双语阅读 | 聪明的“笨”小孩

双语阅读 | 聪明的“笨”小孩
较难 437

What is dyslexia?



Often the journey begins when a teacher recognizes that a student is not acquiring basic reading skills at the same rate as other students. Or parents may begin to wonder why their younger child is having so much more difficulty in reading than an older sibling did at the same age. 

问题最初显露往往是因为老师发现某个学生掌握基础阅读能力的速度落后于其他学生,或是父母开始奇怪为什么相较于哥哥姐姐,弟弟或者妹妹在相同年龄时阅读遇到的困难多得多。

Dyslexia is a condition that hampers a person's ability to read. About 700 million people in the world are known to suffer from dyslexia — about one in ten of the global population. According to a research, in non-dyslexic people, the cells are arranged asymmetrically in both eyes, allowing signals from the one eye to be overridden by the other to create a single image in the brain. However, in people with the reading disability, the cells are arranged in matching patterns in both eyes, which may be to blame for confusing the brain by producing "mirror" images.

阅读障碍会阻碍阅读能力的发展。世界上已知约有7亿人患有阅读障碍,大致占全球人口的十分之一。据研究发现,非阅读障碍者双眼的视锥细胞呈不对称排列,一只眼睛收到的视觉信号会被另一只眼睛的信号覆盖,从而在大脑中建造出单个图像。但对于患有阅读障碍的人,双眼视锥细胞分布一致,这可能会使大脑把接收到的信息处理为镜像图像,产生信息读取混乱。


Dyslexic children cannot be cured with medicine or surgery. Instead, they can only be helped with special education. Despite school policies supporting inclusion and equality, dyslexic children still experience exclusion and prejudice in education. Dyslexia not only affects children's academic life and relationships with families and classmates, but also their psychological health. Under great pressure, some may have a proclivity toward violence and some are self-abased.

患有阅读障碍的孩子无法通过药物或手术治愈,而是需要接受特殊教育。尽管学校政策倡导包容和平等,阅读困难的孩子在教育中仍会受到排斥和偏见。阅读障碍症不仅影响孩子的学业以及与家人和同学的关系,还会导致心理问题。在巨大的压力下,有些人可能会出现暴力倾向,有些人则会产生自卑心理。

Research indicates that children with dyslexia have the best outcomes when they receive early, targeted intervention that prevents reading difficulties from becoming more serious and long-lasting deficits. The communication between parents and teachers is essential in determining if a child needs additional instruction or support. 

研究表明,患有阅读障碍的儿童若在早期接受针对性的干预,治疗效果最佳。这种干预可以防止阅读困难演变成更为严重且长期的缺陷。父母与老师之间的沟通在确定孩子是否需要额外的指导或帮助时则显得至关重要。


All children are unique, and so, too, is each child’s language development and reading skill mastery. Dyslexic learners just need more time or are “late bloomers”. Some of the greatest minds in history such as Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawking, and Leonardo da Vinci were dyslexic, while successful entrepreneurs like Richard Branson and Steve Jobs made use of their dyslexic brains to build billion-dollar companies. 

所有孩子都是独一无二的,每个孩子的语言发展和掌握阅读能力的过程也是如此。阅读障碍者只是需要更多时间,或者说他们是“大器晚成”之人。历史上一些天才,例如阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦、史蒂芬·霍金和莱昂纳多·达·芬奇,都患有阅读障碍症,而像理查德·布兰森和史蒂夫·乔布斯这样的成功企业家则凭借阅读困难的大脑建立了价值数十亿美元的公司。

Dyslexia isn’t a disability, but a difference. It’s a distinction, not a drawback.

阅读障碍不是缺陷,而是一种差异;它是一种区别,而不是缺点。



VOCABULARY

hamper  v. 妨碍;阻碍
asymmetrically  adv. 不对称地
override  v. 比...更重要;凌驾
proclivity  n. 倾向
self-abased  adj. 自卑的

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  • 来源:互联网 2020-06-15