双语阅读 | 美国的总统选举制度,你真的了解吗?

The US Electoral College美国选举人团制度林晓洁 供稿The United States is the only country that selects its president using a system called the Electoral College. With the 2020 US presidential election becoming a hotly debated topic recently, let’s learn more about the Electoral College, including its process, significance and historical origin.美国是全球唯一采用“选举人团制度”选举总统的国家。当前,2020美国大选已成为热门话题,让我们一起来了解选举团的流程、意义以及它的历史来源吧!What is the Electoral College?什么是选举人团制度The Electoral College is a unique system by which the president and vice president of the United States are chosen. It was devised by the framers of the United States Constitution. The Electoral College was never intended to pick the “perfect” president, but to provide a method of election that is feasible, desirable, and consistent with a republican form of government.选举人团制度是美国特有的一种选举总统及副总统的方式。它是由美国宪法的立宪者制定的,其目的并不是选出一名最“完美”的总统,而是设立一种能够与共和政体相互配合的灵活选举制度。How does the Electoral College work?选举人团制度是如何运作的?Every four years, the system calls for the creation of a temporary group consisting of 538 electors. Each state gets the same number of delegates as their Congressional representatives. Technically, it is these electors, but not the American people, who vote for the president. In modern elections, the first candidate to get 270 of the 538 total electoral votes wins the White House. Most States have a “winner-take-all” system that awards all electors to the Presidential candidate who wins the state's popular vote. This is also why, every so often, someone wins the presidency without winning the popular vote on a national scale.每隔四年,来自各州的538名代表组成选举人团,各州代表人数与该州在国会的参、众议员人数相等。严格来说,正是由这些选举人而非普通选民,投票选出美国总统。在现代大选中,首先得到270张选举人票的总统候选人将赢得选举。大多数州实行“赢家通吃”的策略,赢得某个州普选的候选人将获得该州全部的选举人票。这也是许多总统候选人在全国普选总票数落后的情况下,仍能竞选成功的原因。How was the Electoral College created?选举团制度的来源Historians have suggested a variety of reasons for the adoption of the Electoral College, including concerns about the separation of powers and the relationship between the executive and legislative branches, the balance between small and large states, slavery, and the perceived dangers of direct democracy. In fact, Electoral College is a compromise between a popular vote by citizens and a vote in Congress.历史学家们提出了一系列关于美国设立选举人团的原因。其中包括对权力分立、行政权与立法权的平衡、大小州的平衡、奴隶制以及直接民主的潜在危险等不同方面的考量。事实上,选举人团制度是公民普选以及国会选举之间的一种折中方案。At the time of the Philadelphia convention, no other country in the world directly elected its chief executive, so the delegates were wading into uncharted territory. Further complicating the task was a deep-rooted distrust of executive power. After all, the fledgling nation had just fought its way out from under a tyrannical king and overreaching colonial governors. They didn’t want another despot on their hands.在费城制宪会议召开之时,世界上没有任何一个国家的首脑是通过直接选举产生的。因此,制宪者们是在开辟一条全新的发展道路。他们对行政权力根深蒂固的不信任,使得总统选举的流程更加复杂。毕竟,这个羽翼未丰的国家刚刚摆脱了残暴的国君和蛮横的殖民总督统治,不希望自己手中又出现一个暴君。One group of delegates felt strongly that Congress shouldn’t have anything to do with picking the president. There’re simply too many opportunities for chummy corruption between the executive and legislative branches.一些制宪代表强烈认为国会不应与总统选举有任何关系。因为当行政部门和立法部门的关系过于密切时,腐败就容易产生。Another camp was dead set against letting the people elect the president by a straight popular vote. First, they thought 18th-century voters lacked the resources to be fully informed about the candidates, especially in rural outposts. Second, they feared a headstrong “democratic mob” steering the country astray. And third, a populist president appealing directly to the people could command dangerous amounts of power.而另一些代表则坚决反对让人民直接投票选出总统。首先,他们认为18世纪的选民,尤其是农村边远地区的人民,缺乏对总统候选人的充分了解。其次,他们担心部分顽固的“民主暴民”会将国家引向歧途。第三,一个深得民心的民粹主义总统可能会掌握过多的权力,将国家带入危险。Out of those drawn-out debates finally came with a compromise based on the idea of electoral intermediaries. These intermediaries wouldn’t be picked by Congress or elected by the people. Instead, the states would each appoint independent “electors” who would cast the actual ballots for the presidency.经过旷日持久的辩论,制宪者们最终达成了一项基于“选举中间人”的妥协方案。这些选举中间人不由国会挑选或人民选举产生。相反,各州将各自任命独立的“选举人”,由他们实际投票选举总统。But determining exactly how many electors to assign to each state was another sticking point. Here the divide was between slave-owning and non-slave-owning states. It was the same issue that plagued the distribution of seats in the House of Representatives: should or shouldn’t the Founders include slaves in counting a state’s population?但是,每个州应该分配多少选举人票也是一个关键问题。分歧主要存在于奴隶主州和非奴隶主州,这和困扰众议院席位分配的问题是一样的: 一个州的人口该不该将奴隶算上?The result was the controversial “Three-Fifths Compromise,” in which enslaved black people would be counted as three-fifths of a person for the purpose of allocating representatives and electors and calculating federal taxes. The compromise ensured that Southern states would ratify the Constitution and gave Virginia, home to more than 200,000 slaves, a quarter of the total electoral votes required to win the presidency.最后的结果是极具争议性的“五分之三妥协”。在该妥协中,黑人奴隶被算作五分之三的个人,以分配代表和选举人席位以及计算联邦税收。这一妥协确保了南方各州批准宪法,并使拥有20多万奴隶的弗吉尼亚州获得四分之一的总选举人票。Why does US still use the Electoral College today?为什么美国还在使用选举团制度So why does the Electoral College still exist, despite its contentious origins and awkward fit with modern politics?选举团制度的起源极具争议,且与现代政治格格不入。为什么美国至今还选用这种制度呢?Fundamentally, the party in power typically benefits from the existence of the Electoral College, and the minority party has little chance of changing the system because a constitutional amendment requires a two-thirds supermajority in Congress plus ratification by three-fourths of the states. Plus, the old-school electoral system has its benefits. With the Electoral College, for example, there’s no chance of a run-off election or a protracted national recount. That will make things much easier. The complicated situation we have witnessed so far during the 2020 presidential election, however, put a question mark on the fairness and validity of the system.究其根本,这是因为执政党通常会从现存的选举人团制度中获益,而少数党几乎没有机会改变这一制度,因为宪法修正案需要国会三分之二的绝对多数以及四分之三州的批准。此外,老式的选举制度也有它的好处。例如,有了选举团制度,就不用再进行决胜选举,也无需进行旷日持久的全国重新计票。这就为总统选举省下了许多麻烦。然而,2020年我们所目睹的选举之复杂情形,又给该制度的公平性和效度打上了问号。【Vocabulary】1. fledgling adj. 新的;无经验的2. despot n. 专制君主,暴君;独裁者3. chummy adj. 亲密的;合得来的4. populist adj. 民粹主义的5. astray adv. 误入歧途地;迷途地6. headstrong adj. 任性的;顽固的;刚愎的7. intermediary n. 中间人;仲裁者;调解者8. protractedadj. 延长的;拖延的;持久的

双语阅读 | 唐人街与中餐:美国华人的身份认同

Chinatown and Chinese Food: The Identity of Chinese Diaspora in U.S.胡锦源 供稿The term “overseas Chinese” derives its origin from the first mass migration from China during the mid-19th century. Following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, the first generation of Chinese immigrants arrived at the port of San Francisco and formed the oldest and largest Chinatown in the United States. The massive influx of immigrant population led to the friction between the local community and Chinese, giving rise to the discrimination and xenophobia that culminated in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. The Act banned Chinese immigrants from becoming naturalized citizens and confined them to limited types of jobs. At that time, Chinatowns serve as an enclave of asylum for Chinese against the prevailing violence and injustice.“海外华人”一词源于19世纪中叶的首次大规模华人移民潮。受1848年加利福尼亚的淘金热影响,第一批华人移民抵达旧金山港口,在美国建立起了最古老、规模最大的唐人街。移民人口的大量涌入引发了当地社群与华人之间的摩擦,使得歧视与排外之风盛行,并最终导致了1882年《排华法案》的颁布。该法案剥夺了华人移民成为入籍公民的权利,并限制了他们所能从事的工作类别。那时,唐人街成为了海外华侨的庇护所,保护他们免受当时盛行的暴力与不公侵害。The last century witnessed the transformation of the pattern and functions of Chinatowns as the population of American Chinese increased and grew diversified due to the changes in immigrant legislation and global policies. Different from their parents who remained politically and culturally loyal to their homeland, the American-born second-generation Chinese Americans were less likely to pledge alliance to their motherland. The fact that being a Chinese often meant being ostracized and abused made them oscillate between the identities they were born with and they identify with themselves. Growing up outside the Chinese communities and lacking contact with Chinese people and culture, they had to search for their identity in a land where they seemed to be in between two worlds. It is Chinatowns that helped them retrieve their cultural heritage and embark on a journey of self-discovery. They once served as the safe havens for the newly arrived Chinese immigrants. Now they are places as well as concepts, expressing a desire to go back to find those things that make up the culture and identity of Chinese expatriates.上个世纪以来,随着移民法案和全球政策的变化,美国华人的人口数量增加,组成也更为多元,唐人街的模式和功能也历经了转型。第一代美国华人对自己的祖国仍存有政治和文化上的归属感,不同的是,出生在美国的第二代华人与祖国之间并没有深厚的情感联系。由于身为中国人常常意味着受到排挤和屈辱,他们会在与生俱来的身份和自己认同的身份之间摇摆不定。他们的成长环境远离华人社区,缺少与华人与中国文化的接触,不得不在两个世界的缝隙间探索自我身份。正是唐人街帮助他们重新认识了故土的文化遗产,踏上追寻自我的旅途。唐人街曾是刚刚踏上新土地的华人移民的避风港,而如今,唐人街不仅是一个具象的地点,也是一个抽象的概念,寄托了海外华侨追寻自身文化和身份认同的愿望。Apart from serving the practical needs of Chinese community, Chinatowns are a primary means through which Chinese-style foods have been introduced and sustained in the United States. As Chinese cuisine thrives in the United States, American Chinese continue to negotiate their ethnic identities through food, carrying with them their cultural values and traditions while adapting themselves into American society. The ubiquity of Chinese restaurants in the United States reflects the degree to which Chinese food has transformed the American palate. In addition, restaurateurs and chefs are constantly negotiating between new flavors and accommodating the American stomach. The mix of Chinese spices and cooking methods with American ingredients shows how American Chinese are immersed in both Chinese and American values and culture. For those who grew up eating dishes such as orange chicken, crab Rangoon, and General Tao’s Chicken, their taste of home is American Chinese food, which is a sign of a cultural identity remaining in a state of flux. Its abiding appeal demonstrates how culture keeps itself alive through dynamic, diverse, and transformative interactions.唐人街不仅解决了华人团体的实际需求,也是中餐打入美国市场并经久不衰的主要手段。随着中餐业在美国蓬勃发展,美国华人持续通过食物进行民族身份的交流与互动,一边保留了自身的文化价值和传统,一边融入美国社会。在美国,中餐馆的无处不在也反映了中餐影响美国人口味的程度。中餐馆经营者在不断推出新口味的同时也顾及到了美国人的喜好。将中国的香辛料和烹饪方法与美国的食材融合的做法体现了美国华人如何同时受到了中美两种价值和文化的熏陶。对于那些吃着陈皮鸡、炸蟹角和左宗棠鸡长大的人来说,家乡的味道其实就是美式中餐——这一承载着不断变化的文化身份的符号。美式中餐持久的吸引力展现了文化如何通过动态、多样和新颖的互动方式维持着源源不断的生命力。Vocabularyxenophobia n. 排外心理culminate v. 告终ostracize v. 排挤oscillate v. 摇摆ubiquity n. 无处不在

双语阅读 | 我们处在一个信任缺失的时代吗?

我们处在一个信任缺失的时代吗?Is this the era of distrust?郭利莹供稿The coronavirusepidemicnotonly brings the world to a halt,but also leads to a rise in misinformation, lies and conspiracytheories on the internet. In an era of fake news, where even a president of the United States is accused of spreading misinformation, could it be that we are living through a crisis in trust?冠状病毒的流行不仅让世界陷入停滞,还导致网络上不实信息、谎言和阴谋论增加。在这个虚假新闻盛行的时代,甚至连美国总统都被指责传播虚假信息,我们是否正在经历一场信任危机呢?Sowhat onearth is trust? And inwhom should we place our trust? Actually, theproblem is not about trust itself but about trustworthiness–the ability to be trusted as being honest and reliable. Of course, telling lies and lacking trustworthinessis nothing new.Inoldtimes, the ancient Greeks weretricked by the Trojan Horse. In modern times, the American financier Bernie Madoff, notoriously known as “the biggest swindlerin history”, was sentenced to 150 years in prison for his part in the Ponzi scamwhich defraudedinvestors of 65 billion dollars.那么,信任究竟是什么?我们又应该相信谁?事实上,问题不在于信任本身,而在于可信度,即被认为诚实可靠、值得信任的能力。当然,说谎和缺乏可信度并不是什么新鲜事。在古代,古希腊人就被特洛伊木马欺骗了。在现代,美国金融家伯尼·麦道夫——那个声名狼藉的“历史上最大的骗子”——因参与庞氏骗局,从投资者那里骗取了650亿美元而被判处150年监禁。Generally speaking, trust can be described as a judgement that someone can be believed and relied on. When we trust each other, it makes life easier, quicker and friendlier. Society can’t function without trust, but that doesn’t mean the more trust the better.一般来说,信任可以理解为判断某人值得信赖。当我们信任彼此时,生活会变得更轻松、快捷和友好。没有信任,社会就无法运转,但这并不意味着信任越多越好。If you simply place trust indiscriminatelywithout making a judgement about whether the other person is trustworthy, then you are just trusting to luck, which is probably not a virtue. There’s a difference between trusting someone because you have good reason to believe them and being gullible,meaningyou are easily deceived because you trust and believe people too quickly. If you don’t judge who is trustworthy and who is not, you are trusting to luck—simply believing or hoping that things will happen for the best. Being gullibleand trusting to luck is exactly how Bernie Madoff was able to trick so many people into giving him their money.如果你只是不加选择地信任他人,而不去判断对方是否值得信赖,那么你仅仅是相信运气而已,这可算不上什么美德。有充分理由信任他人与太快轻信他人,两者之间是有区别的,后者只是好骗而已。谁值得信赖,谁不值得信赖,如果你不加以判断,那么你只是在撞运气——单纯以为或希望事情会朝好的方向发展。伯尼·麦道夫之所以能欺骗那么多人把钱给他,正是因为那些人轻信他人、心存侥幸。If indiscriminatelytrusting people is such a bad idea, how do we avoid it? How can we tell who is trustworthy and who is not? Here are some tips. To be trustworthy, an individual needs four ingredients.如果不加选择地信任他人是这么糟糕的主意,那么我们应该如果避免呢?如何甄别一个人是否值得信赖呢?这里有一点小窍门。值得信赖的人一般具备四种品质。Competence: Theyhave the skills, knowledge, experiences and resources to do a particular task. They are honest about what theycan and can’t do.能力:他们拥有完成某个特定任务的技能、知识、经验和资源。对于自己能做什么不能做什么,总是实事求是。Reliability: People can depend on themto keep the promises and commitments they make. They are consistent in the way they behave from one day to the next.可靠性:人们可以指望他们履行诺言和承诺。他们的行为一如既往,始终如一。Empathy: They care about other people’s interests as well as their own. They will think about how their decisions and actions affect others.同理心:他们关心自己利益的同时也关心他人的利益。他们会思考自己的决定和行为会给别人造成什么影响。Integrity: They say what theymean and mean what they say. Their words are in line with their actions, and they are honest about their intentions and motives toward others.正直:他们言为心声,心口合一。他们总是言行一致,诚实地向别人表达自己的意图和动机。【Vocabulary】1.coronavirus epidemic冠状病毒流行2.conspiracyn.阴谋;密谋3.trustworthinessn.可信度4.Trojan Horse特洛伊木马。古希腊传说中,希腊联军围困特洛伊久攻不下,于是假装撤退,留下一具巨大的中空木马,特洛伊守军不知是计,把木马运进城中作为战利品。夜深人静之际,木马腹中躲藏的希腊士兵打开城门,特洛伊沦陷。 5.swindlern.骗子6.Ponzi scam庞氏骗局。金融领域投资诈骗的一种称呼,即利用新投资人的钱向老投资者支付利息和短期回报,以制造钱的假象进而骗取更多投资的行为。7.defraudv.诈取;骗取8.indiscriminatelyadv.不加选择地;不加区分地9.gullibleadj. 易受骗的;轻信的

练习 | VOA慢速:NASA公布2024年登月计划

VOA慢速:NASA公布2024年登月计划燕山大学 刘立军 供稿【TRANSCRIPT】The American space agency, NASA, has released its latest plan to place the first humans on the moon since 1972. The updated information on the Artemis mission renewsNASA's promise that one of the astronauts will be a woman."We're going back to the moon for scientific discovery, economic benefits, and inspiration for a new generation of explorers," NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said in a statement Monday.NASA's moon mission is part of its Artemis plan. It will use NASA's newest rocket, the Space Launch System, or SLS. The astronauts are to travel on NASA's Orion spaceship.Bridenstine told reporters that "political risks" have often threatened NASA's work, especially before such a critical election. If Congress approves $3.2 billion in financing by December 25, he said "we're still on track for a 2024 moon landing."Three projects are competing to build a moon lander that will transport two astronauts to the moon from the Orion spaceship. The competitors are all private companies,Blue Origin, SpaceX and Dynetics.Artemis 1 will send a spaceship around the moon in 2021. It will not use a human crew. Artemis II is to send astronauts around the moon in 2023. Artemis III will land on the lunarsurface in 2024 and remain there for a week. NASA plans to have the astronauts leave the lander to collect soil and rock, search for water and other resources and carry out experiments.NASA says the plan will cost $28 billion over a period of five years.I'm Caty Weaver.【VOCABULARY】1. renewv.to emphasize sth. by saying or stating it again 重申;重复强调。例如:to renew an appeal / a request / a complaint, etc. 再次呼吁、请求、投诉等2. lunaradj. (常用于名词前)connected with the moon 月球的;月亮的。例如:a lunar eclipse / landscape月食;月球的地貌【QUESTIONS】Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.The American space agency, NASA, has released its (Q1) __________ to place the first humans on the moon since 1972. The updated information on the Artemis mission renews NASA's (Q2) __________ that one of the astronauts will be a woman."We're going back to the moon for (Q3) __________, economic benefits, and inspiration for a new generation of explorers," NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said in a (Q4) __________ Monday.NASA's moon mission is part of its Artemis plan. It will use NASA's newest rocket, the Space Launch System, or SLS. The astronauts are to travel on NASA's Orion spaceship.Bridenstine told reporters that "political risks" have often threatened NASA's work, especially before such a (Q5) __________. If Congress approves $3.2 billion in financing by December 25, he said "we're still on (Q6)__________ for a 2024 moon landing."Three projects are competing to build a moon lander that will (Q7) __________ two astronauts to the moon from the Orion spaceship. The competitors are all (Q8) __________ companies,Blue Origin, SpaceX and Dynetics.Artemis I will send a spaceship around the moon in 2021. It will not use a human crew. Artemis II is to send astronauts around the moon in 2023. Artemis III will land on the lunar surface in 2024 and remain there for a week. NASA plans to have the astronauts leave the lander to (Q9) __________, search for water and other resources and carry out (Q10) __________.NASA says the plan will cost $28 billion over a period of five years.I'm Caty Weaver.【KEY】Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.The American space agency, NASA, has released its (Q1) latest planto place the first humans on the moon since 1972. The updated information on the Artemis mission renews NASA's (Q2)promisethat one of the astronauts will be a woman."We're going back to the moon for (Q3) scientific discovery, economic benefits, and inspiration for a new generation of explorers," NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said in a (Q4)statementMonday.NASA's moon mission is part of its Artemis plan. It will use NASA's newest rocket, the Space Launch System, or SLS. The astronauts are to travel on NASA's Orion spaceship.Bridenstine told reporters that "political risks" have often threatened NASA's work, especially before such a (Q5) critical election. If Congress approves $3.2 billion in financing by December 25, he said "we're still on (Q6)trackfor a 2024 moon landing."Three projects are competing to build a moon lander that will (Q7) transporttwo astronauts to the moon from the Orion spaceship. The competitors are all (Q8) privatecompanies Blue Origin, SpaceX and Dynetics.Artemis I will send a spaceship around the moon in 2021. It will not use a human crew. Artemis II is to send astronauts around the moon in 2023. Artemis III will land on the lunar surface in 2024 and remain there for a week. NASA plans to have the astronauts leave the lander to (Q9) collect soil and rock, search for waterand other resources and carry out (Q10) experiments.NASA says the plan will cost $28 billion over a period of five years.I'm Caty Weaver.

练习 | VOA慢速:美国上千万租客面临被驱逐风险

VOA慢速:美国上千万租客面临被驱逐风险燕山大学 刘立军 供稿【TRANSCRIPT】Tiana Caldwell of Kansas City, Missouri is one of millions of Americans who face being moved out of their homes by the end of the year.This kind of forced removal is a result of the economic problems and job losses caused by the coronavirus outbreak. That information comes from the National Low Income Housing Coalition, a national housing group.Caldwell lost her job and was in treatment for cancer when she and her family were evicted in 2019."We were doing good, and then I got cancer again. So, I was actively in treatment when we were being evicted. It was a bad experience."Caldwell is now unemployed and has a hard time paying rent - money paid for the use of a property. She is organizing protests with KC Tenants, a group that supports affordable housing in Kansas City, Missouri.Facing evictionKC Tenants Director Tara Raghuvee told VOA that nearly 50 percent of renters in the state of Missouri are at risk of eviction because they cannot pay their rent."Tens of thousands of renters in the state of Missouri were paying over 50% of their income to rent before the pandemic, and now hundreds of thousands are unemployed or have been unemployed through some period of this pandemic."Federal assistanceMany Americans have been receiving financial assistance through state and federal unemployment payments. But the federal assistance of $600 a week ended in late July. Activists say that millions of people are in danger of not being able to pay their rent.Housing rights supporters are calling for rent aid and an extension of eviction prevention measures.Gina Chiala heads the Heartland Center for Jobs and Freedom. The group provides legal advice about housing to poor workers in Kansas City, Missouri. Chiala said the federal government should find permanent ways to deal with housing problems for the poor.Chiala and other housing activists want property owners to work with their tenants to negotiate lower payments when possible.About 40 percent of the nation's rental properties are owned by independent landlords. Many cannot take the losses from unpaid rent.Tracey Benson is president and founder of the National Association of Independent Landlords. The association provides help and support to its 200,000 members nationwide.Benson said her organization is getting calls from concerned landlords all the time. She said they are worried about losing not only their rental properties but their own homes.Kathy Phillips is an association member in North Carolina. She owns 10 rental properties that she depends on as her only way to make a living. One of her renters has been falling behind on rent payments."She's a single parent and I don't feel comfortable evicting a single parent in this climate."Phillips offered her at-risk renter a 50 percent reduction on her rent for three months. She does not expect her to repay the difference.Phillips also said she believes the federal government needs to do more for both renters and landlords."I don't think there's a lot of answers until we have income for all these unemployed people," she said.I'm Jonathan Evans.【VOCABULARY】1. removal n. (British English) an act of taking furniture, etc. from one house to another 搬迁;迁移。例如:house removals 搬家2. evict sb. (from sth.): to force sb. to leave a house or land, especially when you have the legal right to do so (尤指依法从房屋或土地上)驱逐,赶出,逐出。例如:A number of tenants have been evicted for not paying the rent. 许多房客因不付房租被赶了出来。3. permanent adj. lasting for a long time or for all time in the future; existing all the time 永久的;永恒的;长久的。例如:a permanent job 固定工作4. climate n. a general attitude or feeling; an atmosphere or a situation which exists in a particular place 倾向;思潮;风气;环境气氛。例如: We need to create a climate in which business can prosper. 我们需要创造一个有利于生意兴隆的环境气氛。【QUESTIONS】Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. The forced removal is a result of the economic problems and job losses caused by the economic depression.2. Caldwell is now unemployed and has a hard time paying rent.3. Nearly 50 percent of renters in Missouri are at risk of eviction because they cannot pay their rent.4. Many Americans have been receiving financial assistance through state and federal unemployment payments.5. Housing rights supporters are calling for rent aid and an extension of eviction prevention measures.6. Chiala and other housing activists want the federal government to work with their tenants to negotiate lower payments when possible.7. About 50 percent of the nation's rental properties are owned by independent landlords.8. The National Association of Independent Landlords provides help and support to its 200,000 members worldwide.9. Phillips believes the local government needs to do more for both renters and landlords.【KEY】Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(F) 1. The forced removal is a result of the economic problems and job losses caused by the economic depression.(正确表达)The forced removal is a result of the economic problems and job losses caused by the coronavirus outbreak.(T) 2. Caldwell is now unemployed and has a hard time paying rent.(T) 3. Nearly 50 percent of renters in Missouri are at risk of eviction because they cannot pay their rent.(T) 4. Many Americans have been receiving financial assistance through state and federal unemployment payments.(T) 5. Housing rights supporters are calling for rent aid and an extension of eviction prevention measures.(F) 6. Chiala and other housing activists want the federal government to work with their tenants to negotiate lower payments when possible.(正确表达)Chiala and other housing activists want property owners to work with their tenants to negotiate lower payments when possible.(F) 7. About 50 percent of the nation's rental properties are owned by independent landlords.(正确表达)About 40 percent of the nation's rental properties are owned by independent landlords.(F) 8. The National Association of Independent Landlords provides help and support to its 200,000 members worldwide.(正确表达)The National Association of Independent Landlords provides help and support to its 200,000 members nationwide.(F) 9. Phillips believes the local government needs to do more for both renters and landlords.(正确表达)Phillips believes the federal government needs to do more for both renters and landlords.

练习 | BBC新闻:多国签署新冠疫苗全球计划

BBC新闻:多国签署新冠疫苗全球计划燕山大学 刘立军 供稿【TRANSCRIPT】Hello, I'm David Harper with the BBC News.More than 150 countries representing nearly two thirds of the global population have signed up to a global scheme for the common development of vaccines against COVID-19.The facility, known as COVAX, also aims to ensure poor countries' access to a future vaccine. The WHO's Director-General Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said it was crucial that everyone had access to a potential vaccine."The COVAX facility will help to bring the pandemic under control, save lives, accelerate the economic recovery and ensure that the race for vaccines is a collaboration, not a contest. This is not charity. It's in every country's best interest. We sink or we swim together."Pubs and restaurants in England are to be ordered to close early to control the spread of coronavirus. Prime Minister Boris Johnson is also expected to instruct people to work from home where possible. Helen Catt reports.Against a backdrop of rising cases and now a raised COVID alert level, Downing Street says the prime minister will set out further ways in which the government plans to tacklethe spread of coronavirus. Ministers do not want another full lockdown, but there will be some additional restrictions. From Thursday, all pubs, bars and hospitality venues in England will have to close by 10 p.m. They would also have to offer table service only by law. The cabinetwill meet, the prime minister will then update the Parliament, where a number of his own MPS have voiced concern about the way in which restrictions are being imposed. It's understood senior backbenchers, along with the chancellor, pushed back against tougher measures suggested by the scientists.The Democrat candidate for the US presidency, Joe Biden, has renewed his criticism of President Trump's handling of the coronavirus crisis. At a campaign event in Wisconsin, he said that the president panicked, froze and failed to act despite knowing how deadly the virus was. As the number of deaths in the US approaches 200,000, Mr. Biden said that Mr. Trump's willfulinaction have had devastatingconsequences."Due to Donald Trump's lies in confidence in the past six months have seen one of the gravestlosses of American life in history. But sadly, it's not over. As awful as the past 180 days have been, the next 90 days could be twice as bad. We could be looking at between 178 and 200,000 lives lost. And all the president does is deliberately change the subject." Polls show that the president's handling of the pandemic has damaged his standing.And Mr. Trump has said he will probably announce his nominee for the Supreme Court on Saturday, adding that five women are under consideration as a replacement for Ruth Bader Ginsburg.You're listening to the latest world news from the BBC.【VOCABULARY】1.tacklev. to make a determined effort to deal with a difficult problem or situation 应付,处理,解决(难题或局面)。例如:The government is determined to tackle inflation. 政府决心解决通货膨胀问题。2. cabinetn.a group of chosen members of a government, which is responsible for advising and deciding on government policy 内阁。例如:(British English) a cabinet minister内阁成员3. backbencher n.(英国和某些其他国家议会的)后座议员,普通议员,后排议员4.panic v. 恐慌,使(受惊)5. willfuladj.(of a bad or harmful action) done deliberately, although the person doing it knows that it is wrong 故意的;有意的;成心的。例如:willful damage 蓄意破坏6. devastatingadj.causing a lot of damage and destruction 破坏性极大的;毁灭性的。例如:a devastating explosion / fire / cyclone毁灭性的爆炸 / 火灾 / 台风7.graveadj. (of situations, feelings, etc. 形势、感情等) very serious and important; giving you a reason to feel worried 严重的;重大的;严峻的;深切的。例如:We were in grave danger.我们处于极大的危险之中。【QUESTIONS】Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. More than 150 countries have signed up to a global scheme for the common development of vaccines against COVID-19. 2. According to Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the race for vaccines is a contest, not a collaboration. 3. Pubs and cinemas in England are to be ordered to close early to control the spread of coronavirus. 4. From Thursday, all pubs, bars and hospitality venues in England will have to close by 11 p.m. 5. Mr. Biden said that Mr. Trump's willful inaction caused devastating consequences.6. Mr. Trump will probably announce his nominee for the Supreme Court on Saturday, adding that six women are under consideration as a replacement for Ruth Bader Ginsburg.【KEY】Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(T)1. More than 150 countries have signed up to a global scheme for the common development of vaccines against COVID-19. (F)2. According to Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the race for vaccines is a contest, not a collaboration.(正确表达)According to Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the race for vaccines is a collaboration, not a contest. (F) 3. Pubs and cinemasin England are to be ordered to close early to control the spread of coronavirus. (正确表达) Pubs and restaurantsin England are to be ordered to close early to control the spread of coronavirus. (F)4. From Thursday, all pubs, bars and hospitality venues in England will have to close by 11 p.m.(正确表达)From Thursday, all pubs, bars and hospitality venues in England will have to close by 10 p.m.(T)5. Mr. Biden said that Mr. Trump's willful inaction caused devastating consequences.(F) 6. Mr. Trump will probably announce his nominee for the Supreme Court on Saturday, adding that sixwomen are under consideration as a replacement for Ruth Bader Ginsburg. (正确表达)Mr. Trump will probably announce his nominee for the Supreme Court on Saturday, adding that fivewomen are under consideration as a replacement for Ruth Bader Ginsburg.

第十届教学大赛视听说课组一等奖周薇薇说课

说课点评:周薇薇老师的说课体现出她作为一名外语教师的良好功底,她在短时间内对视频素材内容有了很好的把握,并根据教学内容设计了较好的教学活动。从周老师对教学内容的分析上可以看到,她准确地掌握了视频的大意,并依据视频题材和体裁对学生可能遇到的难点进行了预测,在此基础上设定教学目标,希望学生掌握与探月、登月有关的主题词汇,学会处理新闻类的视听素材,并把握视频中的时间线。可见,教学目标不能凭空设定,一定要基于教师对教学素材和目标学生的分析和了解。周老师的教学活动围绕视频的核心要素展开,由趣味视频导入,引起学生思考,然后进入教师提到的"task cycle"部分,既有学生讨论,也有具体的听力任务,教学步骤的衔接性也比较好,整个教学设计有较好的操作性。周老师提到在课程结束时会引导学生展开同伴互评,贯彻了她在授课环节提到的反思性学习的理念。未来周老师可以进一步提升教学理论素养。周老师在说课中提到教学中会采用TBLT和CLT,从表述方式就可以发现周老师并没有准确理解这两者的含义和关系,这一点也体现在评委问答环节中,周老师没能很好地回答评委就此提出的问题。教学理念和教学方法并不能搬来就用,教师需要准确地理解各种理念和方法的真正内涵、特点和实施过程,才能更好地契合学生特点和课堂教学需求。点评专家:徐锦芬教授

第十届教学大赛视听说课组一等奖黄莺授课

授课点评:黄莺老师的授课设计目标明确,步骤清晰,重点突出。黄教师教态亲切、自然、大方,教学节奏把控得很好,语速适中,语言流畅,她的教师基本功和基本素质显然是优秀的,其教学效果总体而言也是令人满意的。她在谈及教学目标时分别就语言知识、语言能力和语言意识三个方面进行了言简意赅地阐述,层次清晰。在教学实施的过程中,她围绕着本课教学内容的关键词“好奇心”层层展开,设计了外科医生与教师两种职业之间的对比,以说明“好奇心”是学习最原初的动力。在教学伊始,她首先通过一个简单的游戏来测试学生的观察力,并激发学生的好奇心,然后通过比较医生与教师的学习原则说明好奇心的重要性,再通过讨论让学生去发现医生与教师在学习原则方面的相同点,最后给学生课后作业是让学生准备一个3分钟的演讲,谈谈自己的学习原则。整个教学过程一气呵成,衔接自然。但是黄老师的讲课中有些方面还可以做得更好。比如视听过程中的练习设计过于简单,没有挑战性。另外,对于讲演视频中的两个语言重点的处理,也需要再斟酌。一个是讲演者说:Learning is ugly. 另一个是演讲者说的Embrace the mess. 教师在上课时对于前者做了很好的阐释,指出ugly在此指学习过程中会遭遇的失败、挫折和挑战。而对于后者,教师将重点放在"embrace"一词上,而没有解释"mess"在这里为何意。可能学生更难以理解的是"mess"而非"embrace",mess在此指学习过程中必定会遇到的疑惑不解甚至是乱麻一团的状态。教师应该要给予解释。点评专家:朱晓映教授

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实证类论文写作研究方法工作坊之一:质性研究与学术期刊论文写作

工作坊将结合外语教育领域中的研究案例,分析质性研究的特点和理论基础,阐述外语教育研究中质性研究的研究范式,并在此基础上讲解质性研究中研究问题的挖掘与论证、质性研究的数据来源、数据收集与分析,并组织与会教师以个案研究为例进行质性研究设计和展示。本工作坊还将从研究者、论文作者和论文审稿人三个视角分析成功的学术写作的标准和特点,着重分析质性研究论文的体裁结构和写作逻辑,包括引言和文献综述的功能和结构、质性研究方法论的独特性、研究发现汇报的方式以及如何讨论质性研究发现等。主讲人结合自身的投稿和审稿经历,与工作坊参与者一起探讨如何提高质性研究论文的严谨性、如何在国内外核心期刊上发表质性研究论文。

英语语音教学与研究

英语语音教学与研究是外语教与学中重要的有机组成部分,为了帮助外语教师提高语音课教学组织、内容设计与教学研究能力,本期研修班由南京大学陈桦教授领衔的中国英汉语比较研究会语音教学研究专业委员会的专家团队主讲,旨在就英语语音课程设计、语音课堂组织与教学、教研方法创新、口语能力测试与评价和口语人才培养等方面进行探讨。研修班将采取主题讲座、案例分析、分班操练、分类互动讨论等多个环节,由浅入深地剖析英语语音教学与研究中的重点与难点,通过理论与实践的有机结合,指导高校外语教师创新语音课程设计,优化教学效果,助力科研发展。专家团队陈桦:南京大学教授、博士生导师,中国英汉语比较研究会语音教学研究专业委员会会长,中国语音学会学术委员会委员;中国大学慕课爱课程平台上“英语语音与信息沟通”主持人。研究方向为:英语口语教学与测评、语音学、应用语言学等。史宝辉:北京林业大学教授,博士,现任北京林业大学外语学院院长,硕士研究生导师。中国英汉语比较研究会语音教学研究专业委员会副会长。研究领域包括:语音学、音系学、词汇学、社会语言学和英语教学法。获北京市高等教育教学成果奖二等奖、北京市高等学校教学名师奖等。卜友红:上海师范大学外国语学院教授,上海教育评审专家,中国英汉语比较研究会语音教学研究专业委员会常务理事,上海市精品课程、上海市高校优质在线课程《英语语音》负责人。主持国家社科及省部级科研项目六项。曾荣获上海市育才奖、上海市教学成果一等奖、全国教育专业学位教学成果二等奖、全国教育硕士优秀教学管理工作者等荣誉。曹瑞斓:安徽工业大学教授,博士,硕士研究生导师,安徽工业大学外国语学院院长,MTI教育中心主任,中国英汉语比较研究会语音教学研究专业委员会常务理事、秘书长。研究方向主要为语音教学与研究、翻译、商务英语等。2013年被评为省级教坛新秀,2014年入选安徽省高校“优秀青年人才支持计划”,2017年入选安徽工业大学青年学者。刘森:华东师范大学英语系副教授、硕士研究生导师,研究方向:英语语音学、英语口语教学、英语演讲。荣获上海市教学成果一等奖等3个市级奖,华东师范大学教学成果特等奖等6个校级奖。主持并完成3个上海市、8个校级项目,在《外语界》、《外语教学理论与实践》等期刊发表研究论文20多篇。梁波:北京大学外国语学院英语系副教授,博士。中国英汉语比较研究会语音教学研究专业委员会常务理事,副秘书长,北京大学教师教学发展教学培训专家(2019-2021),研究方向是英语语音教学、二语音系习得、语音学、发音音系学。编著英语语音专题教材2部,发表语音教学学术论文12篇。在北京大学开设英语语音系列专题课程:语音与听说词汇、语调和听说语法。赵奂:四川外国语大学副教授,MTI(口译)硕士研究生导师,中国英汉语比较研究会语音教学研究专业委员会常务理事,重庆市优秀教师,市社科联项目负责人,市教委社科项目负责人,市级高校精品在线开放课程团队负责人,市级教学成果奖团队负责人,市级精品视频公开课团队负责人。主持多项校级教材项目、特色项目、教改项目,主编、参编教材多部,发表论文数篇。

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