双十一过后,来看看国外的购物节吧

郭逸纯 供稿This year, Alibaba set a new sales record on Singles’ Day again. The annual shopping spree has indicated China’s robust domestic demand and booming market. Singles’ Day, which originated at a university in China in 1990s as a celebration specially for single people, has become a significant shopping holiday since Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba started an online promotion event on November 11, 2009. While Chinese consumers are celebrating this one-day carnival of consumption, people in other countries are also eagerly waiting for another exciting shopping day named Black Friday, the day after Thanksgiving.今年“双十一”淘宝销售额再创新高。这一年度购物狂欢展现出中国强劲的内需和蓬勃发展的消费市场。兴起于20世纪90年代的“双十一”本为“光棍节”,是几名中国大学生专为单身人士创造的节日。而在2009年,中国电商巨头阿里巴巴在当年11月11日发起了一场网上促销活动,从那以后,“双十一”便成为了重要的购物节。当中国消费者纷纷沉浸在购物狂欢中时,其他国家的人们也正满怀期待地准备迎接另一个激动人心的购物日——感恩节之后的“黑色星期五”。The term “Black Friday” was first used to refer to the day following Thanksgiving in 1950s, because many workers called in sick on the day after Thanksgiving, which is celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November, in order to have a four-day weekend. Then the term was linked with shopping when it was used by the police in Philadelphia to describe the horrible crowding and traffic congestion accompanying the start of the Christmas shopping season after Thanksgiving. It is also said that this day got its name because it enabled retailers to make huge profits, thus going from being "in the red" to being "in the black".“黑色星期五”始于20世纪50年代,用以指代感恩节后的周五,当时在感恩节(即每年十一月的第四个周四)之后,很多人会请一天病假,这样一来便可以连休四天。而这一天之所以与购物联系起来,是因为当时美国费城的警察用“黑色星期五”来形容感恩节过后圣诞购物季开启时那人潮涌动、交通拥堵的可怕场面。另外一种说法则是,这一天之所以用“黑色”命名,是因为商家们在这一天可以大赚一笔,从而扭亏为盈,账本由红转黑(商家记账时会用不同颜色的墨水,红色表示赤字即亏损,黑色表示盈利)。Now Black Friday is one of the busiest shopping days in the United States and some other countries. Many U.S. consumers look to Black Friday to make big purchases, like flat-screen TVs, laptops and household appliances, at a discount. Unlike China’s Singles’ Day which is born as an online shopping festival, Black Friday originally started at brick-and-mortar stores. Almost all retailers across the country offer enticing one-day-only sales and doorbuster deals on this day. Some retailers even extend their opening hours in order to win a competitive edge. These, however, have inevitably caused severe traffic jam and overcrowding in stores. What’s worse, frenzied crowds competing for discounted merchandise have even resulted in violence and injuries.“黑色星期五”如今已是美国和其他部分国家最为繁忙的购物日之一。许多美国消费者都等着在这一天购买一些打折的大件商品,如平板电视、笔记本电脑、家用电器等。“黑色星期五”与“双十一”的一个不同之处在于,“双十一”从一开始就是一个网上购物节,而“黑色星期五”则诞生于实体店。这一天,全国各地几乎所有商店都会推出诱人的打折促销计划和开门大抢购,而且活动仅此一天。有些商家还会延长营业时间,以赢得更大的竞争优势。但这些往往难以避免地导致交通严重拥堵,各个门店拥挤不堪。更糟糕的是,一些疯狂的消费者为了抢购打折商品,甚至做出暴力举动,出手伤人。Nowadays, as more and more people tend to prefer online shopping, Black Friday deals are offered both in-store and online. Besides, in order to encourage online spending, a shopping festival in cyberspace named Cyber Monday was created in 2005, allowing people to keep going on a spending spree on the Monday after Black Friday. You may wonder why it is Cyber Monday rather than Cyber Saturday or Sunday. It is said that because of the low Internet connections at home, people at that time preferred to use fast computers and high-speed connections at their offices when they went back to work on Monday.如今,随着越来越多的消费者更喜欢网上购物,黑色星期五的折扣人们在线上线下都能享受得到。除此之外,为了鼓励网上消费,“网络星期一”这一网上购物节于2005年应运而生。“黑色星期五”过后,人们又可以在下周一继续纵情消费了。也许你会好奇,为何是“网络星期一”而不是接下来的周六或周日呢?据说,这是因为那时候人们家里的网速较慢,大家往往更喜欢在周一回到单位上班后使用办公室里速度更快的电脑和网络。Besides Singles’ Day, Black Friday and Cyber Monday, there are other shopping holidays around the world. For example, in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and some other countries, Boxing Day, which is the day after Christmas, is also an important day for shoppers. It is common to see long queues form early in the morning of 26 December, hours before the opening of shops offering the big sales. Many retailers even started their sales before 26 December and keep running the promotions up to New Year's Eve.除了“双十一”、“黑色星期五”、“网络星期一”之外,世界各地还有各种各样的购物节。例如,在英国、加拿大、澳大利亚等国,圣诞节之后的节礼日也是一个重要的购物日。12月26日这天清晨,经常可以看到在很多打折促销的商店的门口,开门前几个小时就已经早早地排上了长队。不少商家还会在12月26日前就抢先开始打折活动,并一直持续促销到跨年夜。VOCABULARYspree n. 狂欢,毫无节制地做某事call in sick 打电话请病假flat-screen adj. 平板的brick-and-mortar stores 实体店enticing adj. 诱人的(entice v. 诱使)doorbuster deals 开门大抢购frenzied adj. 疯狂的,狂乱的

“影响者”的影响力

邓晶 供稿During the recent Singles’ Day shopping frenzy, Li Jiaqi has again proved his influences as an online celebrity, attracting millions of viewers to his live broadcast on the e-commerce platform Taobao. Dubbed “iron-lipped man”, this male beauty blogger in his 20s once tested over 300 types of lipstick on his lips in a seven-hour live video streaming. His effort and competence earned trust from his audience and makeup brands. It took him less than a year to increase his bank balance to over 10 million yuan.在不久前的“双十一”购物热潮中,网络红人李佳琦在电子商务平台淘宝上的直播吸引了几百万人观看,再次证明了自己的影响力。这位九零后男性美妆博主曾在一次七小时的直播中给300多只口红试色,由此被称为“铁唇哥”。他的敬业与能力赢得了许多观众与美妆品牌的信任,不到一年时间,他的收入已经超过千万人民币。The success of this online celebrity demonstrated the significant impact of a group of people: influencers. An influencer, in this specialized use, refers to a person with the ability to reach a huge audience and persuade others to act based on their recommendations. Not from the entertainment inidustries like traditional celebrities, an influencer may be anyone from a blogger to a celebrity to an an online entrepreneur.这位网络红人的成功显示出“影响者”这个群体不容小觑的影响力。“影响者”在此特指能够接触到大量受众,并且有能力说服他人采纳他们的建议行事的人。与出身于娱乐圈的传统名人不同,“影响者”的身份多样,可能是博主、名人或网络创业者。Most influencers make a living on social meidia. Based on their established credibility in a specific industry, influencers monetize their influences by sharing sponsored social media posts, becoming a brand ambassador and starting their own business.这些“影响者”中的大部分都在社交媒体上谋生。他们依靠自身在特定行业建立的信誉,通过发布广告贴、品牌代言或自主创业等方式将影响力变现。In fact, influencers have a long history in marketing. Initially, companies signed endorsement deals with compelling figures like TV stars and athletes to help sell their products through television and radio ads. The rise of social media has created a new class of celebrity and some of them have seized the opportunities to translate their massive followings into millions of yuan each year. However, if you take a look behind the scene of the wonderful influencer lifestyle, uncertain incomes, performative vulnerability and the hustle for sponsorship can take a toll. Some influencers have quit their social media platforms due to the rise in competition and psychological strain.事实上,“影响者”的营销由来已久。起初企业会请电视明星、运动员等大众信赖的名人来为产品代言,通过电视、广播等渠道进行广告宣传。而社交媒体的兴起创造出一类新的名人,他们当中一些人抓住机遇,将可观的粉丝数转化为每年上百万的收入。然而,他们光鲜的生活背后也不乏隐患,如收入不稳、表现不佳、缺乏赞助等都会给其带来负面影响。因为竞争加剧和心理压力,一些“影响者”最终选择离开社交媒体平台。“In the business world, influencer culture is already an established force,” according to Kevin Roose, a writer for The New York Times. As influenncer marketing moves forward, the key to success will still be a greater sense of trust and credibility between brands and consumers.《纽约时报》专栏作家凯文•罗斯称,“在商业世界,影响者文化已经成为公认的发展推动力”。随着“影响者”营销的进一步发展,成功的关键仍在于培养品牌与消费者之间更牢固的信任感和可信度。VOCABULARYdemonstrate v. 展示entrepreneur n. 创业者endorsement n. 广告宣传take a toll (on) 产生恶果

NASA宇航服焕新升级

郭逸纯 供稿After 50 years since humans first set foot on the Moon during the Apollo program, NASA is now working on the Artemis program which aims to land the first woman and the next man on the lunar surface by 2024. This program is named after another god of Greek mythology, Artemis, who is both the twin sister of Apollo and the goddess of the Moon.在人类首次登月50年后的今天,美国国家航空航天局(NASA)着手开启“阿尔忒弥斯计划”,预计在2024年前将首位女性登月宇航员和一位男性宇航员送上月球。这一计划以希腊神话中的女神阿尔忒弥斯命名,阿尔忒弥斯是阿波罗的孪生姐姐,也是一位月亮女神。To make full preparation for this long-awaited return to the Moon, NASA unveiled two new spacesuits in October. The next-generation spacesuits upgrading the classic ones worn by astronauts during the Apollo program in the 1960s and 1970s give astronauts more comfort and mobility on the Moon. Here are some highlights of the new spacesuits.为了给这次期待已久的重返月球计划做好充分准备,NASA在十月份公布了两款新型宇航服。新一代宇航服对20世纪六七十年代“阿波罗计划” 所使用的的经典款宇航服进行了升级,更加舒适、灵活。下面一起来看看本次公布的新款宇航服有哪些亮点吧!Improve Mobility灵活性提升During the Apollo program, astronauts had to bunny hop on the surface of the Moon and could easily stumble due to the limited mobility of their suits, which led to low efficiency and could cause unimaginable danger. The new suits with advanced materials and flexible bearings allow for a greater range of movement at the waist, arms and legs. Astronauts will be able to reach across their body, perform squats and even bend down to pick up a rock and then lift it overhead. Now humans are really going to be able to walk rather than jump on the surface of the Moon.由于宇航服设计不够灵活,“阿波罗计划”时代的宇航员不得不在月球表面以“兔子跳”的方式行进,很容易不慎跌倒,这不仅影响了他们的工作效率,还可能带来意想不到的危险。新款宇航服采用先进的材料和灵活的轴承,让宇航员的腰部、双臂和双腿都能做出更大幅度的动作,他们可以触摸到自己身体各个部位,还可以下蹲,甚至可以弯腰捡起一块石头,再将它举过头顶。如今,人类终于可以真正在月球上漫步,而不是蹦蹦跳跳了。Dust-tolerant design防尘设计On the Moon, astronauts have to contend with various environmental challenges. One of the biggest concerns is lunar dust. Engineers working for Moon landing missions worried that the powdery lunar dust wouldn't be stable enough to support the lunar lander or even astronauts walking on it. But after Apollo missions, they realized that there is a greater hazard which might be caused by the dust. The dust on the Moon composed of tiny glass-like shards can stick to surfaces of the spacesuits and even work its way into every nook and cranny. Once it infiltrates the suits’ life support systems, the astronauts’ health and safety can be seriously threatened. To keep the dust out, the new spacesuits are designed to have fewer seams and no zippers. Besides, the flexible parts of the suits are made from as many as 16 layers of advanced material which perform different functions including protecting astronauts from space dust.登月宇航员往往需要面对月球上各种各样的环境挑战,最令人担忧的问题之一就来自于月尘。登月计划的工程师曾担心月球表面粉末状的尘土难以支撑着陆器和出舱行走的宇航员。但“阿波罗计划”之后他们才意识到,除此之外,月尘还隐藏着更大威胁。月球表面的尘土包含极其细小的玻璃状碎屑,很容易附着到宇航服表面,甚至穿透宇航服的各个边边角角。一旦月尘侵入宇航服的生命支持系统,则将严重威胁宇航员的健康和安全。为达到防尘效果,新款宇航服减少缝合处,并避免采用拉链。另外,宇航服的可活动部分采用了多达16层的先进材料,每层材料发挥着不同作用,其中一大作用就是保护宇航员免受太空尘埃的威胁。Upgraded communications system通信系统升级Astronauts no longer have to wear the so-called “Snoopy caps” which are given the name because they look like the aviator cap worn by the cartoon character. These communications caps, though having a cute name, can become sweaty and uncomfortable and their microphones do not always track well with the astronauts’ movements. The upgraded communications system includes multiple, embedded, voice-activated microphones that automatically pick up the astronauts’ voices when they speak, enabling them to communicate more efficiently with other crew members and mission control.宇航员再也不用戴“史努比帽”了。曾经宇航员的通信帽外形酷似卡通形象史努比戴的飞行员头盔,因此被称为“史努比帽”。这种通信帽虽然名字颇为可爱,但很容易捂汗,舒适性较差,并且麦克风经常无法跟随宇航员的肢体运动收声。升级版的通信系统内置多个嵌入式声控麦克风,可以在宇航员讲话时自动捕捉他们的声音,让他们能够更加高效地与其他宇航员以及地面指挥中心保持联络。More sizes and better customization尺寸更丰富,实现定制化Earlier this year, NASA had to cancel the first all-female spacewalk because the agency didn’t have enough medium-sized suits to fit both of the women aboard the International Space Station. Now, the new suits are designed to give the wearer a customized fit whatever their size. Besides, each astronaut will have a full body, 3D scan while wearing the suit and performing basic motions and postures expected during spacewalks. That can help NASA match the astronaut to the best suit components to ensure that they are given the greatest comfort and the broadest range of motion.今年, NASA不得已取消了国际空间站首次全女性太空行走计划,部分原因就在于无法提供两套女性宇航员合身的中号宇航服。本次全新推出的新一代宇航服则可以为不同身材的宇航员量身定制。另外,每位宇航员还将身着宇航服接受一项全身3D扫描,在接受扫描的过程中,他们需要做出太空行走时可能会做的动作和姿势,这样一来,NASA便可以为每位宇航员定制最适合他们的宇航服组件,最大程度地确保他们身穿宇航服时感到舒适,并且能够做出更多动作。What do you think of NASA’s new spacesuits? Do you have any idea of other innovative features that can be added to the future-generation spacesuits?NASA的新一代宇航服怎么样?你认为未来的宇航服还可以增加哪些创新之处呢?VOCABULARYbearing n. 轴承contend with (a problem/difficulty)处理,应对shard n. 碎片every nook and cranny 每个角落infiltrate v. 渗入;潜入

练习 | VOA慢速:托福上线官方app

VOA慢速:托福上线官方app燕山大学刘立军编写uTRANSCRIPTStudents around the world wanting help with the TOEFL English test have a new tool: a mobile app. The “TOEFL official app” becameavailablelast week. Users can download it from the Apple App Store or Google Play.TOEFL stands for “Test of English as a Foreign Language.” Students must pass the test to get into many universities in the United States and other English-speaking countries. It is made up of four parts: reading, listening, writing and speaking.Test-takers will be able to use it for everything from registration and test preparation, to receiving their scores and requesting health-related accommodations.What we wanted to do through the app is to meet them where they are on their own terms and schedule, and on the devices they increasingly prefer to use, said Srikant Gopal. He leads the TOEFL program at the non-profit Educational Testing Service, or ETS, and recently spoke with VOA about the new app.After downloading the app, users can get material to help prepare them for the test. They can alsoregisterto take the test. And, the organization says, users can see their test scores and send reports to schools they wish to attend.Students also can search for the test centers near where they are, as well as find open seats for the test. This works through Google maps.TOEFL is offered in over 150 countries around the world. It is mostly internet-based. In places where internet connections are not strong, students take a paper version of the test.I'm Jonathan Evans.uVOCABULARY1.availableadj.(of things东西)that you can get, buy or find可获得的;可购得的;可找到的。例如:lavailable resources/facilities可利用的资源/设备lreadily/freely/publicly/generally available可以容易/免费/让公众/普遍得到lTickets are available free of charge from the school.学校有免费票。lWhen will the information be made available?何时才可以了解到情况?lFurther information is available on request.详情备索。lThis was the only room available.这是唯一可用的房间。lWe'll send you a copy as soon as it becomes available.一有货我们就会给你寄一本去。lEvery available doctor was called to the scene.所有能找到的医生都被召集到了现场。2.registerv. put name on list登记姓名uEXERCISESRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (ü) or false (û) statements.q1. The “TOEFL official app” became available last month.q2. Users can download the “TOEFL official app” from the Apple App Store or Google Play.q3. According to the news, students must pass the test to get into many universities in the United States and other English-speaking countries.q4. TOEFL is made up of four parts: reading, listening, writing and discussion.q5. Test-takers will be able to use the “TOEFL official app” for everything, such as registration, test preparation, receiving test scores and requesting health-related accommodations.q6. ETS is a non-profit organization in the USA and Canada.q7. After downloading the app, users can get material to help prepare them for the test and register to take the test. Besides, users can see their test scores and send reports to schools they wish to attend.q8. After downloading the app, students also can search for the test centers and find open seats for the test.q9. TOEFL is offered in over 115 countries around the world.q10. TOEFL is mostly internet-based. In places where internet connections are not strong, students take a paper test.uKEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (ü) or false (û) statements.ý1. The “TOEFL official app” became availablelast month. 正确表达:The “TOEFL official app” became availablelast week.þ2. Users can download the “TOEFL official app” from the Apple App Store or Google Play.þ3. According to the news, students must pass the test to get into many universities in the United States and other English-speaking countries.ý4. TOEFL is made up of four parts: reading, listening, writing anddiscussion. 正确表达:TOEFL is made up of four parts: reading, listening, writing andspeaking.þ5. Test-takers will be able to use the “TOEFL official app” for everything, such as registration, test preparation, receiving test scores and requesting health-related accommodations.ý6. ETS is a non-profit organizationin the USA and Canada. 正确表达:ETS is a non-profit organizationin the USA.þ7. After downloading the app, users can get material to help prepare them for the test and register to take the test. Besides, users can see their test scores and send reports to schools they wish to attend.þ8. After downloading the app, students also can search for the test centers and find open seats for the test.ý9. TOEFL is offered inover 115 countriesaround the world. 正确表达:TOEFL is offered inover 150 countriesaround the world.þ10. TOEFL is mostly internet-based. In places where internet connections are not strong, students take a paper test.

练习 | 科学美国人60秒:摇晃有助于改善成人睡眠

科学美国人60秒:摇晃有助于改善成人睡眠燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.Every new parent knows, or learns pretty quickly, that rocking can calm that a fussy baby when it's time to take a nap. But the benefits of gentle motion may extend past the swaddling stage. Because two new studies show that rocking also helps grown-ups, both human and mouse, get a good night's sleep. The two research efforts are in the journal Current Biology.What should be no surprise is that movement can be soothing. Think of how many times you've fallen asleep on a train. But can motion really induce a doze, and make for a deeper sleep? To find out, researchers invited 18 healthy volunteers for a sleepover."So they came to the lab and they slept one time on the stationary position, normal bed. And one night where they got rocked."Aurore Perrault, a sleep researcher at the University of Geneva in Switzerland."And what we find is actually compared to a stationary night, a whole night of rocking sleep has a beneficial impact. Not only on sleep initiation, which means they fall asleep faster, but also on sleep maintenance, as we saw that they have less micro-awakening during the night."Subjects who rocked also did better on a memory test the next morning than did the stiller sleepers.In the second study, Konstantinos Kompotis, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Lausanne, rocked a rack of rodents."Whether rocking affects sleep in species other than human was never before discussed. So the main questions for our study were does rocking affect sleep in mice and what is the underlying mechanism?"Kompotis placed the mouse cages on a platform that moved from side to side. And though mice were rocked four times faster than their human counterparts - a frequency of one back-and-forth per second, or 1 Hertz, worked best - the results were strikingly similar."During rocking at 1 Hertz, time spent asleep increased, there were more transitions from wakefulness to non-REM sleep, and mice fell asleep twice as fast than at stationary condition."The effect required an ability to detect motion. Mice with a defective vestibular system, which is key to maintaining balance, did not become lulled by the sleep-inducing platform.Additional studies could allow the researchers to identify a new target for treating sleep disorders, including insomnia. Until then, you might think about adding a little swing to your nighttime routine.Thanks for listening for Scientific American 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.VOCABULARY1. fussy adj. doing sth. with small, quick, nervous movements 紧张不安的。例如:a fussy manner局促不安的举止2. swaddle v.(动词+名词短语)(old-fashioned) to wrap sb. / sth., especially a baby, tightly in clothes or a piece of cloth (用衣服或布)紧裹,包裹(尤指婴儿)3. soothe v. to make a tense or painful part of your body feel more comfortable 减轻,缓解,缓和(身体某部位的紧张或疼痛)。(同义词)relieve 例如: This should soothe the pain. 这个应该能缓解疼痛。 Take a warm bath to soothe tense, tired muscles. 洗个热水澡,让紧张疲劳的肌肉放松一下。4. sleepover n. a party for children or young people when a group of them spend the night at one house (儿童或年轻人在某人家玩乐并过夜的)聚会5. lull v.(动词+名词短语)to make sb. relaxed and calm 使放松;使镇静 [同义词] soothe 例如:The vibration of the engine lulled the children to sleep. 发动机的颤动使得孩子们睡着了。6. insomnia n.(不可数名词)the condition of being unable to sleep 失眠(症)。例如:to suffer from insomnia 失眠EXERCISESRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.Every new parent knows, or learns pretty quickly, that rocking can calm [Q1] ____________________________ when it's time to take a nap. But the benefits of gentle motion may extend past the swaddling stage. Because two new studies show that rocking also helps grown-ups, [Q2] _________________________________, get a good night's sleep. The two research efforts are in the journal Current Biology.What should be no surprise is that movement can be soothing. Think of how many times you've fallen asleep on a train. But can motion really [Q3] _________________, and make for a deeper sleep? To find out, researchers invited 18 healthy volunteers for a sleepover."So they came to the lab and they slept one time on the stationary position, normal bed. And one night where they got rocked."Aurore Perrault, a sleep researcher at the University of Geneva in Switzerland."And what we find is actually compared to a stationary night, a whole night of rocking sleep has a beneficial impact. Not only on sleep initiation, which means they fall asleep faster, but also on [Q4] ______________________________, as we saw that they have less micro-awakening during the night."Subjects who rocked also did better on a [Q5] _______________ the next morning than did the stiller sleepers.In the second study, Konstantinos Kompotis, a [Q6] _______________________ at the University of Lausanne, rocked a rack of rodents."Whether rocking affects sleep in species other than human was never before discussed. So the main questions for our study were [Q7] __________________________________________ and what is the underlying mechanism?"Kompotis placed the mouse cages on a platform that moved from side to side. And though mice were rocked four times faster than their human counterparts - a frequency of one back-and-forth per second, or 1 Hertz, worked best - the results were [Q8] _______________."During rocking at 1 Hertz, time spent asleep increased, there were more transitions from wakefulness to non-REM sleep, and mice fell asleep twice as fast than at stationary condition."The effect required an ability to detect motion. Mice with a defective vestibular system, which is key to maintaining balance, did not become lulled by the sleep-inducing platform.Additional studies could allow the researchers to identify a new target for treating [Q9] _____________________________, including insomnia. Until then, you might think about adding [Q10] _________________________ to your nighttime routine.Thanks for listening for Scientific American 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.Every new parent knows, or learns pretty quickly, that rocking can [Q1] calm a fussy baby when it's time to take a nap. But the benefits of gentle motion may extend past the swaddling stage. Because two new studies show that rocking also helps grown-ups, [Q2] both human and mouse, get a good night's sleep. The two research efforts are in the journal Current Biology.What should be no surprise is that movement can be soothing. Think of how many times you've fallen asleep on a train. But can motion really [Q3] induce a doze, and make for a deeper sleep? To find out, researchers invited 18 healthy volunteers for a sleepover."So they came to the lab and they slept one time on the stationary position, normal bed. And one night where they got rocked."Aurore Perrault, a sleep researcher at the University of Geneva in Switzerland."And what we find is actually compared to a stationary night, a whole night of rocking sleep has a beneficial impact. Not only on sleep initiation, which means they fall asleep faster, but also on [Q4] sleep maintenance, as we saw that they have less micro-awakening during the night."Subjects who rocked also did better on a [Q5] memory test the next morning than did the stiller sleepers.In the second study, Konstantinos Kompotis, a [Q6] postdoctoral fellow at the University of Lausanne, rocked a rack of rodents."Whether rocking affects sleep in species other than human was never before discussed. So the main questions for our study were [Q7] does rocking affect sleep in mice and what is the underlying mechanism?"Kompotis placed the mouse cages on a platform that moved from side to side. And though mice were rocked four times faster than their human counterparts - a frequency of one back-and-forth per second, or 1 Hertz, worked best - the results were [Q8] strikingly similar."During rocking at 1 Hertz, time spent asleep increased, there were more transitions from wakefulness to non-REM sleep, and mice fell asleep twice as fast than at stationary condition."The effect required an ability to detect motion. Mice with a defective vestibular system, which is key to maintaining balance, did not become lulled by the sleep-inducing platform.Additional studies could allow the researchers to identify a new target for treating [Q9] sleep disorders, including insomnia. Until then, you might think about adding [Q10] a little swing to your nighttime routine.Thanks for listening for Scientific American 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

练习 | BBC新闻:英国将提前举行大选

BBC新闻:英国将提前举行大选燕山大学刘立军编写uTRANSCRIPTBBC News. Hello, I'm Jerry Smit. Britain's main opposition party Labor, says it will now support an early general election, meaning the UK is almost certain to go to the polls in December. It comes as the Prime Minister Boris Johnsongears upfor his fourth attempt in parliament to secure asnapelection. The Labor leader Jeremy Corbyn told his colleagues that with Brexit delayed until the end of January, the immediate threat of leaving without a deal had been removed.“We always said we wanted an election. We do want an election, but we wanted no-deal to be taken off the table. We've now had confirmation from all 28 EU member states that no-deal is off the table. So we'regonnago out there with the biggest campaign this Party has ever mounted, totally united, totally determined.”With this analysis, here is our political correspondent Rob Watson.“This is one of those genuine, real, historic landmark developments in thethree-and-a-half-year political crisis, that is the Brexit process,because this means definitively we are gonna have an early general election before Christmas. What's changed for the opposition Labor Party is this idea that it's just impossible any longer to resist an election that some of the smaller opposition parties have gone along with it and that what they had asked for which was to make sure that wasn't gonna be aneminentno-deal Brexit. Well, that has been handled by the European Union, saying Okay, we're gonna extend the Brexit process until the end of January.Adapted fromhttp://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201910/598299.shtmluVOCABULARY1.gear up:gear up (for/to sth.) | gear sb./sth.↔up (for/to sth.)to prepare yourself /sb. /sth. to do sth.(使)为……作好准备。例如:Cycle organizations are gearing up for National Bike Week.自行车组织正在为全国自行车周活动作准备。2.snapadj.(只用于名词前)made or done quickly and without careful thought or preparation匆忙的;仓促的。例如:lIt was a snap decision.那是个仓促的决定。lThey held a snap election.他们临时举行了选举。3.gonna:(informal, non-standard) a way of saying or writing“going to”in informal speech, when it refers to the future即将,将要(非正式用语,即going to)。例如:What's she gonna do now? 她现在要干什么?4.eminentadj.(常用于名词前) l(of people人)famous and respected, especially in a particular profession(尤指在某专业中)卓越的,著名的,显赫的。例如:an eminent architect著名的建筑师l(of good qualities良好品质) unusual; excellent非凡的;杰出的。例如:a man of eminent good sense极其明智的人uEXERCISESRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.BBC News. Hello, I'm Jerry Smit. Britain's main opposition party Labor, says it will now support[Q1] ________________________________,meaning the UK is almost certain to go to the polls in December. It comes as the Prime Minister Boris Johnson[Q2] ____________for his fourth attempt in parliament to secure[Q3] ___________________________.The Labor leader Jeremy Corbyn told his colleagues that with Brexit delayed until the end of January, the immediate threat of[Q4] _______________________________________had been removed.“We always said we wanted an election. We do want an election, but we wanted no-deal to be taken off the table. We've now had[Q5] __________________________from all 28 EU member states that no-deal is off the table. So we're gonna go out there with the biggest campaign this Party has ever mounted, totally united, totally determined.”With this analysis, here is our political correspondent Rob Watson.“This is one of those genuine, real, historic[Q6] ___________________________________in thethree-and-a-half year[Q7] ___________________________,that is the Brexit process because this means definitively we are gonna have an early general election before Christmas. What's changed for the opposition Labor Party is this idea that it's just impossible any longer to[Q8] ______________________that some of the smaller opposition parties have gone along with it and that what they had asked for which was to make sure that wasn't gonna be an[Q9] __________________no-deal Brexit. Well, that has been handled by the European Union, saying Okay, we're gonna[Q10] _________________the Brexit process until the end of January.”uKEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.BBC News. Hello, I'm Jerry Smit. Britain's main opposition party Labor, says it will now support[Q1]an early general election, meaning the UK is almost certain to go to the polls in December. It comes as the Prime Minister Boris Johnson[Q2]gears upfor his fourth attempt in parliament to secure[Q3]a snap election. The Labor leader Jeremy Corbyn told his colleagues that with Brexit delayed until the end of January, the immediate threat of[Q4]leaving without a dealhad been removed.“We always said we wanted an election. We do want an election, but we wanted no-deal to be taken off the table. We've now had[Q5]confirmationfrom all 28 EU member states that no-deal is off the table. So we're gonna go out there with the biggest campaign this Party has ever mounted, totally united, totally determined.”With this analysis, here is our political correspondent Rob Watson.“This is one of those genuine, real, historic[Q6]landmark developmentsin thethree-and-a-half year[Q7]political crisis, that is the Brexit process because this means definitively we are gonna have an early general election before Christmas. What's changed for the opposition Labor Party is this idea that it's just impossible any longer to[Q8]resist an electionthat some of the smaller opposition parties have gone along with it and that what they had asked for which was to make sure that wasn't gonna be an[Q9]eminentno-deal Brexit. Well, that has been handled by the European Union, saying Okay, we're gonna[Q10]extendthe Brexit process until the end of January.”

第九届教学大赛翻译专业组二等奖顿超授课

授课点评:顿超的授课有三个优点、三个不足。优点:第一,教学总体设计比较清晰,把整堂课的教学分为五个环节(2:00,其中第一步“Review”恐怕应该是“Preview”之误),实际讲授第二环节,提出两个明确的目标(6:02)。应该说,整堂课上得有条不紊。第二,她为教学中的评估环节设计了一个自我评估表(3:27),颇有创意。第三,采用了一些新理论、新方法,如用思维导图(Mind Map)等。讲课结束时引用朗费罗的诗句(18:53),也为课堂增添了气氛。不足:第一,授课时完全离开了原来提供的文本,全部换用了三段新材料。据她回答评委提问时的解释,是担心学生事先了解了内容以后,在课堂上无法评估学生是否掌握(21:00)。这是不对的。既违背了比赛要求,也不符合实际教学情况。因为给学生材料让其课前预习是教学的常态,不能指望靠上课时突然袭击来检测学生。第二,最大的问题是把口译课上成了听力课。整堂课下来,好像都在讲如何听辨,没有丝毫提到翻译和口译。其实这完全可在教学过程中体现,如选材时用英语和中文各一段,或者辨识时英文材料用中文记录、中文材料用英文记录等。第三,上课缺少互动,基本是教师一人在独白。包括两段听力材料的概括,也是让学生试说后,不加评议就匆匆给出自己的文本(11:26)。点评专家:潘文国教授

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大英综合课教学设计工作坊2.0

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跨文化外语教学与跨文化交际能力的培养:案例教学法

根据《大学英语教学指南》与英语专业《教学标准》中的要求,结合“跨文化大赛”选手的表现,探讨跨文化视角下外语教学与大学生跨文化交际能力的培养。本期研修班特邀上海外国语大学张红玲教授团队、昆山杜克大学Don Snow教授、华东师范大学窦卫霖教授、华东理工大学颜静兰教授等专家学者,重点结合理论研究与教学实践,采用案例分析与展示的方法,探讨在高校外语课程中进行跨文化教育、设置跨文化模块课程、跨文化课程的教学设计与执行能力、跨文化交际能力培养的途径与方法等主题。

大学英语教师专业发展:教学设计能力与测评素养提升

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