双语阅读 | 穿袜子睡觉背后的科学原理

穿袜子睡觉背后的科学原理TheScience Behind SleepingWith Socks On王淑怡 供稿Millions of people around the world go to bed wearing socks. But are you curious about the sciencebehind this practice and whether it is good for our sleep?许多人睡觉时都喜欢穿着袜子。但是,你是否好奇人们这么做的科学原理是什么,以及穿着袜子睡觉是否能够改善睡眠质量?To understand why, you first need to grasp the relationship between core body temperature and sleep. During daylight hours, the human body humsalong at an average temperature of37 degrees Celsius. But at night, your core body temperature dipsas much as 1.2 degrees Celsius over the course of six or seven hours of sleep. This gradual decrease in core body temperature, it turns out, is a key part of the complicated neurobiologicaldance of falling asleep and staying asleep. And the faster you can lower the core body temperature, the faster you will fall asleep.要理解其中原因,你首先需要了解核心体温和睡眠之间的关系。白天,人的平均体温为37℃。但到了晚上,人们在六到七个小时的睡眠中,核心体温会下降1.2℃。事实证明,核心体温的逐渐下降是入睡和保持睡眠这一复杂的神经生物学行为的关键。核心体温的下降速度越快,你就越快入睡。One of the ways that your body regulates its temperature is through blood vessels in your skin. If the brain decides the body is too hot, it will widen blood vessels, redistributing warmer blood from the body's core through the rest of the body to cool it down. If the body is too cold, the brain signals the opposite reaction, restricting the flow of blood to the surface.身体调节体温的方法之一是通过皮肤中的血管。如果大脑认为身体太热,会扩张血管,将温暖的血液从身体核心器官重新输送到其他部位,使其降温。如果身体太冷,大脑则会发出相反的信号,限制血液流向体表。The palms of your hands and solesof your feet are the body's most efficient heat exchangers, since they are hairless and less insulatedthan other skin surfaces. Researchers have shown that warming the feet before going to sleep using a warm foot bath or by wearing socks promotes vasodilation, which in turn lowers the body's core temperature faster than going to sleep with cold, bare feet. This can be especially critical during chilly weather when the feet can get so cold that tossing and turningthroughout the night becomes inevitable. 手掌和脚底是身体最有效的散热器,因为与其他部位的皮肤相比,手掌和脚底光滑无毛、绝缘性差。研究人员表明,睡前泡脚或穿袜子暖脚可以促进血管扩张,这样会比赤着冷脚睡觉更快地降低身体的核心温度。在寒冷的天气里,这一点尤为重要。如果手脚长时间捂不热,人们就会辗转反侧难以入眠。In addition to that, wearing socks can enhance our blood circulation.From heart failure to strokes and other life-threatening medical conditions, the lack of proper blood circulation can be detrimentalto your health in diverse ways. The good news is that sleeping in socks canramp up the supply of blood, oxygen, and nutrients to every part of the body, thus which keep the heart, liver, kidneys, and other important organs working at optimum levels.除此之外,穿着袜子睡觉有助于促进血液循环。血液循环不好会以多种方式损害人的健康,造成心力衰竭、中风等疾病,危及生命。但穿着袜子睡觉可以增加身体各个部位的血液、氧气和营养供应,从而使得心脏、肝脏、肾脏和其他重要器官保持最佳状态。【VOCABULARY】1.humv.活跃,繁忙2.dipn.(暂时的) 下降3.neurobiological adj.神经生物学的4.sole n.脚掌5.insulatedadj. 有隔热(或隔音、绝缘)保护的6.vasodilation n. 血管舒张7.tossing and turning辗转反侧;翻来覆去难以入睡8.detrimentaladj. 有害的,不利的9.ramp up增加; 使增加(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 微笑的力量

微笑的力量The Power of a Smile王淑怡 供稿It is no secret that smiling is contagious. But do you know how powerful a smile can be? It brings benefits to us both physically and mentally. Here are some of the benefits that you can get from a simple smile.众所周知,微笑是会传染的。但你知道微笑有多强大吗?它给我们的身心带来诸多好处,下面就是一个简单的微笑带来的几个好处。1. Smiling releases endorphins and relieves stress1. 微笑可以释放内啡肽,缓解压力Feeling stressed out and over-loaded? Try smiling. According to recent studies, smiling has the power to reduce stress and increase our ability to deal with trying situations. This is largely owing to the fact that smiling boosts endorphin output and forces us to breathe deeper, resulting in a calmer outlook and increased coping ability.感到压力太大、负担很重吗?试着微笑吧!最新研究表明,微笑能够减轻压力,提升我们应对困难的能力。这很大程度上是因为微笑可以释放内啡肽,迫使我们深呼吸,从而让我们更加平静,应对能力更强。When you smile, even when you force it, your body releases the “feel good" hormones and endorphins, which will put you in a much better mood and relieve stress.当你微笑的时候,即使你是在强迫自己微笑,你的身体也会释放让你“感觉良好”的荷尔蒙和内啡肽,这会让你心情更好,也能缓解压力。2. Smiling boosts the immune system2. 微笑可以增强免疫系统Smiling really can improve your physical health. Your body is more relaxed when you smile, which contributes to good health and a stronger immune system.微笑确实可以改善身体健康。当你微笑时,身体会更放松,这有助于保持身体健康和增强免疫系统。In addition to making you look more attractive, successful and approachable, smiling may also protect you from the common cold. According to recent data, smiling can help boost the immune system by decreasing stress levels, which in turn increases white blood cell count and releases beneficial antibodies that help fight infection and disease.微笑不仅能让你看起来更有吸引力、更成功、更平易近人,还能让你免受感冒的困扰。根据最新数据,微笑可以通过缓解压力来增强免疫系统,增加白细胞数量,释放有益抗体,帮助你对抗各类感染和疾病。3. Smiling is contagious3. 微笑具有感染力There are many facial expressions a person can make, but only a smile has the power to brighten and make your day. Moreover, it can even act on the moods of people around you.人们可以做出很多面部表情,但只有微笑能够让你一天都变得明亮美好。此外,它甚至可以影响你周围人的情绪。According to science, neurons in the brain have a synchronizing feature that keeps you in sync with people you’re talking to. If they smile, you’ll smile. In a study that was conducted in Sweden, researchers found that people found it really difficult to frown, when they were looking at other people who were smiling and they couldn’t help smiling themselves.据科学研究,大脑中的神经元有同步功能,可以让你与你的谈话对象保持同步。如果他们微笑,你也会微笑。在瑞典进行的一项研究中,研究人员发现,当人们看到其他人在微笑时,他们很难皱起眉头,并且自己也会忍不住要笑。4. Smiling Suggests Success4. 微笑和成功密切相关Studies suggested that individuals who smile often appear more confident and more likely to be approached. It would be a great idea to put a smile at important meetings and business arrangements. You may unexpectedly find that individuals will respond to you.研究表明,经常微笑的人显得更加自信、更有亲和力。在重要会议和商务活动中面带微笑不失为一个好办法。你会惊喜地收获他人的回应。【VOCABULARY】1. contagious adj. (情感)具有感染力的,(疾病)传染的2. endorphins n. [生化] 内啡肽3. trying adj. 令人厌烦的,难对付的4. hormone n. [生理]激素;荷尔蒙5. white blood cell. 白细胞6. antibody n. [免疫]抗体7. neuron n. [解剖] 神经元,神经单位8. synchronizing adj. 同步的9. frown v. 皱眉;蹙额(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 你有数字囤积症吗?

你有数字囤积症吗?Are you a digital hoarder?王淑怡 供稿Most people are familiar with hoarding and the psychological issues associated with it. Hoarding leads to messy, cluttered homes and difficulty parting with items that you don’t use and don’t even need. But hoarding can also occur in the digital realm.大多数人对于囤积症和与之相关的心理问题都不陌生。囤积意味着生活空间过度拥挤、杂乱无序,不愿丢弃不能使用甚至不需要的物品。但是,囤积症也会发生在数字领域。Types of Digital Hoarders数字囤积者的类型Digital hoarding, also known as e-hoarding, data hoarding or cyber hoarding, is excessive acquisition and reluctance to delete electronic material no longer valuable to the user. Digital files, folders, music, movies, computer programs, and even the “friends” we keep on social media are also forms of digital clutter.数字囤积也被称为电子囤积、数据囤积或网络囤积,指的是过度获取以及不愿删除对用户不再有价值的电子材料。数字文件、文件夹、音乐、电影、电脑软件、甚至那些社交媒体上的“好友”都是各式各样的电子囤积堆。Researchers have categorized digital hoarders into 4 different types, as per their characteristics.“Collectors” are organized, systematic and in control of their data. “Accidental hoarders” are disorganized, don’t know what they have, and don’t have control over it. The “compliant hoarder” keeps data on behalf of their company. Finally, “anxious hoarders” have strong emotional ties to their data — and are worried about deleting it.研究人员依据数字囤积者的不同性格特点将他们分为四类。“收集者”是有组织、有系统地控制着数据。“意外囤积者”是无组织的,他们不知道自己拥有什么数据,也无法控制它。“听话的囤积者”为公司保存数据。最后,“焦虑的囤积者”与他们的数据有着强烈的情感联系,他们删除数据会很焦虑。How to Tackle Digital Hoarding如何解决数字囤积问题As hoarding is often associated with anxiety and insecurity, addressing the source of these negative emotions may alleviate hoarding behaviours. Workplaces can do more here, by reducing non-essential email traffic, making it very clear what information should be retained or discarded. In doing so, companies can help workers to avoid the compulsion to obsessively save and store the bulk of their digital data.囤积行为往往和焦虑、缺乏安全感有关,因此,处理好这些负面情绪可能会缓解囤积行为。在这方面公司可以做得更多些,比如减少发送非必要的电子邮件,向员工明确哪些信息可以保留,哪些可以安全删除。通过这种方式,公司能够有效地帮助员工避免强迫性地储存过量电子数据,减少数字囤积。On the other hand, part of the problem is that it's so easy to accumulate electronic data. Our phones have an incredible amount of storage space compared with just five years ago, and thanks to cloud storage, we can effortlessly store a mind-boggling amount of data without even paying for it. Therefore, it is important to organize and pare down your digital files.另外,这个问题还有一部分原因是储存电子数据越来越便捷。与五年前相比,现在智能手机的储存空间大大增加,如今又出现了云储存,我们甚至不花一分钱就能轻松地储存海量数据。因此,学会有序管理和删除电子文件非常重要。Digital hoarding can show itself in many ways but when it causes anxiety or issues with organization and productivity then it needs to be addressed. Digital clutter can be draining and stressful for some people. By organizing and getting rid of useless files in a regular way, people with this problem can ease some of their distress and declutter their own mind as well.数字囤积症的表现形式有很多,但当它给人们带来焦虑或影响组织力和生产力时,就需要我们加以解决。对于一部分人来说,数字混乱可能会让人感到疲惫和有压力。通过定期整理和删除无用文件,能够帮助数字囤积者减轻焦虑情绪,也能让他们的头脑更加清醒。【VOCABULARY】1. hoarding n. 贮存;聚藏2. cluttered adj. 杂乱的;凌乱的;挤满的3. part with 舍弃4. compliant adj. 顺从的;百依百顺的;俯首帖耳的5. traffic n. 信息流量;通信(量)6. discard v. 丢弃7. mind-boggling adj. 令人难以置信的;令人惊异的8. pare down 减少;削减9. draining adj. 使枯竭的;使筋疲力尽的10. declutter v. 清除;清理(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 增值税

增值税What is VAT?刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTHi, I’m Alex. Wanna catch a movie? Now, I know what you’re thinking. I clicked to watch a video about value added tax, not movies. Well, taxes and movies have more in common than you might think. They both generate revenue. They can be really complicated, and some are just blockbusters. Like our old friend, Value Added Tax - also known as VAT or a goods and services tax. So how do value added taxes work? Let me explain with popcorn. Obviously.The corn starts out in a field with the farmer growing his crop. He sells it to a company that takes the corn and puts it in fancy packaging. Then, that company sells the packaged products to the cinema and ultimately to the customer.Now, let’s rewind and watch that again. And this time, let’s assume that the country where all this is taking place has a 10% value added tax. Here’s how that works. Our farmer sells his popcorn for $10, but the packaging company buying it, they actually pay him $11. So why the extra dollar? Because that’s the 10% VAT. That same thing happens again when the company sells the packaged popcorn to the cinema for a profit. So now the price is $15. But with the added 10% VAT, the cinema actually pays $16 and fifty cents. And then finally, the cinema sells the popcorn to the customer for $20. And that customer, once the VAT has been added, is paying $22.So far, so good. But here’s the added ingredient that advocates of VAT say makes the system really work. And that’s tax credit for businesses. The tax credit is just an amount that a business can subtract from the VAT it owes the government. VAT makes it so that while everyone on the supply chain pays their 10% in tax, they also get tax credits for whatever’s already been paid by those selling to them. So across the whole process, it’s a flat rate of 10%. In the end, only the consumers actually pay the VAT since they aren’t granted a credit.Oh, great, it’s starting! Let’s go!So the thing is, so the thing is... Let’s take this somewhere else.You may have noticed how popular that handsome actor was. Real star power. Well, that’s kind of like value added taxes. They’re one of the biggest sources of tax revenue in the world. More than 160 countries have a VAT. Why? Well, there’s less tax evasion. VATs are a built-in cost, so each business isn’t just collecting the tax themselves, so they’re motivated to report their taxes honestly to get those tax credits. And it’s important that they do. While VAT rates are different in each country, the average VAT raises around a third of a country’s tax revenue. So it’s an important source of funding for everything from improving our infrastructure, and countering climate change, to creating equality, and improving health and social safety nets.But just as with any movie, VATs have their critics. Some say that having a VAT is unfair to poorer people because they spend most of their income, so they face a higher burden. But a lot of those concerns can be answered by using the money from VAT to help the most vulnerable. Some argue that reducing the VAT rate on basic food could be a solution, but it ends up benefitting those who don’t need it and makes VAT collection more complex. That can be avoided by making sure that there’s a single universal VAT rate and using progressive income taxes and cash transfers to support poorer households.And that’s VAT. Cut! Feels like we could have gone for more of a Hollywood ending, right? That’s VAT.VOCABULARY1.revenue n. the money that a government receives from taxes or that an organization, etc. receives from its business 财政收入;税收收入。例如:a shortfall in tax revenue 税收收入不足2.blockbuster n. (informal) something very successful, especially a very successful book or film/movie 一鸣惊人的事物;(尤指)非常成功的书(或电影)。例如:a Hollywood blockbuster 一部好莱坞大片3. rewind v. to make a tape in a cassette player, etc. go backwards 倒带;倒片4. grant v. to agree to give sb. what they ask for, especially formal or legal permission to do sth.(尤指正式地或法律上)同意,准予,允许5. evasion n. the act of avoiding sb. or of avoiding sth. that you are supposed to do 躲避;规避;逃避;回避6. infrastructure n. the basic systems and services that are necessary for a country or an organization to run smoothly, for example buildings, transport and water and power supplies (国家或机构的)基础设施,基础建设7. vulnerable adj. weak and easily hurt physically or emotionally (身体上或感情上)脆弱的,易受……伤害的。例如:to be vulnerable to attack 易受攻击QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Hi, I’m Alex. Wanna catch a movie? Now, I know what you’re thinking. I clicked to watch a video about value added tax, not movies. Well, taxes and movies have more in common than you might think. They both generate (Q1) _____________. They can be really complicated, and some are just blockbusters. Like our old friend, Value Added Tax - also known as VATor a goods and services tax. So how do value added taxes work? Let me explain with (Q2) ______________. Obviously.The corn starts out in a field with the farmer growing his crop. He sells it to a company that takes the corn and puts it in fancy packaging. Then, that company sells the packaged products to the cinema and ultimately to the (Q3) ________________.Now, let’s rewind and watch that again. And this time, let’s assume that the country where all this is taking place has a 10% value added tax. Here’s how that works. Our farmer sells his popcorn for $10, but the packaging company buying it, they actually pay him $11. So why the extra dollar? Because that’s the 10% VAT. That same thing happens again when the company sells the packaged popcorn to the cinema for a (Q4) ______________. So now the price is $15. But with the added 10% VAT, the cinema actually pays $16 and fifty cents. And then finally, the cinema sells the popcorn to the customer for $20. And that customer, once the VAT has been added, is paying $22.So far, so good. But here’s the added ingredient that advocates of VAT say makes the system really work. And that’s (Q5) _____________ for businesses. The tax credit is just an amount that a business can subtract from the VAT it owes the government. VAT makes it so that while everyone on the supply chain pays their 10% in tax, they also get tax credits for whatever’s already been paid by those selling to them. So across the whole process, it’s a flat rate of 10%. In the end, only the consumers actually pay the VAT since they aren’t granted a credit.Oh, great, it’s starting! Let’s go!So the thing is, so the thing is... Let’s take this somewhere else.You may have noticed how popular that handsome actor was. Real star power. Well, that’s kind of like value added taxes. They’re one of the biggest sources of tax revenue in the world. More than 160 countries have a VAT. Why? Well, there’s less (Q6) ______________. VATs are a built-in cost, so each business isn’t just collecting the tax themselves, so they’re motivated to report their taxes honestly to get those tax credits. And it’s important that they do. While VAT rates are different in each country, the average VAT raises around a third of a country’s tax revenue. So it’s an important source of funding for everything from improving our (Q7) ________________, and countering climate change, to creating equality, and improving health and social safety nets.But just as with any movie, VATs have their critics. Some say that having a VAT is unfair to poorer people because they spend most of their income, so they face a higher burden. But a lot of those concerns can be answered by using the money from VAT to help the most (Q8) ___________. Some argue that reducing the VAT rate on (Q9) ___________ could be a solution, but it ends up benefitting those who don’t need it and makes VAT collection more (Q10) ______________. That can be avoided by making sure that there’s a single universal VAT rate and using progressive income taxes and cash transfers to support poorer households.And that’s VAT. Cut! Feels like we could have gone for more of a Hollywood ending, right? That’s VAT.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Hi, I’m Alex. Wanna catch a movie? Now, I know what you’re thinking. I clicked to watch a video about value added tax, not movies. Well, taxes and movies have more in common than you might think. They both generate (Q1) revenue. They can be really complicated, and some are just blockbusters. Like our old friend, Value Added Tax - also known as VAT or a goods and services tax. So how do value added taxes work? Let me explain with (Q2) popcorn. Obviously.The corn starts out in a field with the farmer growing his crop. He sells it to a company that takes the corn and puts it in fancy packaging. Then, that company sells the packaged products to the cinema and ultimately to the (Q3) customer.Now, let’s rewind and watch that again. And this time, let’s assume that the country where all this is taking place has a 10% value added tax. Here’s how that works. Our farmer sells his popcorn for $10, but the packaging company buying it, they actually pay him $11. So why the extra dollar? Because that’s the 10% VAT. That same thing happens again when the company sells the packaged popcorn to the cinema for a (Q4) profit. So now the price is $15. But with the added 10% VAT, the cinema actually pays $16 and fifty cents. And then finally, the cinema sells the popcorn to the customer for $20. And that customer, once the VAT has been added, is paying $22.So far, so good. But here’s the added ingredient that advocates of VAT say makes the system really work. And that’s (Q5) tax credit for businesses. The tax credit is just an amount that a business can subtract from the VAT it owes the government. VAT makes it so that while everyone on the supply chain pays their 10% in tax, they also get tax credits for whatever’s already been paid by those selling to them. So across the whole process, it’s a flat rate of 10%. In the end, only the consumers actually pay the VAT since they aren’t granted a credit.Oh, great, it’s starting! Let’s go!So the thing is, so the thing is... Let’s take this somewhere else.You may have noticed how popular that handsome actor was. Real star power. Well, that’s kind of like value added taxes. They’re one of the biggest sources of tax revenue in the world. More than 160 countries have a VAT. Why? Well, there’s less (Q6) tax evasion. VATs are a built-in cost, so each business isn’t just collecting the tax themselves, so they’re motivated to report their taxes honestly to get those tax credits. And it’s important that they do. While VAT rates are different in each country, the average VAT raises around a third of a country’s tax revenue. So it’s an important source of funding for everything from improving our (Q7) infrastructure, and countering climate change, to creating equality, and improving health and social safety nets.But just as with any movie, VATs have their critics. Some say that having a VAT is unfair to poorer people because they spend most of their income, so they face a higher burden. But a lot of those concerns can be answered by using the money from VAT to help the most (Q8) vulnerable. Some argue that reducing the VAT rate on (Q9) basic food could be a solution, but it ends up benefitting those who don’t need it and makes VAT collection more (Q10) complex. That can be avoided by making sure that there’s a single universal VAT rate and using progressive income taxes and cash transfers to support poorer households.And that’s VAT. Cut! Feels like we could have gone for more of a Hollywood ending, right? That’s VAT.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 褪黑素与睡眠

褪黑素与睡眠What Is Melatonin - and Should You Take It to Fall Asleep?刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTMelatonin is a hormone, often called the hormone of darkness, simply because melatonin tells your brain and your body that it’s nighttime and that it’s time to sleep. Melatonin is naturally produced by your brain, and it’s released by a very small gland deep within your brain called the pineal gland. However, you can also buy melatonin in certain countries, and some people will try to use it as a sleep aid. But melatonin isn’t quite as effective as you may think.For example, if you pull together all of the recent scientific studies on sleep and melatonin, which is a technique that we call a meta-analysis, we’ve discovered that melatonin only increases the speed with which you fall asleep by 3.9 minutes and only increases the quality of your sleep, what we call your sleep efficiency, by just 2.2 percent.And this is very understandable since the role of melatonin is primarily in regulating the timing of your sleep, rather than being involved in the generation of sleep itself. That’s down to a very different set of brain mechanisms. It’s also important to understand that melatonin is not well regulated as a supplement in several countries. As a result, the purity and the strength of melatonin that you buy is often unreliable.So if you’re looking to optimize your sleep, it’s best to focus on the basics. The things that we know make a real difference, things such as regularity, keeping your bedroom cool at night, getting darkness in the evening, and, for example, trying to dim down half of the lights in your house in the last hour before bed. And then, reverse-engineering this by getting plenty of natural daylight in the morning hours. And finally try to get some form of physical activity each day.These things are much more likely to help your sleep, rather than looking to melatonin for some kind of sleep assistance.VOCABULARY1. melatonin n. 褪黑激素2. hormone n. 激素;荷尔蒙。例如:a hormone imbalance 激素失调3. gland n. an organ in a person's or an animal's body that produces a substance for the body to use. There are many different glands in the body. 腺。例如:a snake's poison glands 蛇的毒腺4. pineal n. (anatomy 解) a small organ in the brain that releases a hormone 松果腺QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.1. Melatonin tells your brain and your body that it’s nighttime and that it’s time to sleep.2. Melatonin is naturally produced by your brain, and it is released by a very small gland deep within your brain called the pineal gland.3. You can buy melatonin in all countries, and some people will try to use it as a sleep aid.4. Melatonin isn’t quite as effective as you may think.5. Melatonin only increases the speed of falling asleep by 2.2 minutes and only increases the quality of your sleepby just 3.9 percent.6. The role of melatonin is primarily in regulating the generation of sleep itself, rather than being involved in the timing of your sleep.7. Regularity, keeping your bedroom warm at night, getting darkness in the evening, andtrying to dim down half of the lights in your house in the last hour before bed are much more likely to help your sleep.8. Getting plenty of natural daylight in the evening hours is much more likely to help your sleep.9. Trying to get some form of physical activity each day is much more likely to help your sleep.KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.(T) 1. Melatonin tells your brain and your body that it’s nighttime and that it’s time to sleep.(T) 2. Melatonin is naturally produced by your brain, and it is released by a very small gland deep within your brain called the pineal gland.(F) 3. You can buy melatonin in all countries, and some people will try to use it as a sleep aid. (正确表达)You can buy melatonin in certain countries, and some people will try to use it as a sleep aid.(T) 4. Melatonin isn’t quite as effective as you may think.(F) 5. Melatonin only increases the speed of falling asleep by 2.2 minutes and only increases the quality of your sleep by just 3.9 percent. (正确表达)Melatonin only increases the speed of falling asleep by 3.9 minutes and only increases the quality of your sleep by just 2.2 percent.(F) 6. The role of melatonin is primarily in regulating the generation of sleep itself, rather than being involved in the timing of your sleep.(正确表达)The role of melatonin is primarily in regulating the timing of your sleep, rather than being involved in the generation of sleep itself.(F) 7. Regularity, keeping your bedroom warm at night, getting darkness in the evening, and trying to dim down half of the lights in your house in the last hour before bed are much more likely to help your sleep.(正确表达)Regularity, keeping your bedroom cool at night, getting darkness in the evening, and trying to dim down half of the lights in your house in the last hour before bed are much more likely to help your sleep.(F) 8. Getting plenty of natural daylight in the evening hours is much more likely to help your sleep.(正确表达)Getting plenty of natural daylight in the morning hours is much more likely to help your sleep.(T) 9. Trying to get some form of physical activity each day is much more likely to help your sleep.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 玩手机对大脑的影响

玩手机对大脑的影响Tech's Brain Effect: It's Complicated刘立军供稿TRANSCRIPT“Clearly, technology is helping us research the brain, but how is the brain responding to technology?”NYU neuroscientist Alexandra Ochoa Cohen.“There’s been a lot of mostly negative hype around this issue, often referred to as screen time, and how it’s ruining all of our lives. And while there’ve been a few studies that have examined these questions, the truth is that everything we encounter changes our brains. And we just don’t have the data right now to say how meaningful these changes actually are.”Cohen spoke March 21st, at the Cooper Union in Manhattan, during a discussion called Our Brain on A.I. (Artificial Intelligence): Who’s In Control, Me or the Machine?“In fact, a recent study examining over 350,000 adolescents found a small but negative association with technology use and well-being, but they also found similar relationships between eating potatoes and wearing eyeglasses and well-being. And yet we don’t ask if potatoes and eyeglasses have destroyed a generation.”That study, titled “The association between adolescent well-being and digital technology use,” appeared this January in the journal Nature Human Behaviour.“Part of the issue in studying how technology influences our brain is that there are so many different forms of technology that often all get lumped into one category. So how we use technology, what specific technology we use, and what we use it for will be important variables to define in future research.“And even as we do more and better research on these topics, the answer is still likely to be that it’s complicated. In a way, we’re all part of a massive experiment on how technology is influencing our brains, and there will almost certainly be both positive and negative outcomes. So studies that track individuals’ behavioral and brain development over time will be particularly important. Like the ABCD, or Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study, which is currently following over 10,000 kids for 10 years. And this kind of research will be especially important in helping us to figure out what lasting influences technology has on our brains.”VOCABULARY1. neuroscientist n. (医)神经科学家2. hype n.(不可数名词) (informal, disapproving) advertisements and discussion on television, radio, etc. telling the public about a product and about how good or important it is (电视、广播等中言过其实的)促销广告,促销讨论。例如:marketing / media hype 夸张的促销 / 媒体广告3. adolescent n. a young person who is developing from a child into an adult 青少年QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.“Clearly, technology is helping us research the brain, but how is the brain responding to technology?”NYU neuroscientist Alexandra Ochoa Cohen.“There’s been a lot of mostly (Q1) _______________ hype around this issue, often referred to as screen time, and how it’s ruining all of our lives. And while there’ve been a few studies that have examined these questions, the truth is that (Q2) _________________. And we just don’t have the data right now to say how meaningful these changes actually are.”Cohen spoke March 21st, at the Cooper Union in Manhattan, during a discussion called Our Brain on A.I. (Artificial Intelligence): Who’s In Control, Me or the Machine?“In fact, a recent study examining over 350,000 (Q3) ___________ found a small but negative association with technology use and well-being, but they also found similar relationships (Q4) __________________. And yet we don’t ask if potatoes and eyeglasses have destroyed a generation.”That study, titled “The association between adolescent well-being and digital technology use,” appeared this January in the journal Nature Human Behaviour.“Part of the issue in studying how (Q5) ___________ influences our brain is that there are so many different forms of technology that often all get lumped into one category. So how we use technology, what specific technology we use, and what we use it for will be important (Q6) __________to define in future research.“And even as we do more and better research on these topics, the answer is still likely to be that it’s (Q7) _______________. In a way, we’re all part of a massive experiment on how technology is influencing our brains, and there will almost certainly be (Q8) _________________. So studies that track individuals’ behavioral and brain development over time will be particularly important. Like the ABCD, or Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study, which is currently following over 10,000 (Q9) __________ for 10 years. And this kind of research will be especially important in helping us to figure out what (Q10) ______________ technology has on our brains.”KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.“Clearly, technology is helping us research the brain, but how is the brain responding to technology?”NYU neuroscientist Alexandra Ochoa Cohen.“There’s been a lot of mostly (Q1) negative hype around this issue, often referred to as screen time, and how it’s ruining all of our lives. And while there’ve been a few studies that have examined these questions, the truth is that (Q2) everything we encounter changes our brains. And we just don’t have the data right now to say how meaningful these changes actually are.”Cohen spoke March 21st, at the Cooper Union in Manhattan, during a discussion called Our Brain on A.I. (Artificial Intelligence): Who’s In Control, Me or the Machine?“In fact, a recent study examining over 350,000 (Q3) adolescents found a small but negative association with technology use and well-being, but they also found similar relationships (Q4) between eating potatoes and wearing eyeglasses and well-being. And yet we don’t ask if potatoes and eyeglasses have destroyed a generation.”That study, titled “The association between adolescent well-being and digital technology use,” appeared this January in the journal Nature Human Behaviour.“Part of the issue in studying how (Q5) technology influences our brain is that there are so many different forms of technology that often all get lumped into one category. So how we use technology, what specific technology we use, and what we use it for will be important (Q6) variables to define in future research.“And even as we do more and better research on these topics, the answer is still likely to be that it’s (Q7) complicated. In a way, we’re all part of a massive experiment on how technology is influencing our brains, and there will almost certainly be (Q8) both positive and negative outcomes. So studies that track individuals’ behavioral and brain development over time will be particularly important. Like the ABCD, or Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study, which is currently following over 10,000 (Q9) kids for 10 years. And this kind of research will be especially important in helping us to figure out what (Q10) lasting influences technology has on our brains.”(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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