练习| 科学美国人60秒:男女搭配可减少手术室冲突

练习| 科学美国人60秒:男女搭配可减少手术室冲突

1.9分钟 72 158wpm

男女搭配可减少手术室冲突

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科学美国人60秒:男女搭配可减少手术室冲突

 

燕山大学 刘立军 编写

 

u TRANSCRIPT

 

This is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.

 

When primatologists observe chimpanzees, they take note of activities like fighting, playing, touching, and grooming. And it turns out you can learn a lot about humans, we are primates after all, by observing the same behaviors in us.

 

"Not grooming, but you know, who was nice to who, who complimented who, who talked to who, who flirted with who, all those kinds of things." Laura Jones, an anthropologist at Emory University and Kaiser Permanente.

 

The primates, her team studied, were surgeons, nurses, anesthesiologists and other staff at three U.S. hospitals. The researchers observed 200 surgeries, while logging behaviors like cursing and cowering, stomping or head shaking, joking and singing, complimenting or flirting.

 

And they found that conflict in the OR surged when male surgeons' teams were mostly male; or when female surgeons were with mostly female teams. "I would say it would be a no-brainer if we found that all females were cooperative, but that's not what we found."

 

Instead, the highest levels of cooperation occurred when a female surgeon had a male surgical team, and vice versa - perhaps, Jones says, because those mixed teams avoided male-male or female-female conflict.

 

In fact, previous studies in primates - both human and non-human - have shown that competition is strongest between individuals of the same gender. The surgery findings are in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

 

"I would say the most practical thing to do at this point would be using this to affect training. And of course, you know, encourage both men and women, to go into all the disciplines, because right now they're heavily gendered." Perhaps by diversifying the operating room we can leave chest-beating behaviors at the door.

 

Thanks for listening for Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.

 

Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201901/576137.shtml

 

u VOCABULARY

 

1. primatologist n. 灵长类动物学家

2. chimpanzee n. a small intelligent African ape (= an animal like a large monkey without a tail) 黑猩猩

3. groom v. (of an animal 动物) to clean the fur or skin of another animal or itself (给自己或其他动物)理毛,梳毛。例如:a female ape grooming her mate为同伴梳毛的母猿

4. primate n. any animal that belongs to the group of mammals that includes humans, apes and monkeys 灵长类;灵长目动物

5. compliment v. compliment sb. (on sth.) to tell sb. that you like or admire sth. they have done, their appearance, etc. 赞美;称赞;钦佩。例如:She complimented him on his excellent German. 她夸奖他德语棒极了。

6. anthropologist n. a person who studies anthropology 人类学家

7. anesthesiologist n. (North Amercian English) a doctor who studies the use of anaesthetics(麻醉药;麻醉剂) 麻醉师

8. cower v. to bend low and / or move backwards because you are frightened (因恐惧而)蜷缩,畏缩,退缩。例如:A gun went off and people cowered behind walls and under tables. 一声枪响,人们缩到墙后或桌子底下躲起来。

9. stomp v. (informal) to walk, dance, or move with heavy steps 迈着重重的步子走(或跳舞、移动)。例如:She stomped angrily out of the office. 她怒气冲冲,重步走出办公室。

10. discipline n. an area of knowledge; a subject that people study or are taught, especially in a university 知识领域;(尤指大学的)学科,科目

11. chest-beating: "Chest-beating" is commonly used to illustrate that the subject is displaying dominant or aggressive behavior by comparing them metaphorically to an adult male ape beating his chest to proclaim his status. 表达的是类似与金刚捶胸的动作,表示很有自信,体现优势、权势、威势的意思。

 

u QUESTIONS

 

Listen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.

 

What did Laura Jones’s research team study?

 Observing chimpanzees and taking notes of their activities.

 Behaviors of surgeons and nurses at three U.S. hospitals.

 Behaviors of surgeons, nurses and anesthesiologists at three U.S. hospitals.

 Behaviors of surgeons, nurses, anesthesiologists and other staff at three U.S. hospitals.

 

 According to the news, which team will have the highest levels of cooperation?

 Male-male team.

 Mixed teams.

 Female-female team.

 Old-young team.

 

What does the previous study in primates show?

 Female human competition is strongest between individuals.

 Human and non-human competition is strongest between individuals of the different gender.

 Human and non-human competition is strongest between individuals of the same gender.

 Male human competition is strongest between individuals.

 

What does the surgery findings encourage?

 Both men and women go into all the disciplines.

 The best career choice for men is to go into the science.

 The best career choice for women is to go into the arts.

 Both men and women go into the medical science.

 

u KEY

 

D。细节题。命题出处:The primates her team studied were surgeons, nurses, anesthesiologists and other staff at three U.S. hospitals. The researchers observed 200 surgeries, while logging behaviors like cursing and cowering, stomping or head shaking, joking and singing, complimenting or flirting.

 

B。推断题。命题出处:Instead, the highest levels of cooperation occurred when a female surgeon had a male surgical team, and vice versa - perhaps, Jones says, because those mixed teams avoided male-male or female-female conflict.

 

C。细节题。命题出处:In fact, previous studies in primates - both human and non-human - have shown that competition is strongest between individuals of the same gender.  

 

A。细节题。命题出处:"I would say the most practical thing to do at this point would be using this to affect training. And of course, you know, encourage both men and women, to go into all the disciplines, because right now they're heavily gendered." Perhaps by diversifying the operating room we can leave chest-beating behaviors at the door.


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  • 时长:1.9分钟
  • 语速:158wpm
  • 来源:刘立军 2019-03-07
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