双语阅读 | 为什么蚊子爱咬人?

为什么蚊子爱咬人?Why Do Mosquitoes Love to Bite You?王淑怡 供稿In summer, mosquitoes interrupt our sleep with their constant buzzing, they bite us leaving redness, itching, and sometimes edema. Also, they can transmit a large number of diseases to us.夏季到来,恼人的蚊子总是不断骚扰我们,晚上嗡嗡嗡吵的人睡不着,被蚊子咬到后会出现红肿、瘙痒,有时还会出现水肿。蚊子还会给人类传播大量疾病。Why Do Mosquitoes’ Bite Us?蚊子为什么会咬人?First of all, you should know that not all mosquitoes bite. There are around 3,500 species and only three of them seek our blood: Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes. Likewise, it is only female mosquitoes that bite. And only those who need protein and other chemicals in the blood to produce and deposit their eggs. In general, a female mosquito can lay between 30 and 300 eggs by sucking blood once. To complete the process of forming more eggs, she needs to suck again. Male mosquitoes do not bite because they feed on the nectar and juices produced by plants. Females could also live without stinging, but the three species we mentioned need this for their reproduction.首先,你要知道并非所有的蚊子都咬人。全世界约有3500种蚊子,只有三种吸食人血,分别是按蚊(Anopheles)、库蚊(Culex)和伊蚊(Aedes)。同样,只有雌蚊才会咬人。因为人的血液中含有蛋白质和其他化学物质,雌蚊需要这些物质来产卵和储存蚊卵。一般来说,一只雌蚊子吸饱一次血能产卵30至300粒。为了能产更多的蚊卵,它们需要不断吸血。雄蚊吸食花蜜、植物的汁液等,它们不吸血。雌蚊也可以和雄蚊一样,不以吸食人血为生,但方才提到的三种蚊子只能通过吸血来繁殖后代。Why Do Mosquitoes Bites Itch?为什么被咬后会觉得痒?When they bite, mosquitoes insert their mouthparts under our skin and then inject some of their saliva to prevent the blood from clotting as they absorb it. On the other hand, the immune system reacts to chemicals in the insect’s saliva. This causes different reactions: redness, swelling, and itching. Although these reactions are the most common and harmless, children, people with weak immune systems, and adults who have never been bitten before tend to react with more severe symptoms. Among which fever and hives.蚊子在叮咬的时候,它的口器刺入我们的皮下,通过注入唾液来防止周血液凝固,方便它们吸血。另一方面,这些唾液中内含的化学成分会使我们的免疫系统作出反应,出现红肿发痒等症状。虽然这些症状很常见也无害,但是儿童、免疫系统较弱的人和从未被蚊虫叮咬过的成年人,容易出现更加严重的症状,如发烧或荨麻疹。Do Mosquitoes Prefer Some People Over Others?蚊子会“偏爱”某些人吗?As unfair as it sounds, the answer is yes. Indeed, some studies suggest that 20% of people are irresistible to mosquitoes. Likewise, entomologists have discovered other factors that may be more attractive to these insects. Several factors, therefore, make you the favorite prey of mosquitoes. The best known and most supported by science are as follows.虽然这听起来有些荒谬,但答案是肯定的。事实上,研究表明20%的人对蚊子来说尤其“美味”。同样,昆虫学家发现了吸引蚊子的一些原因。有几点原因让你成为了蚊子的“最爱”。以下是最被大众熟知和最具科学依据的几点原因:1. The color of the clothes1.衣着颜色Mosquitoes use the sense of sight to locate their prey. The studies suggest that they are often more attracted to dark colors such as black, green, and red. In this sense, if you wear clothes in these tones, you will become the ideal target for most mosquitoes.蚊子依靠视觉来锁定“猎物”。研究表明,蚊子更喜欢叮咬穿黑色、绿色和红色等深色衣服的人。也就是说,如果你穿着这类颜色的衣服,你就会成为大多数蚊子的理想目标。2. The carbon dioxide we emit2.二氧化碳Mosquitoes have the ability to smell the carbon dioxide that we exhale as we breathe. Therefore, the more we exhale, the more prone we are to their stings. In general, our production of dioxide increases when we play sports or when our body size is large. Also, be aware that when we exhale through our nose and mouth, mosquitoes feel more attracted to the head area. This explains why we hear their incessant buzzing during the night.蚊子可以嗅到人们呼吸时产生的二氧化碳。所以,呼出更多气体的人更加吸引蚊子。一般来说,运动中的人或体型较大的人会呼出更多的二氧化碳。另外,我们在用鼻子和嘴呼吸时,蚊子就会更容易飞向头部区域。这也就是为什么我们晚上总能一直听见“嗡嗡”声。3. Chemicals and body temperature3. 化学物质和体温Mosquitoes can also detect their prey by sniffing lactic acid, uric acid, ammonia, and other compounds emitted by sweat. They also have a great preference for people with an elevated body temperature. Also, being active makes us more prone to mosquito bites due to the increase in lactic acid and body temperature. There are also genetic factors involved in the amount of uric acid and other substances secreted.蚊子会根据人们出汗时排出的乳酸、尿酸、氨气以及其他物质来确定目标,而且更喜欢体温较高的人。由于剧烈运动会促进乳酸的增加并产生更多热量,这会使你从蚊子的众多目标中“脱颖而出”。与此同时,遗传因素也会影响人们排出的乳酸和其他物质的含量。4. Bacteria present in the skin4. 皮肤细菌Some scientific studies have shown that the type and amount of bacteria present in the skin can make us more prone to mosquito bites. The most irresistible to mosquitoes are those that present the most numbers of certain types of skin microbes. This factor would explain why some insects are so attracted to the ankle and foot area. These regions are a sure source of bacteria.科学研究表明,人类皮肤上细菌的具体类型和数量也会影响人们对蚊子的吸引力。如果皮肤上有许多细菌,但菌群的种类更为多样的话,这样的皮肤最能吸引蚊子。这也许解释了为什么蚊子尤其喜欢咬我们的踝关节和双脚,因为这些部位的菌群组成更加稳定。5. Pregnancy5.孕妇According to studies, pregnant women are more attractive to mosquitoes. Indeed, during pregnancy, women exhale more carbon dioxide (about 21% more volume). Their body temperature is also higher.研究表明,蚊子更喜欢叮咬孕妇。怀孕时,孕妇会比其他人多呼出21%的二氧化碳,体温也会更高。6. Drink beer6. 爱喝啤酒的人A 2002 research has associated alcohol consumption with increased mosquito bites. Scientists determined that those who consumed beer were more attractive to insects than those who did not.2002年的一项研究表明,饮酒和被蚊子叮咬相关。科学家们发现,喝了啤酒的人更易得到蚊子的青睐。How To Prevent Mosquito Bites?如何预防蚊虫叮咬?Although it is sometimes impossible to avoid being stung, there are some things you can do to prevent discomfort. The main thing is, first of all, to reduce the risk of contracting a disease.虽然有时我们会不可避免地遭到蚊子叮咬,但你可以做些什么来缓解不适。最重要的是,首先要降低感染疾病的风险。Use insect repellant.Use long clothes, pants, and socks, if possible.Choose light-colored clothing.Avoid going out at nightfall or daybreak: these are the hours when mosquitoes are most active.使用驱虫剂;尽量穿长袖长裤和袜子;穿浅色服饰;避免傍晚或黎明外出:蚊子在这些时间段最活跃。【VOCABULARY】1. itching n. 痒2. edema n. [病理] 水肿3. nectar n. [植] 花蜜4.mouthpart n. (节肢动物等的)口器5. saliva n. 唾液6. hives n. [皮肤] 荨麻疹7.irresistible adj. 极诱人的;忍不住想要的8. entomologist n. 昆虫学者9.lactic acid 乳酸10. uric acid 尿酸11. ammonia n. 氨;氨水12. secrete v. 分泌13. microbes n. 细菌14. repellant n. 驱虫剂(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 走路慢的人可能衰老速度更快

走路慢的人可能衰老速度更快Slow Walkers Might Age Faster Than People Who Pick Up the Pace王淑怡 供稿 Ambling along at a leisurely pace might seem like an ideal anti-stress strategy, but if slow-and-steady is your usual speed, it could be an indication that you’re aging more quickly than someone with a faster gait.慢悠悠地走路似乎是一种理想的抗压策略,但如果你一直都缓慢平稳地走路,这可能向你发出了一个信号:你会比走路快的人衰老得更快。 A research published in JAMA Network Open used data from a long-term study collecting health information on over 900 New Zealanders over a 40-year period that started when the participants were around 3 years old. They assessed gait speed, focusing on the slowest 20 percent and fastest 20 percent throughout three walking conditions: at their usual gait, at their normal pace while reciting alternate letters of the alphabet out loud, and at their maximum gait speed.《美国医学会杂志网络公开版》上发布了一项研究,研究数据来自对900多名新西兰人进行的长达40年的健康追踪调查,参试者自3岁起就接受了测试。研究人员评估了参试者的步行速度,重点关注步速最慢和最快的20%参试者的三项行走速度:一般步行速度、一边大声背诵字母表中的间隔字母一边正常行走的速度,以及最大步行速度。 The slowest walkers averaged 1.21 meters per second (m/s), or roughly 2.7 miles per hour, throughout all three of the conditions, while the fastest walkers averaged 1.75 m/s, or 3.9 miles per hour.在以上三种状态下,步速最慢的参试者的平均速度为每秒1.21米,或约每小时2.7英里,而步速最快的参试者为每秒1.75米,或每小时3.9英里。 They also had 19 biomarkers assessed, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, cholesterol levels, white blood cell count, gum health, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Finally, they had neuroimaging tests to look at age-related features of the brain.研究人员还评估了19项生理指标,包括体重指数(BMI)、腰臀比、胆固醇水平、白细胞计数、牙龈健康以及心肺功能等等。最后,他们还利用神经影像测试评估了参试者与年龄相关的大脑特征。 Researchers discovered that those with the slowest walking speed showed accelerated aging across the various biomarkers, as well as a reduction in total brain volume, showing that walking speed can affect both physical and cognitive health. In fact, there was even a 16-point IQ difference between the fastest and the slowest walkers, the study found. Slower walkers were also judged to appear significantly older than faster walkers, and scored worse on tests that measured balance and grip strength.研究者发现,从多项生理指标来看,走路最慢的参试者呈现了加速衰老的特征,同时他们的大脑总容量也有所减小。这表明,走路速度会影响人的身体健康和认知健康。研究还发现,走路最慢和最快的参试者之间平均相差16个智商值。走路较慢的参试者比走路快的参试者看起来明显更显老,在平衡和握力测试中的得分也更低。 “How fast people are walking in midlife tells us a lot about how much their bodies and brains have aged over time,” said lead researcher Line Rasmussen, Ph.D., of Duke University. She told Runner’s World the most remarkable aspect of the research is that they may be able to look at cognitive functions in toddlers — how well they do on an IQ test, their proficiency at language, how easily they manage their emotions — and predict how slowly those children will be walking at midlife. “Gait speed is not only an indicator of aging, but also an indicator of lifelong brain health,” she said.杜克大学的首席研究员莱恩·拉斯穆森博士说:“人到中年时的步行速度可以反映出随着时间的推移,他们身体和大脑的衰老程度如何。”她告诉《跑者世界》,这项研究最引人注目的一点是,研究者可以通过观察学步儿童的各种认知能力,比如他们在智力测试中的表现、他们的语言能力和情绪管理能力,来预测这些孩子中年时期的步行速度。她说:“步行速度不仅是一项衡量衰老的指标,也是衡量大脑终身健康状况的指标。” Does that mean those kids are destined to be slow walkers, and therefore at a disadvantage health-wise when they get older? Not necessarily, Rasmussen added, because there are ways to improve brain health. For example, running. “Although we didn’t investigate running speed in this study, typically people who love running are also able to walk very fast, because running keeps the brain’s capacity to control bipedal locomotion at its sharpest,” she said. “Running is an excellent way of keeping the body and mind in shape.”这是否意味着,这些孩子长大以后就必然会走路缓慢,他们年老之后的身体机能也必会处于劣势?拉斯穆森博士认为未必如此,因为大脑健康状况可以通过多种方式来改善,例如跑步。“虽然在这项研究中,我们并没有测试参与者的跑步速度,但通常来说,热爱跑步的人走路也很快,因为跑步会使大脑控制双足步行的能力保持在最敏锐的水平,”她说,“跑步是保持身心健康的绝佳方式。"  【VOCABULARY】 1. amble v. 缓行;漫步2. leisurely adj. 不慌不忙的;慢悠悠的3. gait n. 步态;步法4. biomarker n. 生物标志物;生理指标 5. body mass index 身体质量指数;体质指数6. cholesterol n. 胆固醇7. gum n. 牙龈;齿龈;牙床8. cardiorespiratory adj. 心和肺的9. neuroimaging n. 神经影像10. grip n. 紧握;紧抓11. toddler n. 初学走路的孩子12. bipedal locomotion 双足步行   (封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 剃须历史知多少

剃须历史知多少The History of Shaving王淑怡 供稿Although the exact timeline of shaving isn’t clear, most experts and found artifactssuggest that shaving has been around since approximately 100,000 BC, when cavemenwould eliminate hair from their body by pulling them out one at a time, even using rocks or shells to speed the process. Fast-forward another 70,000 years and early man has recognized the value of sharpened flint, not only good for striking fire, but also for delicately slicing off hair from the body!尽管人类开始刮胡子的确切时间尚不清楚,但大多数专家和已发现的手工艺品均表明,剃须的起源大约始于公元前100000年,那时的穴居人会一根根地将胡须全部拔掉,甚至使用像岩石或贝壳之类的东西来清理胡须。过了70000年,人们发现磨光的燧石不仅可以用来打火,还能够精准地剃除毛发!The real history of shaving, however, doesn’t begin until we reach the Egyptian civilization, where the act of shaving madeits real debut on the world stage. Egyptians had a powerful belief that body hair was a sign of uncleanliness, so both men and women engaged in the complete removal of hair from the body—head to toe! In some cases, causticingredients like quicklimeand arsenicwere used in these primitive depilatorycreams and shaving lotions. Early razors also appeared around the time, with the rise in metalworkingand mining in many areas of the world. The Egyptian relationship to cleanliness and body hair bordered on the obsessive, and the upper classes often bathed multiple times per day. They would shave their heads completely bald, and then wearout cooling wigsin public.刮胡子真正流行的时期是在古埃及文明时,此时也是剃须首次登上历史舞台。古埃及人深信体毛是不洁的标志,因此男人和女人都致力于从头到脚彻底清除体毛,他们还在原始脱毛膏和剃须液中加入了诸如生石灰和砷之类的腐蚀性原料。再后来,随着世界上许多地区的金属加工和采矿业的兴起,早期的剃刀也随之出现。古埃及人对于身体的洁净和脱毛达到了近乎痴迷的程度,上层阶级经常一天洗好几次澡。他们会把头发剃光,然后在公共场合佩戴凉快的假发。Accordingto anthropologists, the fear of uncleanliness may have been the early reason for prehistoricman to shave. Body hair provides an ideal environment for liceand other unwanted critters, and can also be a breeding ground for fungalinfections, particularly in hot or humid weather. Furthermore, having an excess of body hair led to the much faster development of body odor, another sign of uncleanliness within the rigid Egyptian society.人类学家认为,古人类刮胡子的重要原因是觉得胡子太脏了。在炎热或潮湿的天气下,胡须为虱子和其他有害生物提供了理想的环境,也成为了真菌感染的温床。除此之外,毛发还会散播更多的身体异味,这在严格的古埃及社会中也是不洁的标志。As a result of these elevated opinions, shaving became somewhat associated with class and status. Having an unshaven face in Egypt meant that you could not afford to visit a barber every day, or perhaps that you didn’t care about your appearance or standing in society. To this day, there are still areas where having an unshaven face is associated with laziness or a lack of professionalism.作为上层阶级的选择,剃须在某种程度上与阶级和地位相关联。如果一个男人不剃胡子,说明他负担不起理发师的费用,或者根本不在乎自己的容貌或社会地位。时至今日,世界上仍有很多区域的人们认为,不剃须的男人与懒惰或缺乏专业素养有关。This habit of shaving off one’s hair wasn’t immediately embraced by the rest of the world, but the Greeks and Romans were eventually won over in the 4th century BC. Not only was Alexander the Great a massive proponent of shaving—every single day—but also noted that less hair meant enemy combatantswould have less to grab onto, making Roman warriors even hardier and more formidable.古埃及的这种全身刮毛的习惯并没有立即被世界其他地方接受,不过,到公元前4世纪,古希腊和古罗马人也开始剃须。亚历山大大帝不仅大力提倡每天剃须,还指出,胡须越短,敌人在战斗中就越难以抓住胡子,这会让古罗马的战士们越斗志昂扬、坚不可摧。For the next thousand years, shaving spreads throughout Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Some cultures keep a clean but impressive beard, while shaving off all the other hair on their bodies, while other cultures object to removing body hair in other areas. In various countries at various times, there are waves of popularity behind shaving, sometimes in line with a cultural movement, or a particular fashion trend.在之后的一千年里,剃须的习俗遍及欧洲、中东和亚洲。有的文化要求人们保留干净美观的胡须,同时剃掉其他毛发,但也有文化反对人们剔除身体其他部位的毛发。在不同国家、不同时期,剃须背后都有不同的流行,或者符合某种文化运动,或者追求某种特定的时尚潮流。【VOCABULARY】1.artifactn.(尤指有历史或文化价值的) 手工艺品2.caveman n.(史前石器时代的)穴居人;野人3.flintn.燧石;打火石;极硬的东西4.made debut首秀,首次亮相5.causticadj.[化学] 腐蚀性的;6.quicklimen. 生石灰7.arsenicn. 砷8.metalworkingn.金属制造9.anthropologistn. 人类学家10.prehistoricadj. 史前的,有文字记载以前的11.licen. 虱子(louse 的复数)12.crittern. 生物;小动物13.fungaladj. 真菌的14.odor n. 气味;名声15.combatantn. 战士;争斗者(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 美疾控中心建议已接种疫苗者在室内公共场所恢复戴口罩

美疾控中心建议已接种疫苗者在室内公共场所恢复戴口罩CDCadvises vaccinated people to wear face masks in public indoor spaces刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTHello, I'm Neil Nunes with the BBC News.The United States has announced tougher rules to combata sharp rise in coronavirus cases caused by the more infectious Delta variant. The Centers for Disease Control, or CDC, advises even vaccinatedpeople to wear face masks in public indoor spaces. The announcement reverses advice issued in May. Peter Bowes has this report. The CDC says about 2/3 of countieshave high transmission rates that warrantthe wearing of masks with the Delta variant behind many of the surges. Some states, such as Florida and Missouri, have seen rapidly rising infection rates. The CDC's guidance is a reversal of its position 2 months ago and poses a dilemma for many local and state authorities with some highly reluctant to accept tougher measures.VOCABULARY1. combatv. to stop sth. unpleasant or harmful from happening or from getting worse 防止;减轻。例如:measures to combat crime/inflation/unemployment/disease 防止犯罪 / 通货膨胀 / 失业 / 疾病的措施2.vaccinatev. to give a person or an animal a vaccine , especially by injecting it, in order to protectthem against a disease 给……接种疫苗。例如:I was vaccinated against tetanus.我接种了破伤风疫苗。3.countyn. (美国的)县4.warrantv. (formal) to make sth. necessary or appropriate in a particular situation 使有必要;使正当;使恰当。例如:Further investigation is clearly warranted.进一步调查显然是必要的。QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. The CDCadvises even vaccinated people to wear face masks in public spaces. 2. The CDC says about 2/3 of stateshave high transmission rates that warrant the wearing of masks with the Delta variant behind many of the surges. 3. Florida and Missourihave seen rapidly rising infection ratesbecause of the Delta variant. 4. The CDC's guidance is a reversal of its position onemonth ago.5. The government's guidance poses a dilemma for many local and state authorities with some highly reluctant to accept tougher measures.KEY Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(F)1. The CDCadvises even vaccinated people to wear face masks in public spaces.(正确表达)The CDCadvises even vaccinated people to wear face masks in public indoor spaces. (F)2. The CDC says about 2/3 of stateshave high transmission rates that warrant the wearing of masks with the Delta variant behind many of the surges.(正确表达)The CDC says about 2/3 of countieshave high transmission rates that warrant the wearing of masks with the Delta variant behind many of the surges. (T) 3. Florida and Missourihave seen rapidly rising infection ratesbecause of the Delta variant. (F)4. The CDC's guidance is a reversal of its position onemonth ago. (正确表达)The CDC's guidance is a reversal of its position 2 months ago.(F)5. The government'sguidance poses a dilemma for many local and state authorities with some highly reluctant to accept tougher measures.(正确表达)The CDC'sguidance poses a dilemma for many local and state authorities with some highly reluctant to accept tougher measures.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 气候变化导致极端天气增多

气候变化导致极端天气增多Climate change led to an increase in extreme weather刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThe number of disasters driven by climate change, such as floods and heatwaves, have increased by five times over the past 50 years. Such disasters have killed more than 2 million people and cost governments $3.64 trillion since 1979. A United Nations agency reported the findings Wednesday.The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) says its "Atlas" is the most complete examination ever of death and economic losses from weather, water and climate extremes. The agency looked at about 11,000 disasters that took place between 1970 and 2019. They included major catastrophessuch as Ethiopia's period of extreme dry weather in 1983. The drought killed more than 300,000 people and was the single most deadly event the WMO looked at. Also included was Hurricane Katrina, which struck the United States in 2005. That disaster was the most costly included in the report, with losses of $163.6 billion.The agency said the growing number of major disasters was due to both climate change and improved disaster reporting. WMO Secretary-General Petteri Taalas told reporters Wednesday: "Thanks to our early warning service improvement we have been able to have a decrease of the casualties at these kind of events, but the bad news is that the economic losses have been growing very rapidly and this growth is supposed to continue."The report's findings add to evidence that extreme weather events are becoming more common due to climate change. Costs from theseevents also rose from $175.4 billion in the 1970s to $1.38 trillion in the 2010s. While disasters became more costly and common, the yearly death toll has fallen from more than 50,000 in the 1970s to around 18,000 in the 2010s. Such findings suggest that better planning efforts are working. The WMO hopes the report will be used to help governments develop policies to better protect people.More than 91 percent of the 2 million deaths occurred in developing countries, the report said. The report noted that only half of the WMO's 193 members have complex early warning systems. It also said that "severe gaps" in weather observations, especially in Africa, were making early warning systems less effective.Mami Mizutori is head of the U.N. office for disaster risk reduction. She urged the world's major economies to help hard-hit developing countries pay for warning systems and riskmodeling.VOCABULARY1. catastrophen. a sudden event that causes many people to suffer 灾难。例如:Early warnings of rising water levels prevented another major catastrophe. 提前发出的洪水水位上涨警报防止了又一次的重大灾害。2.riskmodelingn.风险建模QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. The number of disasters driven by climate change has increased by five times over the past 50 years. 2. The Ethiopia's extreme dry weather in 1983 killed more than 300,000 animals. 3. The disaster of the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was not the most costly included in the report.4. According to WMO Secretary-General, the good news is that the economic losses have been growing steadily and this growth is supposed to continue.5. The extreme weather events are becoming more common due to climate change. 6. The WMO hopes the report will be used to help governments develop policies to better protect environment.7. More than 91 percent of the 2 million deaths occurred in developing countries. 8. Mami Mizutori urged the world's major economies to help hard-hit developing countries pay for warning systems and risk modeling.KEY Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(T) 1. The number of disasters driven by climate change has increased by five times over the past 50 years. (F) 2. The Ethiopia's extreme dry weather in 1983 killed more than 300,000 animals. (正确表达)The Ethiopia's extreme dry weather in 1983 killed more than 300,000 people. (F) 3. The disaster of the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was notthe most costly included in the report. (正确表达)The disaster of the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 wasthe most costly included in the report.(F) 4. According to WMO Secretary-General, the good newsis that the economic losses have been growing slowlyand this growth is supposed to continue. (正确表达)According to WMO Secretary-General, the bad newsis that the economic losses have been growing very rapidlyand this growth is supposed to continue.(T) 5. The extreme weather events are becoming more common due to climate change. (F) 6. The WMO hopes the report will be used to help governments develop policies to better protect environment. (正确表达)The WMO hopes the report will be used to help governments develop policies to better protect people.(T) 7. More than 91 percent of the 2 million deaths occurred in developing countries. (T) 8. Mami Mizutori urged the world's major economies to help hard-hit developing countries pay for warning systems and risk modeling.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 砖块变电池

砖块变电池Brickscan be used as energy storage units刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Shahla Farzan.Bricks are one of the oldest known building materials, dating back thousands of years.But researchers at Washington University in St. Louis have found a new use for bricks: as energy storage units. A team of engineers and chemists have found a way to transform an ordinary house brick into a pseudo-battery - allowing it to conductand store electricity.The bricks are powerful enough to illuminatean LED light bulb and cost only about $3 to make."I love the idea of adding value to things that are inexpensive, things that are affordable, things that we kind of take for granted."Julio D'Arcy is an assistant professor of chemistry at Washington University and one of the researchers on this project.The brick battery relies on the reddish pigment known as iron oxide, or rust, that gives red bricks their color. The scientists pumped the bricks with several gases that react with iron oxide to produce a network of plastic fibers. These microscopicfibers coat the empty spaces inside the bricks - and conduct electricity."What we're trying to do is: we're trying to make specialized plastics that are only used on the nanoscale- where we use very little of the plastic, and we can actually embed that plastic inside construction materials that can store energy."The study is in the journal Nature Communications.In the future, D'Arcy says, a brick wall could potentially serve a dual purpose: providing structural support and storing electricity generated from renewable energy sources, likesolar panels.The technology is still at least a few years away from being ready for the commercial market. Right now the energy storage capacity of the bricks is still pretty low - about 1 percent of a lithium ion battery(锂电池). But the team is now testing ways to improve brick performance - because it looks like you can teach an old brick new tricks.For Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Shahla Farzan.VOCABULARY1. conductv.to allow heat or electricity to pass along or through it 传导(热或电等能量)。例如:Copper conducts electricity well.铜的导电性能好。2. illuminatev.to shine light on sth. 照明;照亮;照射。例如:Floodlights illuminated the stadium.泛光灯照亮了体育场。3. microscopicadj.extremely small and difficult or impossible to see without a microscope 极小的;微小的;需用显微镜观察的。例如:a microscopic creature/particle微生物;微粒4.nanoscalen. 纳米级QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Shahla Farzan.Bricks are one of the oldest known building materials, dating back thousands of years.But researchers at Washington University in St. Louis have found a new use for bricks: as (Q1) _____________________. A team of engineers and chemists have found a way to transform an ordinary house brick into a pseudo-battery - allowing it to (Q2) _________________________.The bricks are powerful enough to illuminate an LED light bulb and cost only about $3 to make."I love the idea of adding value to things that are (Q3) __________________, things that are affordable, things that we kind of take for granted."Julio D'Arcy is an (Q4) _____________________of chemistry at Washington University and one of the researchers on this project.The brick battery relies on the reddish pigment known as iron oxide, or (Q5) ____________, that gives red bricks their color. The scientists pumped the bricks with several gases that react with iron oxide to produce a network of (Q6) _______________________. These microscopic fibers coat the empty spaces inside the bricks - and conduct electricity."What we're trying to do is: we're trying to make specialized plastics that are only used on the nanoscale - where we use very little of the plastic, and we can actually embed that plastic inside (Q7) ____________________________that can store energy."The study is in the journal Nature Communications.In the future, D'Arcy says, a brick wall could potentially serve a dual purpose: providing structural support and (Q8) ________________generated from renewable energy sources, likesolar panels.The technology is still at least a few years away from being ready for the (Q9) __________________. Right now the energy storage capacity of the bricks is still pretty low - about 1 percent of a lithium ion battery. But the team is now testing ways to improve brick performance - because it looks like you can (Q10) _____________________________.For Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Shahla Farzan.KEY Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Shahla Farzan.Bricks are one of the oldest known building materials, dating back thousands of years.But researchers at Washington University in St. Louis have found a new use for bricks: as (Q1) energy storage units. A team of engineers and chemists have found a way to transform an ordinary house brick into a pseudo-battery - allowing it to (Q2) conduct and store electricity.The bricks are powerful enough to illuminate an LED light bulb and cost only about $3 to make."I love the idea of adding value to things that are (Q3) inexpensive, things that are affordable, things that we kind of take for granted."Julio D'Arcy is an (Q4) assistant professorof chemistry at Washington University and one of the researchers on this project.The brick battery relies on the reddish pigment known as iron oxide, or (Q5) rust, that gives red bricks their color. The scientists pumped the bricks with several gases that react with iron oxide to produce a network of (Q6) plastic fibers. These microscopic fibers coat the empty spaces inside the bricks - and conduct electricity."What we're trying to do is: we're trying to make specialized plastics that are only used on the nanoscale - where we use very little of the plastic, and we can actually embed that plastic inside (Q7) construction materialsthat can store energy."The study is in the journal Nature Communications.In the future, D'Arcy says, a brick wall could potentially serve a dual purpose: providing structural support and (Q8) storing electricitygenerated from renewable energy sources, likesolar panels.The technology is still at least a few years away from being ready for the (Q9) commercial market. Right now the energy storage capacity of the bricks is still pretty low - about 1 percent of a lithium ion battery. But the team is now testing ways to improve brick performance - because it looks like you can (Q10) teach an old brick new tricks.For Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Shahla Farzan.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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