怪兽和鳗鱼饭

The creatures behind repeated sightings of the fabled Loch Ness Monster may be giant eels, according to scientists from New Zealand. They have tried to catalogue all living species in the loch by extracting DNA from water samples.传说中的“尼斯湖水怪”有了新的“研究进展”。来自新西兰的科学家们发现,历史上被多次“观测”到的尼斯湖水怪有可能只是大个头的鳗鱼。他们主要的研究手段,就是从湖水中提取生物的DNA样本并进行分类,从而推测出“水怪”的可能生物。Following analysis, the scientists have ruled out the presence of large animals said to be behind reports of a monster. No evidence of a prehistoric marine reptile called a plesiosaur or a large fish such as a sturgeon were found.在进行分析以后,科学家们排除了存在“怪兽”般大小的动物的可能性。重要的是,之前甚嚣尘上的“史前动物”学说也没有得到证据支撑,在湖中并没有发现与蛇颈龙和鲟鱼有关的环境DNA。There is a very significant amount of eel DNA. Eels are very plentiful in Loch Ness, with eel DNA found at pretty much every location sampled - there are a lot of them. So - are they giant eels?研究显示尼斯湖中存在着大量的鳗鱼DNA片段,而这里的确栖息着不少鳗鱼,在几乎所有采样点中都能发现其DNA踪迹。那么,所谓的水怪,会不会是巨型鳗鱼呢?The research does not reveal their size, but the sheer quantity of the material indicates that we can't discount the possibility that there may be giant eels in Loch Ness. Therefore the possibility that what people see and believe is the Loch Ness Monster might be a giant eel could not be discounted, either.这项研究并没有揭示与鳗鱼“体型”有关的信息,但是仅从当前收集到的样本数量来看,我们的确不能排除尼斯湖中存在巨型鳗鱼的可能性。在这种前提下,人们过去所坚信的“水怪”,实际是某种大型鳗鱼的可能性,同样也不能得到排除。That process of elimination sounds not so convincing, right? You should know there was a scandal…此般“排除法”是不是听上去不够让人信服?你要知道“尼斯湖水怪”本就不大可信,甚至还经历了“造假丑闻”……The Loch Ness Monster is one of Scotland's oldest and most enduring myths. It inspires books, TV shows and films, and sustains a major tourism industry around its home.“尼斯湖水怪”堪称苏格兰最古老、最经典的传说。著述它的书籍不计其数,更有大量电视剧和电影围绕它进行创作,在尼斯湖附近,甚至还发展起了与它相关的旅游产业。The story of the monster can be traced back 1,500 years when Irish missionary St. Columba is said to have encountered a beast in the Loch Ness in 565 AD.有关尼斯湖水怪的传闻最早可以追溯到一千五百多年前。爱尔兰的传教士圣哥伦巴据说在公元565年,亲眼目睹了尼斯湖中的“怪兽”。Centuries later, in the 1930s, The Inverness Courier reported the first modern sighting of Nessie. In 1933, the newspaper's correspondent, Alec Campbell, reported a sighting by Aldie Mackay of what she believed to be Nessie. Campbell's report described a whale-like creature and the loch's water "cascading and churning". The editor at the time, Evan Barron, suggested the beast be described as a "monster", kick starting the modern myth of the Loch Ness Monster.几个世纪后的20世纪30年代,苏格兰的《因弗内斯信使报》报道了现代第一例所谓的“尼斯湖水怪”。1933年,该报纸的记者阿莱克·坎贝尔报道了一名叫做艾尔迪·麦凯的女子目睹了“尼斯湖水怪”。坎贝尔记述了一头像鲸鱼般的生物在湖中涌现,湖水如“瀑布般泻下,水面剧烈翻滚”。时任该报编辑的埃文·巴伦建议将这种未知生物称作“水怪”,这也是“尼斯湖水怪”这一称呼在现代社会中广为流传的开端。In 1934, highly respected British surgeon, Colonel Robert Wilson, claimed he took a photograph of the monster while driving along the northern shore of Loch Ness. Known as the "Surgeon's Photograph", 60 years later it was confirmed as fake photo. The "monster" caught on camera was apparently a toy submarine bought from Woolworths, with a head fashioned from wood putty.1934年,当时德高望重的外科医生——罗伯特·威尔逊上校宣称,他在尼斯湖北岸驾车的时候,成功拍摄到了水怪的照片。这张随后流传甚广的水怪照片在六十年后被证明是伪造的,照片上的“怪物”是通过精心摆拍得来——水下游动的“身体”是从伍尔沃斯商店买来的玩具潜水艇,而露出水面的“头部”则是粘上去的一块油灰。VOCABULARYUnadon: n. (日语)鳗鱼饭,鰻丼loch: n. (苏格兰英语)湖eel: n. 鳗鱼putty: n. 油灰

贺信的写作

“时维九月,序属三秋,喜闻贵校20xx年高考硕果累累。在刚刚落下帷幕的全日制本科招生工作中,贵校有xx名优秀学子成功考取我校,这是我校的宝贵财富。在此,祝贺贵校在育人方面再结硕果,也祝愿学子们在新的校园内开启人生新的篇章……”高考落幕,金秋已至,便到了各所中学收获高校贺信的“幸福时刻”了。学校自豪地将贺信张贴在校园的醒目位置,不仅对外彰显取得的丰硕成果,也是对在读学生们一种无形的激励。如此看来,贺信貌似与普通人关系不大——通常只有官方才发布“贺信”,与我们又有何干?其实不然,贺信在日常工作中的应用十分广泛。踏足工作岗位之后,不少人都会发现贺信可用来祝贺重大会议的成功召开、个人在工作上的突出成就、某个工程项目的顺利实施等等。很多领导都相当重视下属的公文书信写作能力,贺信便是其中不可或缺的一部分。掌握贺信写作的基本要领,对于刚刚步入职场的新人们来说,是大有裨益的。另一方面,我们也不难想到,贺信与其它应用文相比,在内容上和形式上都有着诸多的不同。内容上,除了要把祝贺的事件讲清楚,还需要讲得振奋人心,让人感受到“贺”的氛围;形式上,用于张贴的贺信,常常要制作成海报的形式,辅以精美的编排,使人眼前一亮,印象深刻。由此看来,写好一“张”贺信,需要学习的地方其实还不少。今天我们的微课,就将聚焦这一独特的应用文体,敬请观看Letter of Congratulations。

比较结构之辨析

在英语中,仅仅用两个字母组成的单词便能有极其复杂的用法,比如of、it、at、on、be,还比如说我们今天要讲的——as。虽然是个“小不点”,但它足够“精灵古怪,变化多端”,介词连词副词样样都能当,用法有很多讲究——扫一眼字典就知道——那是洋洋洒洒几十行都讲不完的复杂。要说“as”最有意思的用法,或许就属作副词时用的“as…as”结构了。你会想到“as old as”是“与……年纪一样大”;“as well as”有“和、以及”之意;“as long as”除了本意“与……一样长”之外,还有着“只要……就……”的引申义……归根到底,“as…as”结构是比较结构(comparative structures)中的典型代表之一。与中文中“什么比什么高/低/长/短”的道理不同,英文中的比较结构明显复杂得多,就以“as”为例,除了基本用法“as…as”,还有其否定形式“not so/as…as”、“as much/many…as”、“as+adj.原级+名词词组+as分句”等等变体。再者,与“as…as”结构较为相似,常常在作文和翻译中“大放异彩”的比较结构还有“the more…, the more…”结构,意为“越……就越……”,其中比较级标志“more”还需要根据形容词本身是否具有比较级形式进行灵活变化。可见,这“比较结构”比我们想象的要复杂不少,想要真正掌握好它的用法,仍需要投入不少的精力。今天,我们的微课就将聚焦比较结构,进行一次完整的梳理,辨明用法,融会贯通——敬请收看“Comparative Structures”。

练习 | VOA常速:美国一大学生因压力过大酗酒身亡

VOA常速:美国一大学生因压力过大酗酒身亡燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTMary Ciammetti lost her college-age son 20-year-old Christian Ciammetti from alcohol poisoning in 2015. "My son died in the hospital when we found out that he had been binge drinking and he died from alcohol poisoning, from the effects of alcohol poisoning. I was home from work and then I was literally grieving and laying on a couch and I couldn’t do anything." Each year in the U.S. more than 1,800 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related injuries including motor vehicle crashes, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports. Despite the potential risks taking the edge off stress is why some students say they drink.Definitely for students at least nowadays a lot of it is stress, students like to work hard, play hard mentality. And they after a long week of classes and overachieving, they want to head to the bar, head to the club, head to their friends house and drink. But experts disagree that drinking relieves stress. So there is a misperception a lot of students will say that they drink to relieve stress. But in fact the studies and literature show that when students are drinking it actually increases stress in their lives.Mitchell urges for stricter alcohol policies at colleges. We encourage colleges to adopt policies that reduce the access to alcohol that send the message to students that alcohol and excessive alcohol use are not a normal part of your college experience. Ciammetti who now runs a non-profit to educate young people about the harms of binge drinking admits that as a parent she should have been more vigilant of her son’s activities. "What I do believe is that as a parent now when if anybody asks me I say go into their rooms, go into their college dorms and go see what is there. Now looking back I would do anything I could to get Christian back. And it’s too late. But not too late for other parents to prevent the same thing that happened to Christian from happening to their child."Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201909/594257.shtml VOCABULARY1. binge n. (informal) a short period of time when sb. does too much of a particular activity, especially eating or drinking alcohol (短时间的)狂热行动,大吃大喝。例如: to go on a bing 饮酒作乐 One of the symptoms is binge eating. 症状之一是饮食无度。2. literally adv. (informal) used to emphasize a word or phrase, even if it is not literally true (加强即使字面意义并不真实的词语)简直。例如:I literally jumped out of my skin. 我简直给吓了一大跳。3. mentality n. the particular attitude or way of thinking of a person or group 心态;思想状况;思想方法。例如:I cannot understand the mentality of football hooligans. 我无法理解足球流氓的心态。4. misperception n. 错误知觉5. vigilant adj. (formal) very careful to notice any signs of danger or trouble 警觉的;警惕的;警戒的;谨慎。(同义词) alert, watchful 例如:A pilot must remain vigilant at all times. 飞行员必须随时保持警惕。 QUESTIONSTASK IListen to the news and answer the following questions.(Q1) How many college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related injuries in America?(Q2) Mitchell urges for stricter alcohol policies at colleges. What is the “stricter alcohol policies”?TASK IIRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (☑) or false (☒) statements. 1. Each year in the U.S., more than 1,800 male college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related injuries. 2. Experts disagree that drinking relieves stress. 3. Studies and literature show that when students are drinking, it actually increases stress in their lives. 4. Ciammetti urges for stricter alcohol policies at colleges. 5. Mitchell now runs a non-profit to educate young people about the harms of binge drinking. KEYTASK IListen to the news and answer the following questions.(Q1) More than 1,800 (命题出处) Each year in the U.S. more than 1,800 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related injuries including motor vehicle crashes, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports.(Q2) We encourage colleges to adopt policies that reduce the access to alcohol that send the message to students that alcohol and excessive alcohol use are not a normal part of your college experience.(命题出处) Mitchell urges for stricter alcohol policies at colleges. We encourage colleges to adopt policies that reduce the access to alcohol that send the message to students that alcohol and excessive alcohol use are not a normal part of your college experience.TASK IIRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (☑) or false (☒) statements.☒ 1. Each year in the U.S., more than 1,800 male college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related injuries. (正确表达) Each year in the U.S., more than 1,800 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related injuries.☑ 2. Experts disagree that drinking relieves stress.☑ 3. Studies and literature show that when students are drinking, it actually increases stress in their lives.☒ 4. Ciammetti urges for stricter alcohol policies at colleges. (正确表达) Mitchell urges for stricter alcohol policies at colleges.☒ 5. Mitchell now runs a non-profit to educate young people about the harms of binge drinking. (正确表达) Ciammetti now runs a non-profit to educate young people about the harms of binge drinking.

练习 | VOA慢速:大学院校排名有啥用

VOA慢速:大学院校排名有啥用燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTLists that rate colleges and universities are very popular among parents and students in the United States. But are published lists the best way to choose the right school?The best known ranking is probably by the magazine U.S. News & World Report. On top of the magazine's list this year are schools known around the world. They include Princeton University in New Jersey, Harvard University in Massachusetts, Columbia University in New York City, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston, The University of Chicago and Yale University in Connecticut.U.S. News & World Report published its first "America's Best Colleges" report in 1983. Since then, some educators have questioned the published rankings and how useful they are.A number of magazines publish lists of college rankings once every year. High school students use the lists as reference guides when considering where to continue their education. There are plenty of schools to choose from. Across the country, more than 4,000 colleges and universities offer undergraduate degree programs.Last month, Forbes published its college ratings for 2019. It listed 650 schools. That represents only about 15 percent of all U.S. institutions of higher learning.The magazine's top five are a little different from those of U.S. News & World Report. They are: Harvard University, Stanford University in California, Yale University, MIT and Princeton University.Like other lists, Forbes considers things like student satisfaction, how successful college graduates are and how much money they make. The magazine adds another important piece of information: how much debt students will owe after they graduate.We spoke with education experts and people whose job is to help high school students choose the right college. All of them said students and parents should look at more than just rankings because they do not tell the whole story about a school.Ray Anderson of Virginia is a former high school principal. He now works with a service called AGM-College Advisors. It provides guidance on higher education to students and their families.Anderson says what is most important to him is knowing what the student wants, likes and is capable of doing."The focus is on who you are, and then what schools match you," Anderson said, "not matching you to the school."Anderson told VOA the published rankings can help because they have valuable information about the schools.Jeffrey Stahl agrees that rankings have limited value. In his job as a counselor at Yorktown High School in Virginia, he talks with students about colleges.Stahl says choosing a college is a very personal decision. He said that the rankings "can be helpful," but some students place too much attention on the name of a school and its position in rankings."So much about the campus environment, students, professors, cannot be shown just by ranking," Stahl said. He suggests that families use the ranking information as a starting point. Then, they should widen their search, make their own list, and go see the colleges for themselves.But David Hawkins is critical of the college rankings. He is with the National Association for College Admission Counseling. He told VOA that rankings "are not mathematically proven to measure the quality of any single college, much less to provide comparisons between colleges."Hawkins said lower ranked schools may have difficulty getting students interested in their programs."As such," he said, "the rankings have been known to create ethical problems, as institutions misreport data or otherwise seek to manipulate their ranking." Like the other experts we spoke with, he said students must look past those ratings to a gain a more factual opinion about the schools for themselves.In July, U.S. News & World Report "de-ranked" five institutions from its list for misreporting information. Because of this, the magazine said, their ranking number was "higher than they otherwise would have been." The five included the well-known University of California at Berkeley.Hawkins noted that people overseas might think the rankings come from the U.S. government. That is not true, he notes. "We try to emphasize that these are commercial publications, rather than 'official' rankings of any sort."Richard DeMillo heads the Center for 21st Century Universities at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He also is a professor at Georgia Tech - a school that moved up 13 positions on Forbes' latest list.DeMillo says, while the higher rank is "nice, it does not matter." He believes that Forbes, U.S. News & World Report and other publications are providing a service, "if you ignore the ranking part of it."For example, he finds the information about all the study programs to be useful. The ratings sometimes list lesser-known schools that might be strong in a field of study that a student is interested in.All the experts VOA spoke with had similar advice for students looking for the right college. Go visit the school, talk to the admissions officers and talk with current students."There are so many hidden gems out there!" Jeffrey Stahl said. "Just because a college doesn't make the "list" doesn't mean it doesn't have great programs and resources!"I'm Anne Ball. And I'm Dorothy Gundy.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201909/594968.shtml VOCABULARY1. counselor n. 顾问2. even / much / still less: and certainly not 更不用说;更何况。例如:No explanation was offered, still less an apology. 连个解释都不给,就更不用说道歉了。3. ethical adj. connected with beliefs and principles about what is right and wrong (有关)道德的;伦理的。例如: ethical issues/standards/questions有关道德的问题;道德标准 / 问题 the ethical problems of human embryo research人类胚胎研究的伦理问题4. manipulate v. manipulate (sb. into sth./into doing sth.) (disapproving) to control or influence sb./sth., often in a dishonest way so that they do not realize it (暗中)控制,操纵,影响。例如: She uses her charm to manipulate people. 她利用自身的魅力来摆布别人。 As a politician, he knows how to manipulate public opinion. 身为一位政客,他知道如何左右公众舆论。 They managed to manipulate us into agreeing to help. 他们设法促使我们答应了提供帮助。5. gem n. ( also less frequent gemstone) a precious stone that has been cut and polished and is used in jewellery(经切割打磨的)宝石。例如:a crown studded with gems镶有宝石的皇冠 QUESTIONSRead the following statements and decide whether they are true or false. 1. Lists that rate colleges and universities are very popular among universities in the United States. 2. The best known ranking is probably by the magazine U.S. News & World Report. 3. A number of magazines publish lists of college rankings once every year. 4. Forbes magazine adds another important piece of information: how much debt students will owe after they graduate. 5. Students and parents should look at more than just rankings because they do not tell the whole story about a school. 6. Stahl told VOA the published rankings can help because they have valuable information about the schools. 7. Anderson says choosing a college is a very personal decision and suggests that families use the ranking information as a starting point. 8. Hawkins said lower ranked schools may have difficulty getting students interested in their programs. 9. Hawkins noted that people in the U.S. might think the rankings come from the U.S. government. 10. All the experts VOA spoke with had similar advice for students looking for the right college. Go visit the school, talk to the admissions officers and talk with current students. KEYRead the following statements and decide whether they are true or false.(F) 1. Lists that rate colleges and universities are very popular among universities in the United States. (正确表达) Lists that rate colleges and universities are very popular among parents and students in the United States.(T) 2. The best known ranking is probably by the magazine U.S. News & World Report.(T) 3. A number of magazines publish lists of college rankings once every year.(T) 4. Forbes magazine adds another important piece of information: how much debt students will owe after they graduate.(T) 5. Students and parents should look at more than just rankings because they do not tell the whole story about a school.(F) 6. Stahl told VOA the published rankings can help because they have valuable information about the schools. (正确表达) Anderson told VOA the published rankings can help because they have valuable information about the schools.(F) 7. Anderson says choosing a college is a very personal decision and suggests that families use the ranking information as a starting point. (正确表达) Stahl says choosing a college is a very personal decision and suggests that families use the ranking information as a starting point.(T) 8. Hawkins said lower ranked schools may have difficulty getting students interested in their programs.(F) 9. Hawkins noted that people in the U.S. might think the rankings come from the U.S. government. (正确表达) Hawkins noted that people overseas might think the rankings come from the U.S. government.(T) 10. All the experts VOA spoke with had similar advice for students looking for the right college. Go visit the school, talk to the admissions officers and talk with current students.

练习 | VOA慢速:4种保存食物的方法

VOA慢速:4种保存食物的方法燕山大学 刘立军 编写 TRANSCRIPTWhen you preserve food, you are taking action to stop it from breaking down, as it does naturally. You are killing or preventing the growth of microorganisms.Today, we will explore how you can preserve some of the fresh produce you buy or grow. By following a few easy steps, you can still eat those tasty fruits and vegetables when they are out of season.You can preserve late-summer fruits and vegetables in four basic ways. These include freezing, canning, pickling and drying or dehydrating. FreezingFreezing is the simplest way to save produce. It is important to freeze the produce as quickly as possible, and to do so in freeze-grade bags or other containers. Eugenia Bone has written books about food and nature. She notes that you should cool down food before you freeze it. One problem to avoid is freezer burn, which can affect the taste and feel of food. To prevent this, use plastic bags, wraps or containers designed for the freezer.Good late-summer produce to freeze includes green beans, cabbage, apples and plums. CanningThere are two main ways to can produce: boiling hot water baths and pressure canning. A boiling water bath involves putting food in glass canning jars and then heating the jars in a pot of boiling water. The heat forces air from the glass jars and frees the food from bacteria and microorganisms. You can then seal the jars. This method works best with naturally acidic foods like fruits. Pressure canning food requires a pressure canner. The pressure canner you use should be based on the kind of cooking equipment you have and the amount of food you plan to can. Whichever method you use, always test the seal that keeps out fresh air.Good late-summer fruits for water bath canning include apples, berries, cherries, figs and peaches. Good foods for pressure canning include carrots, corn, okra and bell peppers. PicklingThere are many methods of preserving food in vinegar, salt brine or a similar mixture. You can pickle whole vegetables, like green beans or okra. Another possibility is to make chutney or relishes. This is done by adding salt, pepper or other seasonings to small, cut pieces of vegetables.Good late-summer foods to pickle include cucumbers, hot chili peppers, watermelon rinds and eggplants. DryingA final way to preserve food is by drying it. Whatever food you are drying should be just ready to eat and not have bruises. When drying, try to find specific directions for each food to ensure quality and safety.Drying methods include air drying, oven drying and using a dehydrator. A dehydrator is probably the best choice. If you think you will be drying foods regularly, think about investing in an electric dehydrator.Good late-summer produce to dehydrate includes apples, mushrooms, grapes and hot and sweet peppers.I'm John Russell. And I'm Anne Ball.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201909/594959.shtml VOCABULARY1. microorganism n. 微生物 A micro-organism is a very small living thing which you can only see if you use a microscope.2. produce n. (不可数名词) things that have been made or grown, especially things connected with farming 产品;(尤指)农产品。例如:farm produce农产品3. freezer burn n. 冷冻食品表面干燥变硬,(冷)冻灼(伤)4. fig n. a soft sweet fruit that is full of small seeds and often eaten dried 无花果。例如:a fig tree无花果树5. okra n. (不可数名词) (ladies' fingers) the green seed cases of the okra plant, eaten as a vegetable 秋葵荚(可食用)6. salt brine卤水7. chutney n. (不可数名词) a cold thick sauce made from fruit, sugar, spices, and vinegar , eaten with cold meat, cheese, etc. 酸辣酱8. relish n. (不可数名词, 可数名词) a cold thick spicy sauce made from fruit and vegetables that have been boiled, that is served with meat, cheese, etc. 风味佐料(用水果和蔬菜煮后制成的冷稠酱汁)9. watermelon rinds西瓜皮10. bruise n. a mark on a fruit or vegetable where it is damaged(水果或蔬菜的)碰伤,伤痕11. dehydrator n. 脱水器; 除水器12. dehydrate v. to remove the water from sth., especially food, in order to preserve it 使(食物)脱水 QUESTIONSTASK IListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.(Q1) What’s the simplest way to save produce?(A) Freezing.(B) Canning.(C) Pickling(D) Drying.(Q2) Which method works best with naturally acidic foods like fruits?(A) Freezing.(B) Canning.(C) Pickling(D) Drying.(Q3) What’s probably the best choice of drying?(A) Air drying.(B) Oven drying.(C) Using a dehydrator.(D) Using a washing machine.TASK IIRead the table. Then listen to the news and complete the table.4 Common Ways to Preserve Food WAYS DETAILS1 Freezing  Freezing is the simplest way to save produce. It is important to freeze the produce (Q1) __________________________, and to do so in freeze-grade bags or other containers. Eugenia Bone has written books about food and nature. She notes that you should (Q2) _____________________ food before you freeze it. One problem to avoid is (Q3) __________________, which can affect the taste and feel of food. To prevent this, use plastic bags, wraps or containers designed for the freezer. Good late-summer produce to freeze includes green beans, (Q4) ______________, apples and plums.2 Canning  There are two main ways to can produce: boiling hot water baths and pressure canning. (Q5) ____________________________ involves putting food in glass canning jars and then heating the jars in a pot of boiling water. The heat forces air from the glass jars and frees the food from bacteria and microorganisms. You can then (Q6) _______________ the jars. This method works best with naturally acidic foods like fruits. (Q7) _________________ food requires a pressure canner. The pressure canner you use should be based on the kind of cooking equipment you have and the amount of food you plan to can. Whichever method you use, always test the seal that (Q8) ___________________________. Good late-summer fruits for water bath canning include apples, berries, (Q9) ________________________, figs and peaches. Good foods for pressure canning include (Q10) ____________________, corn, okra and bell peppers.3 Pickling  There are many methods of preserving food in (Q11) _______________, salt brine or a similar mixture. You can pickle whole vegetables, like green beans or okra. Another possibility is to make chutney or relishes. This is done by adding salt, pepper or other seasonings to small, cut pieces of vegetables. Good late-summer foods to pickle include (Q12) ____________________, hot chili peppers, watermelon rinds and eggplants.4 Drying  A final way to preserve food is by drying it. Whatever food you are drying should be just ready to eat and not have bruises. When drying, try to find specific directions for each food to ensure (Q13) ____________________________. Drying methods include air drying, oven drying and using a dehydrator. A (Q14) _______________________________ is probably the best choice. If you think you will be drying foods regularly, think about investing in an electric dehydrator. Good late-summer produce to dehydrate includes apples, (Q15) _______________, grapes and hot and sweet peppers. KEYTASK IListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.(Q1) A。(命题出处) You can preserve late-summer fruits and vegetables in four basic ways. These include freezing, canning, pickling and drying or dehydrating. Freezing is the simplest way to save produce.(Q2) B。(命题出处) There are two main ways to can produce: boiling hot water baths and pressure canning. A boiling water bath involves putting food in glass canning jars and then heating the jars in a pot of boiling water. The heat forces air from the glass jars and frees the food from bacteria and microorganisms. You can then seal the jars. This method works best with naturally acidic foods like fruits.(Q3) C。(命题出处) Drying methods include air drying, oven drying and using a dehydrator. A dehydrator is probably the best choice.TASK IIRead the table. Then listen to the news and complete the table.4 Common Ways to Preserve Food WAYS DETAILS1 Freezing  Freezing is the simplest way to save produce. It is important to freeze the produce (Q1) as quickly as possible, and to do so in freeze-grade bags or other containers. Eugenia Bone has written books about food and nature. She notes that you should (Q2) cool down food before you freeze it. One problem to avoid is (Q3) freezer burn, which can affect the taste and feel of food. To prevent this, use plastic bags, wraps or containers designed for the freezer. Good late-summer produce to freeze includes green beans, (Q4) cabbage, apples and plums.2 Canning  There are two main ways to can produce: boiling hot water baths and pressure canning. (Q5) A boiling water bath involves putting food in glass canning jars and then heating the jars in a pot of boiling water. The heat forces air from the glass jars and frees the food from bacteria and microorganisms. You can then (Q6) seal the jars. This method works best with naturally acidic foods like fruits. (Q7) Pressure canning food requires a pressure canner. The pressure canner you use should be based on the kind of cooking equipment you have and the amount of food you plan to can. Whichever method you use, always test the seal that (Q8) keeps out fresh air. Good late-summer fruits for water bath canning include apples, berries, (Q9) cherries, figs and peaches. Good foods for pressure canning include (Q10) carrots, corn, okra and bell peppers.3 Pickling  There are many methods of preserving food in (Q11) vinegar, salt brine or a similar mixture. You can pickle whole vegetables, like green beans or okra. Another possibility is to make chutney or relishes. This is done by adding salt, pepper or other seasonings to small, cut pieces of vegetables. Good late-summer foods to pickle include (Q12) cucumbers, hot chili peppers, watermelon rinds and eggplants.4 Drying  A final way to preserve food is by drying it. Whatever food you are drying should be just ready to eat and not have bruises. When drying, try to find specific directions for each food to ensure (Q13) quality and safety. Drying methods include air drying, oven drying and using a dehydrator. A (Q14) dehydrator is probably the best choice. If you think you will be drying foods regularly, think about investing in an electric dehydrator. Good late-summer produce to dehydrate includes apples, (Q15) mushrooms, grapes and hot and sweet peppers.

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