China's response to 2019 novel coronavirus
In China, public health capacities to respond and manage the outbreak1 are available and have been activated by Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, working with the Health Commission of Hubei province and a national expert team. Measures to control and manage the outbreak reported by the Chinese authorities are said to include: treatment and isolation of patients2, tracing of close contacts, clean-up of the Huanan Seafood Wholesale market and other markets, conducting active and retroactive3 case finding4 in all provinces according to national protocols and risk communication. Many countries are issuing travel advisory and at least 11 countries have implemented entry screening measures5. Technical guidance documents have been updated by WHO and partners to timely help the Member States in prevention and response measures, and studies are being considered for vaccine and therapeutics. Capacity to prepare for and respond to this event varies substantially in the Region and globally. Significant support both technical and financial may be required by some Member States.
1) respond and manage the outbreak: 应对和处置疫情的发生
2) treatment and isolation of patients: 患者的治疗和隔离
3) retroactive: adj. 可追溯的
4) case finding: 病例追查
5) implement entry screening measures: 实施入境检查措施
Rapid information disclosure1 is a top priority for disease control and prevention. A daily press release system has been established in China to ensure effective and efficient disclosure of epidemic information. Education campaigns should be launched to promote precautions for travellers, including frequent hand-washing, cough etiquette, and use of personal protection equipment (eg, masks) when visiting public places. Also, the general public should be motivated to report fever and other risk factors for coronavirus infection, including travel history to affected area and close contacts with confirmed or suspected cases2.
1) rapid information disclosure: 信息及时公开（披露）
2) confirmed or suspected cases: 确诊或疑似病例
All these facts together have led Chinese authorities to enforce drastic containment measures1 such as the closure of public-transportation systems in Wuhan as well as in other cities in the country including Wuhan International airport . The WHO Emergency Committee met on January 23rd and although the situation at that time is not considered to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)2, WHO monitors the situation closely and can, under the global legal framework, the revised International Health Regulations (IHR), recommend travel and trade restrictions when these are deemed necessary. An estimate of R03 of 1.4-2.5 was presented. Considering this, it is not only important to follow the progression of the epidemic closely but also coordinate the countries' mechanisms to mitigate4 the impact in health care services and the community. There are no known useful treatments for the disease caused by this new coronavirus.
1) containment measures: 遏制措施
2) Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC): 国际关注的突发公共卫生事件
3) R0: 基本传染数
4) mitigate: v. 减轻；缓解
The new coronavirus' symptoms
Symptoms of the new coronavirus are similar to pneumonia, and can range from mild symptoms, like a slight cough, to more severe symptoms, including fever and difficulty in breathing, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention1.
Some patients who have been diagnosed with the coronavirus had lesions2 on their lungs, which were uncovered through X-rays.
While a report in the Lancet, published Jan. 24, suggested that people who contract coronavirus might be able to spread the disease before they develop symptoms, the CDC says there's currently "no clear evidence" of patients being infectious before symptom onset3. For now, the virus’ incubation period is believed to be between 2 to 14 days.
1) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 疾病预防控制中心
2) lesion: 病变
3) onset: 开始