地震能造成多大损失

地震能造成多大损失
极难 590

地震能造成多大损失

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大家好!欢迎来到脑洞大开的生命奇想!

In 1960, the largest earthquake ever recorded hit Chile, with a magnitude of a whopping 9.5.
1960年,有记录以来最大的地震袭击了智利,震级高达9.5级。

An earthquake that strong releases as much energy as 27 trillion kilograms of explosives!
这次强烈的地震释放的能量相当于27万亿公斤炸药!

That is a lot of power, but how much damage can an earthquake do? Let's start with a quick course in Earthquakes 101.
这是很大的力量,但是地震能造成多大的破坏呢?让我们从地震101快速课程开始。

These natural phenomena occur when two pieces of the Earth's crust called tectonic plates slide past each other.
这些自然现象发生在地壳的两块板块相互摩擦的时候。

When this happens, pent up energy from inside the Earth suddenly bursts out in all directions. The Earth cracks and shakes everything on top.
这种情况发生时,来自地球内部被压抑的能量突然向四面八方爆发。地面裂开,地面上所有东西都跟着晃。

Earthquakes used to be measured on the Richter Scale, but now they use the Moment Magnitude Scale to designate a magnitude level for each quake between 1 and 10.
地震以前是用里氏震级来测量的,但现在他们用矩震级1到10级来表示地震的震级。

There are about half a million detectable earthquakes every year all over the world, but most of them aren't even felt and only about 100 of them actually cause damage.
全世界每年都有大约50万次可探测到的地震,但大多数地震人类都感觉不到,实际上只有大约100次地震造成了破坏。

But when they do, they can flip the world upside down for that area. Well, not literally, but you know what I mean.
但是造成破坏的时候,几乎可以把世界震得天翻地覆。不是字面意思,但你知道我的意思。

Earthquakes can strike any area at any time and there's absolutely no way to predict them.
地震可以在任何时间袭击任何地区,根本无法预测。

Since people can't prepare their families, their homes, and their businesses, earthquakes can cause serious damage out of nowhere.
由于人们无法为他们的家庭、家园和企业做准备,地震可能会突然造成非常严重的破坏。

As soon as an earthquake hits, buildings can topple, bridges can collapse, gas lines can explode, and water and sewer pipes can burst.
地震一发生,建筑物就会倒塌,桥梁就会崩塌,煤气管道就会爆炸,水管和下水道就会爆裂。

This immediate damage can be catastrophic and deadly but the mayhem's not over yet.
这种直接的伤害可能是灾难性的,会造成人员伤亡,但混乱还不止这些。

Earthquakes can cause secondary effects like tsunamis, landslides, and fires. And, there's also the aftershocks.
地震会引起海啸、滑坡和火灾等次生影响。还有余震。

They can happen right after an earthquake or occur weeks, months, or even years later.
这些可能在地震之后马上发生,也可能发生在几周、几个月甚至几年之后。

These secondary effects account for 40% of economic losses and deaths, so they shouldn't be taken lightly.
这些次级影响引起了40%的经济损失和人员死亡,因此不能掉以轻心。

Major illnesses can also arise from earthquakes, from things like burst pipes and poor sanitation.
重大疾病也可能由地震引起,比如可由管道破裂和卫生条件差而起。

Even if a region is reeling from Mother Nature's fury, illnesses like respiratory tract infections, water-borne diseases and wound infections can ravage the area.
即使一个地区正受到大自然狂怒的影响,呼吸道感染、水传播疾病和伤口感染等疾病也会对该地区造成破坏。

The massive 2010 Haitian earthquake brought back the disease Cholera to a region that hadn't seen it in 100 years.
2010年海地大地震引发霍乱,某个地区已经100年没出现过这种病了。

The amount of physical and bodily damage from an earthquake depends on a lot of factors.
地震带来的物质和人身伤害程度取决于很多因素。

Time of day, time of year, population, building style, climate, and location. 
一天中的时间,一年中的时间,人口,建筑风格,气候和地点。

A major, oceanfront city struck by a magnitude 7 earthquake during rush hour in the middle of winter would theoretically cause a lot more damage, injury, and death than a similar earthquake in the middle of nowhere at the crack of dawn on a summer day.
一个大型海滨城市在隆冬高峰时段遭受7级地震的袭击,从理论上讲,这比夏季黎明时分发生在偏远地区的类似地震造成的损失、伤害和死亡要多得多。

But, more isolated areas don't have the communication systems or emergency responders to handle disasters as effectively as more populated regions.
但是,偏远的地区没有通讯系统或应急响应设备,无法像人口更多的地区那样有效地应对灾害。

Architects in places that are prone to earthquakes design their buildings to withstand the seismic waves that come with quakes.
地震多发地区的建筑师设计的建筑会考虑抵御地震带来的地震波。

Buildings sway as this energy makes its way through the structure, which could lead you to believe that a skyscraper would be susceptible to more damage than a regular height building, but you'd be wrong.
当这种能量通过建筑物时,建筑物会摇摆,这可能会让你认为摩天大楼比普通的高楼更容易受到损害,但你错了。

Taller structures are actually more flexible and can bounce back from the waves easier.
高层建筑实际上更灵活,在遭受地震波时更有弹性。

Just like you can when you sway with a moving train or boat, rather than standing straight and rigid.
就像在行进的火车或小船上摇摆时,你能做到的那样,你不会站得笔直僵硬。

All these factors play a part in how much damage an earthquake causes.
所有这些因素都在一定程度上影响着地震造成的破坏。

And the cost of this damage can add up quickly. 2011 was one of the years with the worst financial losses caused by earthquakes on record.
而这些损失的成本会迅速增加。2011年是有记录以来地震造成的经济损失最严重的年份之一。

A whopping $365 billion dollars worth of damage.
高达3650亿美元的损失。

Are there any other natural disasters you want us to cover? Let us know in the comment section below.
你还想让我们报道其他自然灾害吗?请在下面的评论部分告诉我们。

Curious to know how our monuments like the statue of liberty will last over time? Check out this video!
想知道像自由女神像这样的纪念碑会不会长久存在吗?看看这个视频!

The monument's insides are made of iron, kind of like a skeleton, so that it can withstand strong winds.
雕像的内部是由铁制成的,算像骨架,所以它可以承受强风。

Fun fact: the outside copper layer is only as thick as putting two pennies together!
有趣的是:外面的铜层只有两个便士叠起来那么厚!

As always, my name is Blocko. This has been Life Noggin! Don't forget to keep on thinking!
我是宝高。这里是脑洞大开的生命奇想!思考不要停!
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  • 易读度:极难
  • 来源:互联网 2019-07-12