NASA宇航服焕新升级

NASA宇航服焕新升级
较难 1531
郭逸纯  供稿

After 50 years since humans first set foot on the Moon during the Apollo program, NASA is now working on the Artemis program which aims to land the first woman and the next man on the lunar surface by 2024. This program is named after another god of Greek mythology, Artemis, who is both the twin sister of Apollo and the goddess of the Moon.

在人类首次登月50年后的今天,美国国家航空航天局(NASA)着手开启“阿尔忒弥斯计划”,预计在2024年前将首位女性登月宇航员和一位男性宇航员送上月球。这一计划以希腊神话中的女神阿尔忒弥斯命名,阿尔忒弥斯是阿波罗的孪生姐姐,也是一位月亮女神。


To make full preparation for this long-awaited return to the Moon, NASA unveiled two new spacesuits in October. The next-generation spacesuits upgrading the classic ones worn by astronauts during the Apollo program in the 1960s and 1970s give astronauts more comfort and mobility on the Moon. Here are some highlights of the new spacesuits.

为了给这次期待已久的重返月球计划做好充分准备,NASA在十月份公布了两款新型宇航服。新一代宇航服对20世纪六七十年代“阿波罗计划” 所使用的的经典款宇航服进行了升级,更加舒适、灵活。下面一起来看看本次公布的新款宇航服有哪些亮点吧!

Improve Mobility

灵活性提升

During the Apollo program, astronauts had to bunny hop on the surface of the Moon and could easily stumble due to the limited mobility of their suits, which led to low efficiency and could cause unimaginable danger. The new suits with advanced materials and flexible bearings allow for a greater range of movement at the waist, arms and legs. Astronauts will be able to reach across their body, perform squats and even bend down to pick up a rock and then lift it overhead. Now humans are really going to be able to walk rather than jump on the surface of the Moon.

由于宇航服设计不够灵活,“阿波罗计划”时代的宇航员不得不在月球表面以“兔子跳”的方式行进,很容易不慎跌倒,这不仅影响了他们的工作效率,还可能带来意想不到的危险。新款宇航服采用先进的材料和灵活的轴承,让宇航员的腰部、双臂和双腿都能做出更大幅度的动作,他们可以触摸到自己身体各个部位,还可以下蹲,甚至可以弯腰捡起一块石头,再将它举过头顶。如今,人类终于可以真正在月球上漫步,而不是蹦蹦跳跳了。

Dust-tolerant design

防尘设计

On the Moon, astronauts have to contend with various environmental challenges. One of the biggest concerns is lunar dust. Engineers working for Moon landing missions worried that the powdery lunar dust wouldn't be stable enough to support the lunar lander or even astronauts walking on it. But after Apollo missions, they realized that there is a greater hazard which might be caused by the dust. The dust on the Moon composed of tiny glass-like shards can stick to surfaces of the spacesuits and even work its way into every nook and cranny. Once it infiltrates the suits’ life support systems, the astronauts’ health and safety can be seriously threatened. To keep the dust out, the new spacesuits are designed to have fewer seams and no zippers. Besides, the flexible parts of the suits are made from as many as 16 layers of advanced material which perform different functions including protecting astronauts from space dust.

登月宇航员往往需要面对月球上各种各样的环境挑战,最令人担忧的问题之一就来自于月尘。登月计划的工程师曾担心月球表面粉末状的尘土难以支撑着陆器和出舱行走的宇航员。但“阿波罗计划”之后他们才意识到,除此之外,月尘还隐藏着更大威胁。月球表面的尘土包含极其细小的玻璃状碎屑,很容易附着到宇航服表面,甚至穿透宇航服的各个边边角角。一旦月尘侵入宇航服的生命支持系统,则将严重威胁宇航员的健康和安全。为达到防尘效果,新款宇航服减少缝合处,并避免采用拉链。另外,宇航服的可活动部分采用了多达16层的先进材料,每层材料发挥着不同作用,其中一大作用就是保护宇航员免受太空尘埃的威胁。


Upgraded communications system

通信系统升级

Astronauts no longer have to wear the so-called “Snoopy caps” which are given the name because they look like the aviator cap worn by the cartoon character. These communications caps, though having a cute name, can become sweaty and uncomfortable and their microphones do not always track well with the astronauts’ movements. The upgraded communications system includes multiple, embedded, voice-activated microphones that automatically pick up the astronauts’ voices when they speak, enabling them to communicate more efficiently with other crew members and mission control.

宇航员再也不用戴“史努比帽”了。曾经宇航员的通信帽外形酷似卡通形象史努比戴的飞行员头盔,因此被称为“史努比帽”。这种通信帽虽然名字颇为可爱,但很容易捂汗,舒适性较差,并且麦克风经常无法跟随宇航员的肢体运动收声。升级版的通信系统内置多个嵌入式声控麦克风,可以在宇航员讲话时自动捕捉他们的声音,让他们能够更加高效地与其他宇航员以及地面指挥中心保持联络。

More sizes and better customization

尺寸更丰富,实现定制化

Earlier this year, NASA had to cancel the first all-female spacewalk because the agency didn’t have enough medium-sized suits to fit both of the women aboard the International Space Station. Now, the new suits are designed to give the wearer a customized fit whatever their size. Besides, each astronaut will have a full body, 3D scan while wearing the suit and performing basic motions and postures expected during spacewalks. That can help NASA match the astronaut to the best suit components to ensure that they are given the greatest comfort and the broadest range of motion.

今年, NASA不得已取消了国际空间站首次全女性太空行走计划,部分原因就在于无法提供两套女性宇航员合身的中号宇航服。本次全新推出的新一代宇航服则可以为不同身材的宇航员量身定制。另外,每位宇航员还将身着宇航服接受一项全身3D扫描,在接受扫描的过程中,他们需要做出太空行走时可能会做的动作和姿势,这样一来,NASA便可以为每位宇航员定制最适合他们的宇航服组件,最大程度地确保他们身穿宇航服时感到舒适,并且能够做出更多动作。


What do you think of NASA’s new spacesuits? Do you have any idea of other innovative features that can be added to the future-generation spacesuits?

NASA的新一代宇航服怎么样?你认为未来的宇航服还可以增加哪些创新之处呢?




VOCABULARY


bearing n. 轴承

contend with (a problem/difficulty)

处理,应对

shard n. 碎片

every nook and cranny 每个角落

infiltrate v. 渗入;潜入

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  • 来源:互联网 2019-12-06