新闻听力 | 没有动力时,如何激励自己

新闻听力 | 没有动力时,如何激励自己

5.0分钟 440 123wpm

How to Get Motivated Even When You Don’t Feel Like It

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没有动力时,如何激励自己?

How to Get Motivated Even When You Don’t Feel Like It


慢速 /六级 偏易/ 679/5min


Part I. QUESTIONS

Listen to the passage and choose the best answer to each question you hear.


Q1. According to psychologists, what is motivation?

A. The ability to avoid procrastination.

B. The skill of being creative on demand.

C. The energy that drives you to initiate and maintain a particular behavior.

D. The outcome of successful task completion.


Q2. What type of motivation is experienced when engaging in an activity for its own sake?

A. Intrinsic motivation.

B. Extrinsic motivation.

C. Temporary motivation.

D. Controlled motivation.


Q3. Which study’s findings are mentioned with regard to the effectiveness of extrinsic motivation?

A. A 2020 study on exercise routines.

B. A 2017 study on New Year’s resolutions.

C. A 2015 study on military cadets’ performance.

D. A 2018 study on job satisfaction.


Q4. What psychological phenomenon can reduce the overall motivation if multiple motivators are present?

A. The underestimation effect.

B. The overjustification effect.

C. The intrinsic motivation effect.

D. The extrinsic motivation effect.


Q5. What main advice does the text offer for increasing motivation towards a goal?

A. To seek external rewards for completing tasks.

B. To prioritize extrinsic motivators like praise and money.

C. To add fun elements to the task to build intrinsic motivation.

D. To eliminate all distractions and focus solely on the goal.


Q6. Based on the text, what might be a reason for a professional artist’s sudden lack of motivation before a deadline?

A. They may be focused too much on extrinsic rewards rather than enjoying the process.

B. They might not find painting enjoyable anymore due to personal reasons.

C. The pressure from upcoming deadlines is likely causing them stress.

D. They could be experiencing the overjustification effect if they have multiple motivators.


Part II. TRANSCRIPT


How to Get Motivated Even When You Don’t Feel Like It


You’ve always aspired to be a professional artist. At last, this dream may become a reality, and you’re creating a portfolio to submit to art programs. But as the application deadline looms, you suddenly find yourself unmotivated, and avoiding the canvas altogether.


Why does motivation seem so fickle? And what even is it in the first place?

fickle adj.(爱情、友谊等)易变的,无常的


(Q1) Psychologists define motivation as the desire or impetus to initiate and maintain a particular behavior. In other words, it’s the energy that drives you to do something. And knowing the source of that drive is particularly important when it comes to understanding how to maintain it. These motivational forces generally fall into two broad categories: intrinsic and extrinsic.

extrinsic adj. 外在的;外来的


(Q2) Intrinsic motivation is involved when you experience an activity as an end in itself. Take a hobby, like playing video games. The experience largely explains the desire to do it. Performing tasks that feel right in the moment — or that you find a meaningful, interesting, or satisfying — are driven by intrinsic motivation.


Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, refers to pursuing a task as a means to an end. While few would consider going to the dentist as an enjoyable activity, you’re often motivated by the outcome of having clean, healthy teeth. Other examples of extrinsic motivation include completing a task to receive some sort of reward, whether it’s praise, power, or money. Notably, these rewards tend to come later, like receiving a bonus at the end of a quarter, or winning a competition after months of training.


While extrinsic rewards, like getting paid, may seem appealing, their effectiveness can be surprisingly short-lived. (Q3) For example, a 2017 study found that those who were highly focused on the outcomes of their New Year’s resolutions — or driven by extrinsic motivation — weren’t the most likely to stick to them. What did predict persistence, however, was how much a person enjoyed pursuing their goals. In other words, you’re more likely to maintain an exercise routine if you take classes you enjoy, rather than just those that build your biceps. Years of psychology research have shown that high levels of intrinsic motivation — for school, a job, or an exercise class – are more likely to keep you engaged in the long run.

bicep n. 二头肌,强健的筋肉


Day-to-day actions, though, are rarely either exclusively intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. Studying for a history exam, for example, can be intrinsically motivated If you’re curious about the culture of ancient Egypt. But extrinsic motivators may also be at play, as you aim to get a good grade or feel pressure from family members to do well in school.

exclusively adv. 完全地;专有地


But having multiple motivators isn’t always better. One study of military cadets found that those who were driven both by intrinsic motivators, like self-improvement, and extrinsic motivators, like the outcome of getting a good job, were overall less motivated than cadets driven by just one of these factors. As a result, these cadets performed worse and were less likely to graduate. (Q4) Psychologists call this phenomenon the overjustification effect — the idea that additional extrinsic motivators can actually muddy the waters when you already have the intrinsic drive to do something.

cadet n. 警官(或军官)学员

the overjustification effect (心理学)过度理由效应


But this is only a problem if you already find a task motivating. When you’re faced with an activity you find tedious or uninteresting, adding extrinsic rewards can be beneficial. In this way, extrinsic motivators can provide sufficient justification. While you may never enjoy doing the laundry, it may feel less daunting if you get praise from a loved one, or even promise yourself that you’ll watch your favorite TV show when you’re done folding.

daunting adj. 令人畏惧的;使人气馁的;令人怯步的


Motivation is complicated. And sometimes, no matter how passionate you are about a goal or hobby, finding the motivation to actually do it can be difficult. (Q5) But there are things you can do to increase your drive, even when it feels impossible. Focus on building intrinsic motivation by making the task more fun in the moment. Asking a friend to join you or simply putting on your favorite playlist can give you the boost to get started — and stick with your goals for the long haul.

for the long haul 直到最后



Part III. KEY

Q1. C. 细节题。文章中提到:Psychologists define motivation as the desire or impetus to initiate and maintain a particular behavior.”意为:“心理学家将动机定义为开始和维持特定行为的欲望或动力。”根据这一明确的定义,可以确定动机是推动人们开始并持续某特定行为的动力。因此答案为C

Q2. A. 细节题。文本中提到:Intrinsic motivation is involved when you experience an activity as an end in itself.”意为:“当你将体验某项活动作为目的本身时,就有了内在动力。”因此,当人们因为某项活动本身而从事该活动时,所体验到的是内在动力。答案为A

Q3. B. 细节题。文章中提到:For example, a 2017 study found that those who were highly focused on the outcomes of their New Years resolutions...”意为:“例如,2017年的一项研究发现,那些高度关注他们新年决心的结果的人……”。这表明2017年的研究调查了外在动力的有效性,并发现那些过度关注新年决心的结果的人们,并不能很好地坚持他们的新年决心。因此答案为B

Q4. B.细节题。文本中提到:Psychologists call this phenomenon the overjustification effect...” 意为:“心理学家称这种现象为过度理由效应……”。这一现象是指:当存在多重动力时,可能会降低总体动力。答案为B

Q5. C. 主旨题。文章最后一段提到:But there are things you can do to increase your drive... Focus on building intrinsic motivation by making the task more fun in the moment.”意为:“但你可以做一些事情来增加你的动力……通过把任务变得更有趣,从而建立内在动机。”这是文章就如何增加对某项目标的动力所提供的建议。答案为C


Q6. D. 推理题。文本中讨论了overjustification effect”(过度理由效应),当一个人已经有内在动力去做某事时,额外的外在动力实际上可能弱化本来的内在动力。如果这位艺术家同时受到内在和外在动力的驱动,尤其是在临近截止日期时,他们可能会突然失去动力。这意味着他们可能正在经历过度理由效应引起的动力减弱现象。答案为D

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  • 时长:5.0分钟
  • 语速:123wpm
  • 来源:刘立军 2024-05-10