新闻听力 | 晒太阳与皮肤癌

新闻听力 | 晒太阳与皮肤癌

5.3分钟 644 135wpm

Sun and Skin Cancer

Loading the player...

晒太阳与皮肤癌

Sun and Skin Cancer


常速/词汇:CET-6/812/5min20s


刘立军 供稿


Part I. QUESTIONS

Listen to the interview and choose the best answer to each question you hear.


Q1. According to Dr. Frank Pega, what is a primary cause of non-melanoma skin cancer in outdoor workers?

A. Exposure to loud noise.

B. Direct contact with certain chemicals.

C. Intense sunlight exposure.

D. Poor diet and nutrition.


Q2. How does Dr. Frank Pega describe the global prevalence of workers exposed to intense sunlight?

A. 1 in 10 workers globally.

B. 1 in 6 workers globally.

C. 1 in 4 workers globally.

D. 1 in 2 workers globally.


Q3. What types of jobs did Dr. Frank Pega mention as examples of outdoor work with intense sunlight exposure?

A. Farmers and office workers.

B. Farmers and construction workers.

C. Teachers and healthcare workers.

D. Construction workers and office workers.


Q4. What can be deduced regarding the protection measures available to outdoor workers in the informal economy?

A. They lack health protections that come with formal employment.

B. They are well-informed about the risks of sun exposure.

C. They have robust health protections similar to formal employment.

D. They are not affected by non-melanoma skin cancer as much as others.


Q5. Based on the dialogue, what can be inferred about the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths among outdoor workers?

A. It has peaked and is now declining.

B. It predominantly affects workers in high-income countries.

C. It is considered an occupational disease in all countries.

D. It is equally distributed across all regions worldwide.


Q6. According to Dr. Frank Pega, how has the problem of non-melanoma skin cancer changed over the past 20 years?

A. The problem has remained stable.

B. The number of cases has decreased.

C. The number of cases has doubled.

D. The problem has been fully resolved.


Q7. From the suggestions provided by Dr. Frank Pega, what inference can be made about the role of governments in addressing the risks of outdoor work?

A. Governments are currently focused on treating skin cancer rather than preventing it.

B. Governments can play a significant part in preventing outdoor work-related health hazards.

C. The role of governments is minimal as private companies have taken charge of worker safety.

D. Only governments in low- and middle-income countries need to take action.


Q8. According to the discussion, which regions already have regulations in place to protect outdoor workers from sun exposure?

A. Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific.

B. North America and Eastern Europe.

C. South Asia and Central America.

D. Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia.


Q9. What is the main focus of the dialogue between Vismita Gupta-Smith and Dr. Frank Pega?

A. The benefits of working outdoors.

B. The economic impact of skin cancer.

C. The protection against skin cancer for outdoor workers.

D. The advancements in skin cancer treatment.


Part II. TRANSCRIPT


WHO’s Science in 5: Sun and Skin Cancer


Vismita Gupta-Smith:

WHO and the International Labour Organization have recently released estimates about how many workers are exposed to sunlight at work, and how many of them get skin cancer, specifically non-melanoma skin cancer as a result of long exposure to sun. How does sun cause skin cancer? Who is at risk and how can you, your employer, and your government keep you safe? Here to talk about it is Dr Frank Pega. Welcome, Frank. Frank, explain to us how intense exposure to sunlight can cause non-melanoma skin cancer.

non-melanoma skin cancer 皮肤癌,非黑瘤皮肤癌


Dr Frank Pega:

Outdoor workers regularly work under the intense sun, sometimes for really long periods of time. (Q1) And sun comprises ultraviolet radiation. When this type of radiation hits skin cells, it can damage their DNA. And that can in turn lead to skin cancer, where these skin cells basically grow uncontrolled. There are two main types of skin cancer. Melanoma is the more deadly type. We looked at non-melanoma, which is the type that is less deadly but much, much more common and a big problem. Non-melanoma skin cancer commonly appears as either a red firm lump or a flat, scaly patch that doesn’t heal for several weeks, so outdoor workers are at a 60% increased risk compared to indoor workers from having a non-melanoma skin cancer. This kind of skin cancer is commonly seen on the face, on the ears, or on the head, but also the arms and the legs where workers are most exposed to the sun. So, for example, imagine a farmer who plants or harvests rice. That worker will be exposed intensively to the sun for a really long time, and the surface of the water that has flooded the fields that the worker is standing in will be reflecting back, aggravating the exposure.

ultraviolet adj. 紫外线的

melanoma n. 黑素瘤;黑瘤


Vismita Gupta-Smith:

So Frank, talk to us about how many people get non-melanoma skin cancer as a result of sun exposure at work, and does this depend on what kind of country we live in, whether we are in a low-income, middle-income or high-income country?


Dr Frank Pega:

It’s many more people who are working outdoors and who die as a result of non-melanoma skin cancer from this exposure than we could have possibly imagine before we did our estimates. (Q2) About one in four workers globally is actually exposed to intense sunlight at work. That’s a staggering 1.6 billion people globally.

staggering adj. 令人难以相信的


Vismita Gupta-Smith:

(Q3) So these are the farmers in the rice field, the construction workers, the people who are working in the non-organized sector for long hours under intense sunlight.


Dr Frank Pega:

That’s correct. (Q4) So these are outdoor workers who live primarily in low- and middle-income countries and who are often working in the informal economy where they don’t have any health protections that formal employment would afford to them. One in three non-melanoma skin cancer deaths are actually from working under the sun, so that’s about 19,000 deaths globally each year. (Q5) If you work outdoors, you’re at a higher risk and we find that the number of people who die from non-melanoma skin cancer in each region per population is almost equal. So it’s a global problem. (Q6) Additionally, it’s a growing problem because the numbers have doubled in the last 20 years.


Vismita Gupta-Smith:

So Frank, what can governments do and what can workers do to protect themselves from long exposure to intense sunlight and from skin cancer?


Dr Frank Pega:

(Q7) Governments can pass regulations and policies that can prevent outdoor work that is hazardous because it’s under the sun. For example, governments can reorganize work, they can require that workers reorganize so that working under the sun has shifted away from solar noon, and therefore away from the intense sun. Governments can also implement requirements that workers are provided with shade when they work outdoors. This is something we’ve seen a lot. (Q8) Countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region and the Western Pacific already have these types of regulations in place. Additionally, governments can provide public health information. This is very important. They can talk about sun safety protocols and protective measures that can be taken. Also important, as there can be a requirement that workers are provided with protective clothing. They can wear broad brimmed heads, long sleeved shirts, long trousers and also there could be a provision of sunscreen where it’s effective and deemed possible. Additionally, it’s important that we have functioning health services and systems where skin cancer is prevented and we have workers being regularly checked so that skin cancer can be detected early and can be treated. And finally but importantly, governments can recognize skin cancer from occupational exposure to the sun as an occupational disease and include it in worker’s compensation schemes.

protocol n. 条约草案;协议

brimmed adj.有帽檐的

provision n. 提供


Vismita Gupta-Smith:

Thank you, Frank. That was Science in 5 today. Until next time then, stay safe, stay healthy and stick with science.


Part III. KEY


Q1. C. 细节题。文本中Dr. Frank Pega提到:“And sun comprises ultraviolet radiation. When this type of radiation hits skin cells, it can damage their DNA.”意为:“阳光包含紫外线辐射。当这种辐射击中皮肤细胞时,可以损坏它们的DNA。”根据此句,明确指出阳光中的紫外线辐射是导致非黑色素瘤皮肤癌的原因。因此答案为C


Q2. C. 细节题。文本中Dr. Frank Pega提到:“About one in four workers globally is actually exposed to intense sunlight at work.”意为:“全球大约有1/4的工人在工作时暴露于强烈的阳光下。”这个比例说明了这个问题的普遍性。因此答案为C


Q3. B. 细节题。Vismita Gupta-Smith说道:“So these are the farmers in the rice field, the construction workers...”意为:“所以这些是在稻田里的农民、建筑工人……”。通过这个描述,我们知道哪些工种的工人更容易暴露于强烈阳光之下。因此答案为B


Q4. A. 推理题。文本中Dr. Frank Pega提到:“...who are often working in the informal economy where they dont have any health protections that formal employment would afford to them.”意为:“……他们通常在非正规经济领域工作,在那里他们没有正式就业所能提供给他们的任何健康保护措施。”根据此句,我们可以推断非正规经济领域的户外工作者缺乏正式就业所带来的健康保护。因此答案为A


Q5. D. 推理题。文本中Dr. Frank Pega提到:“...the number of people who die from non-melanoma skin cancer in each region per population is almost equal.”意为:“……每个地区因非黑色素瘤皮肤癌死亡的人数与人口数量之比几乎相等。”基于这个信息,我们可以推断该病状在全球范围内分布相对均匀。因此答案为D


Q6. C. 细节题。文本中Dr. Frank Pega提到:“Additionally, its a growing problem because the numbers have doubled in the last 20 years.”意为:“此外,这是一个日益严重的问题,因为在过去20年中,这个数字翻了一番。”根据这个描述,我们可以推断出非黑色素瘤皮肤癌的情况正在恶化。因此答案为C


Q7. B. 推理题。文本中Dr. Frank Pega提到:“Governments can pass regulations and policies that can prevent outdoor work that is hazardous because its under the sun...”意为:“政府可以通过法规和政策来预防因在阳光下工作而带来的危险……”。根据这句话,我们可以推断政府在预防户外工作相关健康风险方面扮演着重要角色,并能够通过立法和政策干预来降低这些风险。因此答案为B


Q8. A. 细节题。文本中Dr. Frank Pega提到:“Countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region and the Western Pacific already have these types of regulations in place.”意为:“东地中海地区和西太平洋地区的国家已经制定了这类规定。”这些具体的地区已有保护工人免受阳光暴露的法规。因此答案为A


Q9. C. 主旨题。整段对话的核心焦点是讨论户外工人如何防范因长时间暴露于强烈阳光而引起的皮肤癌。文本多次提到户外工作与皮肤癌之间的关系以及预防措施,例如政府可以做什么,工人如何保护自己等等。因此答案为C

本文图片来自摄图网,版权归摄图网所有。


  • 时长:5.3分钟
  • 语速:135wpm
  • 来源:刘立军 2024-04-10