Useful Abbreviations in Academic Writing

Useful Abbreviations in Academic Writing
标准 1530

干货满满!实用的学术写作缩写词

Some abbreviations are appropriate in academic writing, while others are not appropriate. Below you'll find a list of abbreviations you are likely to use in your experience as a student.

在论文写作中,不是所有缩写的使用都是恰当的。在下面的内容中,你会发现有许多作为学生会用到的缩写。

Abbreviations for College Degrees

大学学位的缩写

1.A.A. Associate of Arts: A two-year degree in any specific liberal art or a general degree covering a mix of courses in liberal arts and sciences. It is acceptable to use the A.A. abbreviation in place of the full degree name.

副学士:指代两年制的所有文科或文理科综合课程学位。也可以用A.A来代替完整的学位名称。

For example: Alfred earned an A.A. at the local community college.

阿尔弗雷德在当地的社区大学完成了副学士学位。

2.A.A.S. Associate of Applied Science: A two-year degree in a technical or a science field. Example: Dorothy earned an A.A.S. in culinary arts after she earned her high school degree.

应用科学副学士:科技或科学领域的两年制学位。例如:在获得高中学历后,桃乐西又获得了烹饪艺术学士学位。

3.A.B.D. All But Dissertation: This refers to a student who has completed all the requirements for a Ph.D. except for the dissertation. It is used primarily in reference to doctoral candidates whose dissertation is in progress, to state that the candidate is eligible to apply for positions that require a Ph.D. The abbreviation is acceptable in place of the full expression.

准博士:指完成了所有博士生要求的学生,论文除外。主要用来指代论文还未完成的博士研究生,表示他有资格申请博士学位。这个缩写也可以代替完整的表达。

4.A.F.A. Associate of Fine Arts: A two-year degree in a field of creative art such as painting, sculpting, photography, theater, and fashion design. The abbreviation is acceptable in all but very formal writing.

美术副学士:在艺术创作领域,如绘画、雕塑、摄影、戏剧和服装设计等的两年制学士。该缩写也可以在所有非常正式的写作中使用。

5.B.A. Bachelor of Arts: An undergraduate, four-year degree in a liberal arts or sciences.

从四年制文科或理科大学毕业的大学生。

The abbreviation is acceptable in all but very formal writing.

该缩写也可以在所有非常正式的写作中使用。

6.B.F.A. Bachelor of Fine Arts: A four-year, undergraduate degree in a field of creative art. The abbreviation is acceptable in all but very formal writing.

在艺术创作专业毕业的四年制学士学位。该缩写也可以在所有非常正式的写作中使用。

7.B.S. Bachelor of Science: A four-year, undergraduate degree in a science. The abbreviation is acceptable in all but very formal writing.

四年制理学学士学位。该缩写也可以在所有非常正式的写作中使用。

Note: Students enter college for the first time as undergraduates pursuing either a two-year (associate's) or a four-year (bachelor's) degree. Many universities have a separate college within called a graduate school, where students may choose to continue their education to pursue a higher degree.

毕业后第一次进入大学的学生们要么是两年制(副学士),要么是四年制(学士)学位。许多大学都设有单独的学院,称为研究院,学生们可以选择继续学业还是考取更高的学位。

8.M.A. Master of Arts: The master's degree is a degree earned in graduate school. The M.A. is a master's degree in one of the liberal arts awarded to students who study one or two years after earning a bachelor's degree.

硕士学位是在研究院获得的。M.A指的是在学生们在获得学士学位后,经过一到两年的学习,获得的文科领域的文学硕士学位。

9.M.Ed. Master of Education: The master's degree awarded to a student pursuing an advanced degree in the field of education.

学生们在教育领域获得的硕士学位。

10.M.S. Master of Science: The master's degree awarded to a student pursuing an advanced degree in science or technology.

学生们在科学或技术领域获得的硕士学位。

Abbreviations for Titles

头衔的缩写

1.Dr. Doctor: When referring to a college professor, the title usually refers to a Doctor of Philosophy, the highest degree in many fields. (In some fields of study the master's degree is the highest possible degree.) It is generally acceptable (preferable) to abbreviate this title when addressing professors in writing and when conducting academic and nonacademic writing.

当我们提到大学教授时,这个头衔通常是指博士,即许多领域中最高的学位。(在一些领域中,硕士学位是最高学位)当我们在写作中,以及在学术非学术写作中提到教授,可以使用该缩写。

2.Esq. Esquire: Historically, the abbreviation Esq. has been used as a title of courtesy and respect.

从历史观点上说,Esp.是处于礼仪和尊重而使用的一种头衔。

In the United States, the title is generally used as a title for lawyers, after the full name.

在美国,人们会用该缩写指代律师,前面加上该律师的全名。

Example: John Hendrik, Esq.

约翰·昆昂里克律师

It is appropriate to use the abbreviation Esq. in formal and academic writing.
在正式写作和学术写作中,我们可以使用该缩写。


3.Prof. Professor: When referring to a professor in nonacademic and informal writing, it is acceptable to abbreviate when you use the full name. It is best to use the full title before a surname alone. Example:

在非学术写作及非正式写作中,它指的是教授,该缩写也可以与全名连用。最好是在姓的前面使用完整的头衔。

I'll invite Prof. Johnson to appear as a speaker at our next meeting.

下次会议,我会邀请约翰逊教授来发言。

Professor Mark Johnson is speaking at our next meeting.

马克·约翰逊教授会在我们下次的会议中发言。

4.Mr. and Mrs. The abbreviations Mr. and Mrs. are shortened versions of mister and mistress. Both terms, when spelled out, are considered antiquated and outdated when it comes to academic writing. However, the term mister is still used in very formal writing (formal invitations) and military writing.

Mr.和Mrs.是mister和mistress的缩写形式。这两个术语如果在学术写作中直接拼写出来,会显得过时和老套。但是,在非常正式的写作(正式邀请)和军事类写作中仍会用到mister这个术语。

Do not use mister or mistress when addressing a teacher, a professor, or a potential employer.

在对老师、教授或潜在雇主进行问候时,不要使用mister或mistress。

5.Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy: As a title, the Ph.D. comes after the name of a professor who has earned the highest degree awarded by a graduate school. The degree may be called a doctoral degree or a doctorate.

Ph.D作为一个头衔,跟在教授的名字后面,而教授则是研究生院最高学位的人。这种学位也被称为博士学位或博士头衔。

Example: Sara Edwards, Ph.D.

例子:萨拉·爱德华兹
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  • 来源: 2017-10-25