rankings come from the U.S. government. (正确表达) Hawkins noted that people overseas might think the rankings come from the U.S. government.(T) 10. All the experts VOA spoke with had similar advice for students looking for the right college. Go visit the school, talk to the admissions officers and talk with current students.

练习 | VOA慢速:4种保存食物的方法

VOA慢速:4种保存食物的方法燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTWhen you preserve food, you are taking action to stop it from breaking down, as it does naturally. You are killing or preventing the growth of microorganisms.Today, we will explore how you can preserve some of the fresh produce you buy or grow. By following a few easy steps, you can still eat those tasty fruits and vegetables when they are out of season.You can preserve late-summer fruits and vegetables in four basic ways. These include freezing, canning, pickling and drying or dehydrating. FreezingFreezing is the simplest way to save produce. It is important to freeze the produce as quickly as possible, and to do so in freeze-grade bags or other containers. Eugenia Bone has written books about food and nature. She notes that you should cool down food before you freeze it. One problem to avoid is freezer burn, which can affect the taste and feel of food. To prevent this, use plastic bags, wraps or containers designed for the freezer.Good late-summer produce to freeze includes green beans, cabbage, apples and plums. CanningThere are two main ways to can produce: boiling hot water baths and pressure canning. A boiling water bath involves putting food in glass canning jars and then heating the jars in a pot of boiling water. The heat forces air from the glass jars and frees the food from bacteria and microorganisms. You can then seal the jars. This method works best with naturally acidic foods like fruits. Pressure canning food requires a pressure canner. The pressure canner you use should be based on the kind of cooking equipment you have and the amount of food you plan to can. Whichever method you use, always test the seal that keeps out fresh air.Good late-summer fruits for water bath canning include apples, berries, cherries, figs and peaches. Good foods for pressure canning include carrots, corn, okra and bell peppers. PicklingThere are many methods of preserving food in vinegar, salt brine or a similar mixture. You can pickle whole vegetables, like green beans or okra. Another possibility is to make chutney or relishes. This is done by adding salt, pepper or other seasonings to small, cut pieces of vegetables.Good late-summer foods to pickle include cucumbers, hot chili peppers, watermelon rinds and eggplants. DryingA final way to preserve food is by drying it. Whatever food you are drying should be just ready to eat and not have bruises. When drying, try to find specific directions for each food to ensure quality and safety.Drying methods include air drying, oven drying and using a dehydrator. A dehydrator is probably the best choice. If you think you will be drying foods regularly, think about investing in an electric dehydrator.Good late-summer produce to dehydrate includes apples, mushrooms, grapes and hot and sweet peppers.I'm John Russell. And I'm Anne Ball.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201909/594959.shtml VOCABULARY1. microorganism n. 微生物 A micro-organism is a very small living thing which you can only see if you use a microscope.2. produce n. (不可数名词) things that have been made or grown, especially things connected with farming 产品;(尤指)农产品。例如:farm produce农产品3. freezer burn n. 冷冻食品表面干燥变硬,(冷)冻灼(伤)4. fig n. a soft sweet fruit that is full of small seeds and often eaten dried 无花果。例如:a fig tree无花果树5. okra n. (不可数名词) (ladies' fingers) the green seed cases of the okra plant, eaten as a vegetable 秋葵荚(可食用)6. salt brine卤水7. chutney n. (不可数名词) a cold thick sauce made from fruit, sugar, spices, and vinegar , eaten with cold meat, cheese, etc. 酸辣酱8. relish n. (不可数名词, 可数名词) a cold thick spicy sauce made from fruit and vegetables that have been boiled, that is served with meat, cheese, etc. 风味佐料(用水果和蔬菜煮后制成的冷稠酱汁)9. watermelon rinds西瓜皮10. bruise n. a mark on a fruit or vegetable where it is damaged(水果或蔬菜的)碰伤,伤痕11. dehydrator n. 脱水器; 除水器12. dehydrate v. to remove the water from sth., especially food, in order to preserve it 使(食物)脱水 QUESTIONSTASK IListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.(Q1) What’s the simplest way to save produce?(A) Freezing.(B) Canning.(C) Pickling(D) Drying.(Q2) Which method works best with naturally acidic foods like fruits?(A) Freezing.(B) Canning.(C) Pickling(D) Drying.(Q3) What’s probably the best choice of drying?(A) Air drying.(B) Oven drying.(C) Using a dehydrator.(D) Using a washing machine.TASK IIListen to the news and fill in the blanks.4 Common Ways to Preserve Food WAYS DETAILS1 Freezing  Freezing is the simplest way to save produce. It is important to freeze the produce (Q1) __________________________, and to do so in freeze-grade bags or other containers. Eugenia Bone has written books about food and nature. She notes that you should (Q2) _____________________ food before you freeze it. One problem to avoid is (Q3) __________________, which can affect the taste and feel of food. To prevent this, use plastic bags, wraps or containers designed for the freezer. Good late-summer produce to freeze includes green beans, (Q4) ______________, apples and plums.2 Canning  There are two main ways to can produce: boiling hot water baths and pressure canning. (Q5) ____________________________ involves putting food in glass canning jars and then heating the jars in a pot of boiling water. The heat forces air from the glass jars and frees the food from bacteria and microorganisms. You can then (Q6) _______________ the jars. This method works best with naturally acidic foods like fruits. (Q7) _________________ food requires a pressure canner. The pressure canner you use should be based on the kind of cooking equipment you have and the amount of food you plan to can. Whichever method you use, always test the seal that (Q8) ___________________________. Good late-summer fruits for water bath canning include apples, berries, (Q9) ________________________, figs and peaches. Good foods for pressure canning include (Q10) ____________________, corn, okra and bell peppers.3 Pickling  There are many methods of preserving food in (Q11) _______________, salt brine or a similar mixture. You can pickle whole vegetables, like green beans or okra. Another possibility is to make chutney or relishes. This is done by adding salt, pepper or other seasonings to small, cut pieces of vegetables. Good late-summer foods to pickle include (Q12) ____________________, hot chili peppers, watermelon rinds and eggplants.4 Drying  A final way to preserve food is by drying it. Whatever food you are drying should be just ready to eat and not have bruises. When drying, try to find specific directions for each food to ensure (Q13) ____________________________. Drying methods include air drying, oven drying and using a dehydrator. A (Q14) _______________________________ is probably the best choice. If you think you will be drying foods regularly, think about investing in an electric dehydrator. Good late-summer produce to dehydrate includes apples, (Q15) _______________, grapes and hot and sweet peppers. KEYTASK IListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.(Q1) A。(命题出处) You can preserve late-summer fruits and vegetables in four basic ways. These include freezing, canning, pickling and drying or dehydrating. Freezing is the simplest way to save produce.(Q2) B。(命题出处) There are two main ways to can produce: boiling hot water baths and pressure canning. A boiling water bath involves putting food in glass canning jars and then heating the jars in a pot of boiling water. The heat forces air from the glass jars and frees the food from bacteria and microorganisms. You can then seal the jars. This method works best with naturally acidic foods like fruits.(Q3) C。(命题出处) Drying methods include air drying, oven drying and using a dehydrator. A dehydrator is probably the best choice.TASK IIRead the table. Then listen to the news and complete the table.4 Common Ways to Preserve Food WAYS DETAILS1 Freezing  Freezing is the simplest way to save produce. It is important to freeze the produce (Q1) as quickly as possible, and to do so in freeze-grade bags or other containers. Eugenia Bone has written books about food and nature. She notes that you should (Q2) cool down food before you freeze it. One problem to avoid is (Q3) freezer burn, which can affect the taste and feel of food. To prevent this, use plastic bags, wraps or containers designed for the freezer. Good late-summer produce to freeze includes green beans, (Q4) cabbage, apples and plums.2 Canning  There are two main ways to can produce: boiling hot water baths and pressure canning. (Q5) A boiling water bath involves putting food in glass canning jars and then heating the jars in a pot of boiling water. The heat forces air from the glass jars and frees the food from bacteria and microorganisms. You can then (Q6) seal the jars. This method works best with naturally acidic foods like fruits. (Q7) Pressure canning food requires a pressure canner. The pressure canner you use should be based on the kind of cooking equipment you have and the amount of food you plan to can. Whichever method you use, always test the seal that (Q8) keeps out fresh air. Good late-summer fruits for water bath canning include apples, berries, (Q9) cherries, figs and peaches. Good foods for pressure canning include (Q10) carrots, corn, okra and bell peppers.3 Pickling  There are many methods of preserving food in (Q11) vinegar, salt brine or a similar mixture. You can pickle whole vegetables, like green beans or okra. Another possibility is to make chutney or relishes. This is done by adding salt, pepper or other seasonings to small, cut pieces of vegetables. Good late-summer foods to pickle include (Q12) cucumbers, hot chili peppers, watermelon rinds and eggplants.4 Drying  A final way to preserve food is by drying it. Whatever food you are drying should be just ready to eat and not have bruises. When drying, try to find specific directions for each food to ensure (Q13) quality and safety. Drying methods include air drying, oven drying and using a dehydrator. A (Q14) dehydrator is probably the best choice. If you think you will be drying foods regularly, think about investing in an electric dehydrator. Good late-summer produce to dehydrate includes apples, (Q15) mushrooms, grapes and hot and sweet peppers.

第九届教学大赛翻译专业组二等奖顿超授课

授课点评:顿超的授课有三个优点、三个不足。优点:第一,教学总体设计比较清晰,把整堂课的教学分为五个环节(2:00,其中第一步“Review”恐怕应该是“Preview”之误),实际讲授第二环节,提出两个明确的目标(6:02)。应该说,整堂课上得有条不紊。第二,她为教学中的评估环节设计了一个自我评估表(3:27),颇有创意。第三,采用了一些新理论、新方法,如用思维导图(Mind Map)等。讲课结束时引用朗费罗的诗句(18:53),也为课堂增添了气氛。不足:第一,授课时完全离开了原来提供的文本,全部换用了三段新材料。据她回答评委提问时的解释,是担心学生事先了解了内容以后,在课堂上无法评估学生是否掌握(21:00)。这是不对的。既违背了比赛要求,也不符合实际教学情况。因为给学生材料让其课前预习是教学的常态,不能指望靠上课时突然袭击来检测学生。第二,最大的问题是把口译课上成了听力课。整堂课下来,好像都在讲如何听辨,没有丝毫提到翻译和口译。其实这完全可在教学过程中体现,如选材时用英语和中文各一段,或者辨识时英文材料用中文记录、中文材料用英文记录等。第三,上课缺少互动,基本是教师一人在独白。包括两段听力材料的概括,也是让学生试说后,不加评议就匆匆给出自己的文本(11:26)。点评专家:潘文国教授

第九届教学大赛商务英语专业组二等奖罗睿授课

授课点评:总体表现评价:罗睿老师口语流利,对所讲授内容比较熟悉,能够较好地回答提问评委的提问;对整个单元有一个粗略的教学目标、教学内容和教学方法设计,并且在授课过程有所体现;有教学方法(team-based learning),并能将此方法落实在具体授课中。但是,将教学目标分business level, language level 和ability level来概述,显得比较空洞。比如,business level的目标是“assess the business background”,language level是听说读写和语法,这些都是比较宽泛不具体的教学目标。具体表现评价:课堂组织比较有条理,给出的指令比较清晰;如视频2:30-2:50,能清晰地引导学生看具体哪一页的文本,并且告诉学生具体的教学流程有四部分构成,这样处理能让学生对接下来的授课安排有个总体认识。在授课过程,能针对所布置的任务进行个别指导,如视频中6:30-8:54,在布置完每一组(包括教师自己)的阅读任务后,能够逐一指导并和学生确认阅读任务。在视频4:06-5:00中使用“面子”视频,有新意,但插入该视频的时间节点有点突兀,和前后的授课内容逻辑上有点不顺;此外,未能充分利用好该视频,仅从视频中总结出什么是“面子”,但未能抓住视频中男孩没有脱鞋这个细节进行拓展。建议:授课语速和节奏可以适当放慢一些,从容一些。教学方法中提到案例教学法,但没有充分利用好D& G这个案例。如果能将这个案例作为课后讨论作业,让学生分析这个案例,讨论“面子”的重要性,则效果会更佳,也能真正体现案例教学法的效果。点评专家:郭桂航教授

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厦门大学口译教学开放课堂

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特邀知名研究学者、核心期刊编委就外语学科实证类论文的研究设计、写作方法、学术规范、期刊投稿审读原则与程序等进行主题讲座和互动交流,旨在强化培养教师学术素养,提高科研及论文写作能力。主要内容有:1) 学术论文写作与发表综述(含国际发表);2)实证类论文各要素(摘要、引言、方法设计、数据报告、结果讨论等)的写作方法与修改策略;3)如何有效设计调查问卷;4)如何科学设计实验;5)国际期刊书评及综述论文写作策略;6)知识图谱软件VOSviewer软件使用及案例分析。

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