练习 | 新冠病毒问答(WHO):我们所知晓的知识

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新冠病毒(WHO):我们所知晓的知识

新冠病毒(WHO):我们所知晓的知识

Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

燕山大学 刘立军 编写

 

u TRANSCRIPT

In December 2019, there was a cluster of pneumonia cases in China. Investigations found that it was caused by a previously unknown virus—now named the 2019 Novel Coronavirus. In this video, we'll take a quick look at what's currently known about the virus. Keep in mind that this is a new virus and what's known about the virus now might change in the future.

Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses. They consist of a core of genetic material surrounded by an envelope with protein spikes. This gives it the appearance of a crown. Crown in Latin is called "corona" and that's how these viruses get their name.

There are different types of coronaviruses that cause respiratory and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms. Respiratory disease can range from the common cold to pneumonia. And in most people, the symptoms tend to be mild. However, there are some types of coronaviruses that can cause severe disease. These include the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus first identified in China in 2003 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012.

The 2019 Novel Coronavirus was first identified in China. It initially occurred in a group of people with pneumonia who'd been associated with a seafood and live animal market in the city of Wuhan. The disease has since spread from those who were sick to others, including family members and health care staff. There are many cases at present and the disease has spread within China and also to a number of other countries.

So, where did the virus come from? 

It's known that coronaviruses circulate in a range of animals. Sometimes these viruses can make the jump from animals to humans. This is called a spillover and could be due to a range of factors such as mutations in the virus or increased contact between humans and animals. For example, MERS-CoV is known to be transmitted from camels and SARS-CoV, from civet cats. The animal reservoir of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus is not known yet.

How is it transmitted?

The exact dynamics of how the virus is transmitted is yet to be determined. In general, respiratory viruses are usually transmitted through droplets created when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through something that has been contaminated with the virus.

People most at risk of infection from the Novel Coronavirus are those in close contact with animals, such as live animal market workers, and those who are caring for people infected with the virus, such as family members or healthcare workers.

So, how does the disease present?

Well, from what is known so far, there can be a number of symptoms ranging from mild to severe. There can be fever and respiratory symptoms such as cough and shortness of breath. In more severe cases, there's been pneumonia, kidney failure, and death. The mortality rate is not known yet.

How can we tell whether someone is infected?

The infection can be diagnosed by a test called PCR or Polymerase Chain Reaction. This test identifies the virus based on its genetic fingerprint. There is currently no specific medication for the virus and treatment is supportive care. There's currently no vaccine to protect against the virus. Treatment and vaccines are in development.

How do we prevent transmission of the virus?

This new virus currently has a limited geographic spread. However, there are a number of standard hygiene practices that have been recommended to protect against infection and further spread. These include covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing with a medical mask, tissue or flexed elbow; avoiding close contact with those who are unwell; the appropriate use of masks and personal protective equipment, especially in a healthcare setting; washing hands regularly with soap and water, or alcohol-based hand rub. Actions that can be taken to prevent infection from an animal source include: avoiding unnecessary unprotected contact with animals; washing hands after contact with animals or animal products; and ensuring that animal products are cooked thoroughly before they're consumed.

It's important to stay home if you're feeling unwell. But if you have a fever, cough, and difficulty breathing, seek medical care early and share your previous travel history with your healthcare provider.

That's a quick look at this emerging infectious disease. Given that this outbreak is evolving rapidly, what's known about this virus can change, please check the websites below for the most up-to-date information.

 

u VOCABULARY

1. cluster n. a group of things of the same type that grow or appear close together (同类物丛生或聚集的)簇,团,束,串。例如:a cluster of stars 星团

2. keep in mind: to remember sb/sth; to remember or consider that… ……记在心中;记起;考虑

3. envelope n.(生物学)膜

4. spike 尖状物

5. gastrointestinal adj. (medical ) of or related to the stomach and intestines 胃肠的

6. mutation n.(遗传)突变;变化;转变

7. civet cat 果子狸

8. mortality n. the number of deaths in a particular situation or period of time 死亡数量;死亡率。例如:Mortality from lung cancer is still increasing. 死于肺癌的人数仍在上升。

9. given that conj.考虑到; 假定; 已知。例如:It was surprising the government was re-elected, given that they had raised taxes so much. 令人惊奇的是政府把税收提高这么多仍再次当选了。

10. up-to-date adj.最新的; 最近的

 

u QUESTIONS

Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).

1. The pneumonia cases in China now named the 2019 Novel Coronavirus.

2. The 2019 Novel Coronavirus will absolutely change in the future.

3. Coronaviruses are a small group of viruses.

4. There are different types of coronaviruses that cause respiratory symptoms.

5. The 2019 Novel Coronavirus was first identified in China.

6. The human reservoir of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus is not known yet.

7. The exact dynamics of how the virus is transmitted is yet to be determined.

8. People most at risk of infection from the Novel Coronavirus are those in close contact with animals and those who are caring for people infected with the virus.

9. The mortality rate is already known.

10. There's currently no vaccine to protect against the virus.

11. This new virus currently has no limited geographic spread.

12. We should make sure that animal products are cooked thoroughly before they're consumed.

13. If we have a fever, cough, and difficulty breathing, we should seek medical care early and share our previous travel history with our healthcare provider.

 

u KEY

Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).

(T)  1. The pneumonia cases in China now named the 2019 Novel Coronavirus.

(F)  2. The 2019 Novel Coronavirus will absolutely change in the future.(正确表达)The 2019 Novel Coronavirus might change in the future.

(F)  3. Coronaviruses are a small group of viruses.(正确表达)Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses.

(T)  4. There are different types of coronaviruses that cause respiratory symptoms.

(T)  5. The 2019 Novel Coronavirus was first identified in China.

(F)  6. The human reservoir of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus is not known yet.(正确表达)The animal reservoir of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus is not known yet.

(T)  7. The exact dynamics of how the virus is transmitted is yet to be determined.

(T)  8. People most at risk of infection from the Novel Coronavirus are those in close contact with animals and those who are caring for people infected with the virus.

(F)  9. The mortality rate is already known.(正确表达)The mortality rate is not known yet.

(T)  10. There's currently no vaccine to protect against the virus.

(F)  11. This new virus currently has no limited geographic spread.(正确表达)This new virus currently has a limited geographic spread.

(T)  12. We should make sure that animal products are cooked thoroughly before they're consumed.

(T)  13. If we have a fever, cough, and difficulty breathing, we should seek medical care early and share our previous travel history with our healthcare provider.


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Thanks for your effort so much!
用户8862040 发表于 2020/4/14 10:57:18
谢谢刘老师!真是干货!
jmulinyan 发表于 2020/4/9 16:23:36
  • 时长:4.8分钟
  • 来源:刘立军 2020-03-05