双语阅读 | 为什么社交媒体让人情绪低落

为什么社交媒体让人情绪低落Why Social Media Causes Depression王淑怡 供稿A study published in Depression and Anxiety found that social media users are more likely to be depressed. But how does social media make you depressed when spending time on social media can be a fun way to pass time? Well, here are a few reasons and what you can do about it.《抑郁与焦虑》杂志的一项研究发现,社交媒体用户更容易抑郁。社交媒体本来是一个很有趣的打发时间的方式,为什么它会让人如此不开心呢?以下是社交媒体使人情绪低落的原因,以及我们该如何应对。Social media encourages social comparison社交媒体会引发社交攀比There have been many studies linking social media to depression. A study in the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology shows we feel depressed because we’re comparing our own lives to others’ highlight reels. Most people like to portray an idealized image of their lives, personal traits, and appearance on sites like Facebook and Instagram. If you confuse this idealized image with reality, you may be under the false impression that everyone is better than you which can crush your self-esteem and lead to depression. This is especially true for teens and young adults who are more likely to compare themselves to others. If you already suffer from low self-esteem, the illusion that everyone has it better off than you will just make you feel worse.许多研究显示,使用社交媒体容易让人抑郁。《社会与临床心理学》杂志中的一项研究表明,我们之所以会感到抑郁,是因为我们总是拿自己的日常和他人的高光时刻做比较。大多数人喜欢在Facebook和Instagram等平台描绘自己生活、个人特征和外表的理想化形象,如果你混淆了这种理想化的形象和现实,你可能会产生一种错误的印象,认为每个人都比你优秀,这会摧毁你的自尊,导致抑郁。这对青少年和年轻人来说尤其如此,他们更有可能将自己与他人进行比较。如果你已经饱受自卑之苦,那种认为每个人都比你过得更好的错觉只会让你感觉更糟。Social media may lead to information bombarding社交媒体会带来信息轰炸Picture this: you're between Zoom meetings, and scrolling through your social media newsfeed. Headlines like "Death toll continues to rise", "COVID-19 may cause long-term health implications" and "Health-care systems overwhelmed" flash across your screen. Your mood takes a dive, but you can't stop scrolling. Seeing these constant reminders causes you to feel more depressed than before. Research suggest that people have a tendency to seek out information during uncertain times and exposure to negative news is likely to be detrimental to our emotional wellbeing. For instance, one study conducted in March 2020 involving more than 6,000 Americans found that the more time participants spent consuming COVID news in a day, the unhappier they felt.想象一下,你刚开完一个视频会议,趁着空闲翻阅一下社交媒体的推送新闻。屏幕上闪过的标题都是“死亡率继续上升”、“新冠病毒可能会对健康产生长期危害”、“医疗系统不堪重负”之类的。你的心情骤然间变得低落,但是你仍忍不住继续翻阅,看着不间断的消息提醒,你更焦虑了。研究表明,人们在充满不确定性的时期往往都会去寻找信息,而负面新闻不利于精神健康。例如,2020年3月开展的一项涵盖了6000多名美国人的研究发现,参与者在一天内用于浏览疫情新闻的时间越多,他们就越不开心。So, what can we do to build a healthy relationship with social media?所以,我们应该怎么做,才能和社交媒体建立良性健康的关系呢?Spend real, meaningful time with your friends. Instead of trying to amass friends on social media, a best cure for depression might be spending time with those you're closest to.多花点时间陪陪真正的朋友。与其试图在社交媒体上广交朋友,不如花点时间和最亲密的人在一起,这可能是避免情绪低落的最好方法。Seek out content that makes you happy to balance out your newsfeed. This may be images of cute kittens, beautiful landscapes, drool-worthy food videos or something else. You could even follow a social media account dedicated to sharing only happy and positive news.查阅推送信息时多看那些让你开心的内容,比如可爱的小猫、美丽的风景、令人垂涎欲滴的美食视频,甚至可以关注一个专门分享快乐积极新闻的社交媒体用户。Consider removing apps from your phone. If it’s hard for you to limit or adjust the amount of time you spend on social media, consider deleting your apps from your phone. This’ll help to prevent that mindless scrolling you do at work, at the dinner table, and so on.考虑从手机中删除某些社交软件。如果你做不到减少浏览社交媒体的时间,可以考虑直接从手机上删除这些社交软件。这将有助于避免你在工作时或在就餐等场合下意识地刷手机。【VOCABULARY】1.highlight reel 高能时刻,高光时刻2.crush v. 破坏,毁坏(某人的信心或幸福)3.self-esteem 自尊心4.scroll v. 滚屏,滚动5.take a dive 暴跌6.amass v. (尤指大量)积累,积聚7.newsfeed n. 新闻供应8.drool-worthy adj. 令人垂涎欲滴的(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 穿袜子睡觉背后的科学原理

穿袜子睡觉背后的科学原理TheScience Behind SleepingWith Socks On王淑怡 供稿Millions of people around the world go to bed wearing socks. But are you curious about the sciencebehind this practice and whether it is good for our sleep?许多人睡觉时都喜欢穿着袜子。但是,你是否好奇人们这么做的科学原理是什么,以及穿着袜子睡觉是否能够改善睡眠质量?To understand why, you first need to grasp the relationship between core body temperature and sleep. During daylight hours, the human body humsalong at an average temperature of37 degrees Celsius. But at night, your core body temperature dipsas much as 1.2 degrees Celsius over the course of six or seven hours of sleep. This gradual decrease in core body temperature, it turns out, is a key part of the complicated neurobiologicaldance of falling asleep and staying asleep. And the faster you can lower the core body temperature, the faster you will fall asleep.要理解其中原因,你首先需要了解核心体温和睡眠之间的关系。白天,人的平均体温为37℃。但到了晚上,人们在六到七个小时的睡眠中,核心体温会下降1.2℃。事实证明,核心体温的逐渐下降是入睡和保持睡眠这一复杂的神经生物学行为的关键。核心体温的下降速度越快,你就越快入睡。One of the ways that your body regulates its temperature is through blood vessels in your skin. If the brain decides the body is too hot, it will widen blood vessels, redistributing warmer blood from the body's core through the rest of the body to cool it down. If the body is too cold, the brain signals the opposite reaction, restricting the flow of blood to the surface.身体调节体温的方法之一是通过皮肤中的血管。如果大脑认为身体太热,会扩张血管,将温暖的血液从身体核心器官重新输送到其他部位,使其降温。如果身体太冷,大脑则会发出相反的信号,限制血液流向体表。The palms of your hands and solesof your feet are the body's most efficient heat exchangers, since they are hairless and less insulatedthan other skin surfaces. Researchers have shown that warming the feet before going to sleep using a warm foot bath or by wearing socks promotes vasodilation, which in turn lowers the body's core temperature faster than going to sleep with cold, bare feet. This can be especially critical during chilly weather when the feet can get so cold that tossing and turningthroughout the night becomes inevitable. 手掌和脚底是身体最有效的散热器,因为与其他部位的皮肤相比,手掌和脚底光滑无毛、绝缘性差。研究人员表明,睡前泡脚或穿袜子暖脚可以促进血管扩张,这样会比赤着冷脚睡觉更快地降低身体的核心温度。在寒冷的天气里,这一点尤为重要。如果手脚长时间捂不热,人们就会辗转反侧难以入眠。In addition to that, wearing socks can enhance our blood circulation.From heart failure to strokes and other life-threatening medical conditions, the lack of proper blood circulation can be detrimentalto your health in diverse ways. The good news is that sleeping in socks canramp up the supply of blood, oxygen, and nutrients to every part of the body, thus which keep the heart, liver, kidneys, and other important organs working at optimum levels.除此之外,穿着袜子睡觉有助于促进血液循环。血液循环不好会以多种方式损害人的健康,造成心力衰竭、中风等疾病,危及生命。但穿着袜子睡觉可以增加身体各个部位的血液、氧气和营养供应,从而使得心脏、肝脏、肾脏和其他重要器官保持最佳状态。【VOCABULARY】1.humv.活跃,繁忙2.dipn.(暂时的) 下降3.neurobiological adj.神经生物学的4.sole n.脚掌5.insulatedadj. 有隔热(或隔音、绝缘)保护的6.vasodilation n. 血管舒张7.tossing and turning辗转反侧;翻来覆去难以入睡8.detrimentaladj. 有害的,不利的9.ramp up增加; 使增加(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 为什么我们在洗澡时会灵感乍现?

为什么我们在洗澡时会灵感乍现?Why Do We Have Our Best Ideas in the Shower?王淑怡 供稿You are in the shower. The water sounds like a gentle, rainy static. Suddenly, you're hit with a flash of brilliance. Maybe it's the answer to a vexing problem at work, the location of your lost USB drive, or perhaps it's just a random, inconsequential (yet totally satisfying) insight.你站在花洒下,听着淅淅沥沥的水声,突然间,你灵光闪现。也许是工作上遇到的难题有了好的解决办法,或者你突然想起了U盘忘在了哪里,又或者你随机想到了一个无关紧要但令人十分满意的新点子。But, by the time you towel off, the idea already has spiraled away down the drain. We all get these kinds of thoughts, and they don't just happen in the shower. Long drives, short walks, even something like pulling weeds, all seem to have the right mix of monotony and engagement to trigger a revelation. They also happen to be activities where it's difficult to take notes. Once you realize them, introducing a pen and paper can sterilize the effort.但是,等你洗完澡、擦干身子,这些想法已经随着水流一起消失了。我们都曾有过这样的天降灵感,它们不仅仅诞生于淋浴间。长途驾车、饭后散步,甚至是除草时——这些时刻都有些单调乏味,但又需要一定的专注力,刚好适合灵感的诞生。而且出现这些灵感时,你手边没有任何东西可以将之付诸笔端。一旦你意识到灵感来了,准备好纸笔也无济于事了。Why do we get these random insights? Psychologists have a theory that describes a mental state that seems to foment these kinds of thoughts. It's called the default mode network. "You become less aware of your environment and more aware of your internal thoughts,” said John Kounios, a psychologist at Drexel University in Philadelphia.那我们为什么会灵感乍现?心理学家将产生这种灵感的精神状态称为大脑的默认模式网络(DMN)。“在这种状态下,你对周遭环境的敏感度减弱了,内心的想法会变得清晰活跃起来。”美国费城德雷塞尔大学的心理学家约翰·库尼奥斯说。Kounios explains that our brains typically catalog things by their context: Windows are parts of buildings, and the stars belong in the night sky. When we’re focused on a specific task our thinking tends to be linear. He uses the example of a railway. You walk by them every day with hardly a second thought. But when your brain starts to roam, your thoughts will go off the rails. As ideas become untethered, they are free to bump up against other ideas they've never had the chance to encounter, increasing the likelihood of creative webs.库尼奥斯解释道,大脑是按事物所属环境来分类的。比如说,窗户属于建筑,星星属于夜空。当我们思考某个特定事件时,大脑会呈现单一线性的思路。他以地铁为例。你每天都步行经过地铁,不假思索。但一旦你中途走了神,思绪就会天马行空。当这些想法挣脱了束缚,就可能与原本不可能接触的其他想法相互碰撞,这时,就更可能诞生创意。“Not having an explicit task is the main ingredient for random insights,” Kounios said. “Once you have a pen and paper there, it’s not really your mind wandering.”“产生随机灵感最重要的一点是,不能有明确的任务,”库尼奥斯表示,“一旦你拿了纸笔,大脑就停止漫游了。”That doesn’t mean your eureka moments are doomed to be flushed away. Kounios says if you keep your recording method out of sight (yet within reach), your mind won’t be waylaid by external pressure on its way to free association. This could be a water-proof notepad for your shower, or a voice-activated recording app for the car.但这并不意味着,我们只能眼看这些欣喜的时刻化为泡影。库尼奥斯建议,把你的记录工具放在看不到又触手可及的地方,这样,你的思绪就能轻松地自由碰撞,而不会被半路拦截了。可以试试在淋浴间放个防水笔记本,或在汽车里安装一个声控录音应用。【VOCABULARY】1.vexing adj. 令人烦恼的2.inconsequential adj. 不重要的,微不足道的3.towel off 擦干,揩干4.spiral v. 螺旋式移动5.monotony n. 单调乏味,千篇一律6.revelation n. 令人惊喜的发现;被揭示的真相7.sterilize v. 使…不起作用8.foment v. 引发;煽动9.untethered adj. 不被绳索捆缚的10.bump up against 触碰到11.eureka int. (因找到某物,尤指问题的答案而高兴)我发现了,我找到了12.waylay v. 拦截;伏击(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 伦敦大本钟将以新面貌在新年敲响

伦敦大本钟将以新面貌在新年敲响London's Big Ben will Ring with a New Lookin the New Year刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTBig Ben's famous clock will appear in time for it to do its most important yearly activity: marking the start of the New Year for thousands of people on London's streets and millions more watching on television.The clock tower of Britain's Houses of Parliament has been hidden in a repair project for over three years.Hundreds of workers are involved in the effort to fix the structure built in 1859.Nick Sturge, project manager for Sir Robert McAlpine's special projects, said removing the scaffoldingwas an important step in the $107 million project.Scaffolding is a movable structure on which workers stand or sit while working high above the ground."By New Year people will start to see a big difference; they'll start to get their tower back," he said."The roofs will be fully visible along with the four clock faces."Big Ben is an internationally-known symbol of London and Britain's parliamentarydemocracy.It is also one of the most photographed places in the city.The repair work includes replacing parts of the clock faces using handmade glass, Sturge said.The dials' hands, numbers and other details have been repainted bright blue rather than the black long familiar to Londoners.Sturge said an early painting of Big Ben showed a color that was confirmed by a paint study to be Prussian blue.Sturge said, "When you stand on the street it's a really nice nod to the past," meaning a recognition of the building's history.The symbols of the four parts of the United Kingdom - the thistle, shamrock, leekand rose - have also been repainted in the colors from the first design of the tower.The building was called the Clock Tower until 2012 when officials re-named it the Elizabeth Tower in honor of Britain's Queen.The tower's Great Bell, or Big Ben, marks the turning of the year with twelve strikes.That will be powered by an electric motor January 1.Alex Jeffrey, one of three clockmakers at the Palace of Westminster, said the clock had been transported to Cumbria, in northwestern England, to be taken apart and put back together.It was a big job."To give you an example, one of the hands weighs about 305 kilograms," he said.The clock's minute hand, he added, is about 4.3 meters long.The one dial showing the time when the scaffolding comes down is electric-driven.But starting in the spring, the gravity-powered clock will operate all four dials as first designed."It is famously accurate," Jeffrey said."The Great Clock is designed extremely well and it's accurate to one second to the first strike of each hour."VOCABULARY1. scaffoldingn.(不可数名词)poles and boards that are joined together to make a structure for workers to stand on when they are working high up on the outside wall of a building 脚手架(组);鹰架2. parliamentaryn. connected with a parliament; having a parliament 议会的;国会的;设有议会的。例如:parliamentary elections 议会选举3. democracyn. a system of government in which all the people of a country can vote to elect their representatives 民主政体;民主制度。例如:the principles of democracy 民主原则4. thistlen. a wild plant with leaves with sharp points and purple, yellow or white flowers made up of a mass of narrow petals pointing upwards. The thistle is the national symbol of Scotland. 蓟(野生植物,叶有刺,花呈紫色、黄色或白色,为苏格兰民族象征)5. shamrockn. a small plant with three leaves on each stem. The shamrock is the national symbol of Ireland. 三叶草(爱尔兰的国花)6. leekn. a vegetable like a long onion with many layers of wide flat leaves that are white at the bottom and green at the top. Leeks are eaten cooked. The leek is a national symbol of Wales. 韭葱(威尔士民族的象征)QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements. 1. The clock tower of Britain's Houses of Parliament has been hidden in a repair project for nearly three years.2. Thousands of workers are involved in the effort to fix the structure built in 1859.3. Scaffolding is a movable structure for workers to stand or sit while working high above the ground.4. Big Ben is a nationally-known symbol of London and Britain's parliamentary democracy.5. The repair work includes replacing parts of the clock faces using handmade glass.6. The dials' hands, numbers and other details have been repainted bright blue rather than the black.7. The symbols of the four parts of the United Kingdom have also been repainted in the colors from the last design of the tower.8. In 2012, officials re-named the Clock Tower the Elizabeth Tower in honor of Britain's Queen.9. The tower's Great Bell marks the turning of the year with onestrike.10. The clock had been transported to Cumbria to be taken apart and will be put back together in London.11. The clock's hour hand is about 4.3 meters long.12. The Great Clock is designed extremely well and it's accurate to one or two seconds to the first strike of each hour.KEY Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.(F) 1. The clock tower of Britain's Houses of Parliament has been hidden in a repair project for nearlythree years.(正确表达)The clock tower of Britain's Houses of Parliament has been hidden in a repair project for overthree years.(F) 2. Thousandsof workers are involved in the effort to fix the structure built in 1859.(正确表达)Hundredsof workers are involved in the effort to fix the structure built in 1859.(T) 3. Scaffolding is a movable structure for workers to stand or sit while working high above the ground.(F) 4. Big Ben is a nationally-knownsymbol of London and Britain's parliamentary democracy.(正确表达)Big Ben is an internationally-knownsymbol of London and Britain's parliamentary democracy.(T) 5. The repair work includes replacing parts of the clock faces using handmade glass.(T) 6. The dials' hands, numbers and other details have been repainted bright blue rather than the black.(F) 7. The symbols of the four parts of the United Kingdom have also been repainted in the colors from the lastdesign of the tower.(正确表达)The symbols of the four parts of the United Kingdom have also been repainted in the colors from the firstdesign of the tower.(T) 8. In 2012, officials re-named the Clock Tower the Elizabeth Tower in honor of Britain's Queen.(F) 9. The tower's Great Bell marks the turning of the year with onestrike.(正确表达)The tower's Great Bell marks the turning of the year with twelvestrikes.(F) 10. The clock had been transported to Cumbria to be taken apart and will be put back together in London.(正确表达)The clock had been transported to Cumbria to be taken apart and put back together.(F) 11. The clock's hour handis about 4.3 meters long.(正确表达)The clock's minute handis about 4.3 meters long.(F) 12. The Great Clock is designed extremely well and it's accurate to one or two secondsto the first strike of each hour.(正确表达)The Great Clock is designed extremely well and it's accurate to onesecondto the first strike of each hour.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 未来办公室

未来办公室The office of the future刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTBusinessBartleby - The office of the futureCubicles are out. Bars, neighbourhoods and sensors are in.The office used to be a place people went to because they had to. Meetings happened in conference rooms and in person. Desks took up the bulk of the space. The kingdom of Dilbert and of David Brent is now under threat. The pandemic has exposed the office to competition from remote working, and brought up a host of questions about how it should be designed in the future.Start with what the office is for. In the past it was a place for employees to get their work done, whatever form that took. Now other conceptions of its role jostle for attention. Some think of the office as the new offsite. Its purpose is to get people together in person so they can do the things that remote working makes harder: forging deeper relationships or collaborating in real time on specific projects. Others talk of the office as a destination, a place that has to make the idea of getting out of bed earlier, in order to mingle with people who may have COVID-19, seem attractive. In other words, a layout that is largely devoted to people working at serried desks alongside the same colleagues each day all feels very 2019. With fewer people coming in and more emphasis on collaboration, fewer desks will be assigned to individuals. Instead, there will be more shared areas, or “neighbourhoods”, where people in a team can work together flexibly. More hot-desking will also necessitate storage space for personal possessions: lockers may soon be back in your life. To bridge gaps between teams, one tactic is to set aside more of the office to showcase the work of each department, so that people who never encounter each other on Zoom can see examples of what their colleagues do.Another option is to ply everyone with drink. Expect more space to be set aside for socialising and events. Bars in offices are apparently going to be a thing. Robin Klehr Avia of Gensler, an architecture firm, says she is seeing lots of requests for places, like large auditoriums, where a company’s clients can have “experiences”. Designs for the post-covid office must also allow for hybrid work. Meetings have to work for virtual participants as well as for in-person contributors: cameras, screens and microphones will proliferate. Gensler’s New York offices feature mini-meeting rooms that have a monitor and a half-table jutting out from the wall below it, with seating for four or five people arranged to face the screen, not each other.Variety will be another theme. People may plan to work in groups in the morning, but need to concentrate on something in the afternoon. Ryan Anderson of Herman Miller, a furniture firm, likens the difference between the pre- and post-pandemic office to that between a hotel and a home. Hotels are largely given over to rooms for individuals. “Home is thought of as a place for a family over years, hosting lots of different activities.”All of which implies the need for flexibility. Laptop docking stations are simple additions, but other bits of office furniture are harder to overhaul. Desks themselves tend to be tethered to the floor through knotted bundles of cables and plugs. The office of the future may well feature desks with wheels, which ought to go well with all that extra alcohol. Meeting rooms are likely to be more flexible, too, with walls that lift and slide.If socialising and flexibility are two of the themes of the post-pandemic office, a third is data. Property and HR managers alike will want more data in order to understand how facilities are being used, and on which days and times people are bunching in the office. Workers will demand more data on health risks: the quality of ventilation within meeting rooms, say, or proper contact-tracing if a colleague tests positive for the latest COVID-19 variant. And data will flow more copiously in response: from sensors in desks and lighting but also from desk-booking tools and visitor-management apps. The question of who owns data on office occupants and what consent mechanisms are needed to gather this information is about to become more pressing.Put this all together and what do you get? If you are an optimist, the office of the future will be a spacious, collaborative environment that makes the commute worth it. If you are a pessimist, it will be a building full of heavily surveilled drunkards. In reality, pragmatic considerations - how much time is left on the lease, the physical constraints of a building’s layout, uncertainty about the path of the pandemic - will determine the pace of change.Whatever happens, the office won't be what it was.VOCABULARY1. cubicle n. a small room that is made by separating off part of a larger room (大房间分隔出的)小房间,隔间。例如:(especially North American English) an office cubicle 办公室的隔间2. the bulk of sth. : the main part of sth.; most of sth. 主体;大部分。例如:The bulk of the population lives in cities. 大多数人口居住在城市里。3. jostle for sth.: to compete strongly and with force with other people for sth. 争夺;争抢。例如:People in the crowd were jostling for the best positions. 这群人在竞相抢占最好的位置。4. offsite adj. 厂区外的,现场外的5. forge v. to put a lot of effort into making sth. successful or strong so that it will last 艰苦干成;努力加强。例如:She forged a new career in the music business. 她在乐坛上另创一番新事业。6. layout n. the way in which the parts of sth. such as the page of a book, a garden or a building are arranged 布局;布置;设计;安排。例如:the layout of streets 街道的布局7. serried adj. (literary) standing or arranged closely together in rows or lines (行列)密排的,密集的,靠拢的。例如:serried ranks of soldiers 密集排列的士兵8. tactic n. the particular method you use to achieve sth. 策略。例如:The manager discussed tactics with his team. 经理和他手下的一班人讨论了策略问题。9. ply v. 不断供给 If you ply someone with food or drink, you keep giving them more of it.10. proliferate v. to increase rapidly in number or amount 迅速繁殖(或增殖);猛增。例如:Books and articles on the subject have proliferated over the last year. 过去一年以来,论及这一问题的书和文章大量涌现。11. jut v. to stick out further than the surrounding surface, objects, etc.; to make sth. stick out (使)突出,伸出。例如:A row of small windows jutted out from the roof. 有一排小窗户从房顶上突出来。12. liken sth./sb. to sth./sb.: (formal) to compare one thing or person to another and say they are similar 把……比作……。例如:Life is often likened to a journey. 人们常把人生比作旅程。13. overhaul v. to examine every part of a machine, system, etc. and make any necessary changes or repairs 彻底检修。例如:The engine has been completely overhauled. 发动机已彻底检修过了。14. tether sth. (to sth): to tie an animal to a post so that it cannot move very far 拴(牲畜)15. bunch v. to become tight or to form tight folds; to make sth. do this (使)变紧;(使)成皱褶。例如:His muscles bunched under his shirt. 他衬衫下面的肌肉紧绷绷的。16. ventilate v. to allow fresh air to enter and move around a room, building, etc. 使(房间、建筑物等)通风;使通气。例如:a well-ventilated room 通风良好的房间17. copious adj. in large amounts 大量的;充裕的;丰富的18. optimist n. a person who always expects good things to happen or things to be successful 乐观的人;乐天派19. pessimist n. a person who always expects bad things to happen 悲观主义者;悲观论者。例如:You don't have to be a pessimist to realize that we're in trouble. 不是悲观论者也能意识到我们有了麻烦。20. surveil v. 使受监视(或监督)21. drunkard n. (old-fashioned) a person who gets drunk very often 酒鬼;醉鬼22. pragmatic adj. solving problems in a practical and sensible way rather than by having fixed ideas or theories 实用的;讲求实效的;务实的。例如:a pragmatic approach to management problems 对管理问题采取的务实做法QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.BusinessBartleby - The office of the futureCubicles are out. Bars, neighbourhoods and sensors are in.The office used to be a place people went to because they had to. Meetings happened in (Q1) __________ and in person. Desks took up the bulk of the space. The kingdom of Dilbert and of David Brent is now under threat. The pandemic has exposed the office to competition from (Q2) _______________, and brought up a host of questions about how it should be designed in the future.Start with what the (Q3) ___________ is for. In the past it was a place for (Q4) ______________ to get their work done, whatever form that took. Now other conceptions of its role jostle for attention. Some think of the office as the new (Q5) ___________. Its purpose is to get people together in person so they can do the things that remote working makes harder: forging deeper relationships or collaborating in real time on specific projects. Others talk of the office as a (Q6) __________, a place that has to make the idea of getting out of bed earlier, in order to mingle with people who may have COVID-19, seem attractive. In other words, a layout that is largely devoted to people working at serried desks alongside the same colleagues each day all feels very 2019. With fewer people coming in and more emphasis on (Q7) _______________, fewer desks will be assigned to individuals. Instead, there will be more shared areas, or “neighbourhoods”, where people in a team can work together flexibly. More hot-desking will also necessitate storage space for personal possessions: lockers may soon be back in your life. To bridge gaps between teams, one tactic is to set aside more of the office to (Q8) ___________ the work of each department, so that people who never encounter each other on Zoom can see examples of what their colleagues do.Another option is to ply everyone with (Q9) ___________. Expect more space to be set aside for socialising and events. (Q10) ____________ in offices are apparently going to be a thing. Robin Klehr Avia of Gensler, an architecture firm, says she is seeing lots of requests for places, like large auditoriums, where a company’s clients can have “experiences”. Designs for the post-covid office must also allow for hybrid work. Meetings have to work for virtual participants as well as for in-person contributors: cameras, screens and microphones will proliferate. Gensler’s New York offices feature mini-meeting rooms that have a monitor and a half-table jutting out from the wall below it, with seating for four or five people arranged to face the screen, not each other.(Q11) _____________ will be another theme. People may plan to work in groups in the morning, but need to concentrate on something in the afternoon. Ryan Anderson of Herman Miller, a furniture firm, likens the difference between the pre- and post-pandemic office to that between (Q12) _____________. Hotels are largely given over to rooms for (Q13) ______________. “Home is thought of as a place for a family over years, hosting lots of different activities.”All of which implies the need for (Q14) ________________. Laptop docking stations are simple additions, but other bits of office furniture are harder to overhaul. Desks themselves tend to be tethered to the floor through knotted bundles of cables and plugs. The office of the future may well feature desks with wheels, which ought to go well with all that extra alcohol. Meeting rooms are likely to be more flexible, too, with walls that lift and slide.If socialising and flexibility are two of the themes of the post-pandemic office, a third is (Q15) ____________. Property and HR managers alike will want more data in order to understand how facilities are being used, and on which days and times people are bunching in the office. Workers will demand more data on health risks: the quality of (Q16) ______________ within meeting rooms, say, or proper contact-tracing if a colleague tests positive for the latest COVID-19 variant. And data will flow more copiously in response: from sensors in desks and lighting but also from desk-booking tools and visitor-management apps. The question of who owns data on office occupants and what consent mechanisms are needed to gather this information is about to become more pressing.Put this all together and what do you get? If you are an (Q17) ________________, the office of the future will be a spacious, collaborative environment that makes the commute worth it. If you are a (Q18) _______________, it will be a building full of heavily surveilled drunkards. In reality, (Q19) __________________ considerations - how much time is left on the lease, the physical constraints of a building’s layout, (Q20) _______________ about the path of the pandemic - will determine the pace of change.Whatever happens, the office won't be what it was.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.BusinessBartleby - The office of the futureCubicles are out. Bars, neighbourhoods and sensors are in.The office used to be a place people went to because they had to. Meetings happened in (Q1) conference rooms and in person. Desks took up the bulk of the space. The kingdom of Dilbert and of David Brent is now under threat. The pandemic has exposed the office to competition from (Q2) remote working, and brought up a host of questions about how it should be designed in the future.Start with what the (Q3) office is for. In the past it was a place for (Q4) employees to get their work done, whatever form that took. Now other conceptions of its role jostle for attention. Some think of the office as the new (Q5) offsite. Its purpose is to get people together in person so they can do the things that remote working makes harder: forging deeper relationships or collaborating in real time on specific projects. Others talk of the office as a (Q6) destination, a place that has to make the idea of getting out of bed earlier, in order to mingle with people who may have COVID-19, seem attractive. In other words, a layout that is largely devoted to people working at serried desks alongside the same colleagues each day all feels very 2019. With fewer people coming in and more emphasis on (Q7) collaboration, fewer desks will be assigned to individuals. Instead, there will be more shared areas, or “neighbourhoods”, where people in a team can work together flexibly. More hot-desking will also necessitate storage space for personal possessions: lockers may soon be back in your life. To bridge gaps between teams, one tactic is to set aside more of the office to (Q8) showcase the work of each department, so that people who never encounter each other on Zoom can see examples of what their colleagues do.Another option is to ply everyone with (Q9) drink. Expect more space to be set aside for socialising and events. (Q10) Bars in offices are apparently going to be a thing. Robin Klehr Avia of Gensler, an architecture firm, says she is seeing lots of requests for places, like large auditoriums, where a company’s clients can have “experiences”. Designs for the post-covid office must also allow for hybrid work. Meetings have to work for virtual participants as well as for in-person contributors: cameras, screens and microphones will proliferate. Gensler’s New York offices feature mini-meeting rooms that have a monitor and a half-table jutting out from the wall below it, with seating for four or five people arranged to face the screen, not each other.(Q11) Variety will be another theme. People may plan to work in groups in the morning, but need to concentrate on something in the afternoon. Ryan Anderson of Herman Miller, a furniture firm, likens the difference between the pre- and post-pandemic office to that between (Q12) a hotel and a home. Hotels are largely given over to rooms for (Q13) individuals. “Home is thought of as a place for a family over years, hosting lots of different activities.”All of which implies the need for (Q14) flexibility. Laptop docking stations are simple additions, but other bits of office furniture are harder to overhaul. Desks themselves tend to be tethered to the floor through knotted bundles of cables and plugs. The office of the future may well feature desks with wheels, which ought to go well with all that extra alcohol. Meeting rooms are likely to be more flexible, too, with walls that lift and slide.If socialising and flexibility are two of the themes of the post-pandemic office, a third is (Q15) data. Property and HR managers alike will want more data in order to understand how facilities are being used, and on which days and times people are bunching in the office. Workers will demand more data on health risks: the quality of (Q16) ventilation within meeting rooms, say, or proper contact-tracing if a colleague tests positive for the latest COVID-19 variant. And data will flow more copiously in response: from sensors in desks and lighting but also from desk-booking tools and visitor-management apps. The question of who owns data on office occupants and what consent mechanisms are needed to gather this information is about to become more pressing.Put this all together and what do you get? If you are an (Q17) optimist, the office of the future will be a spacious, collaborative environment that makes the commute worth it. If you are a (Q18) pessimist, it will be a building full of heavily surveilled drunkards. In reality, (Q19) pragmatic considerations - how much time is left on the lease, the physical constraints of a building’s layout, (Q20) uncertainty about the path of the pandemic - will determine the pace of change.Whatever happens, the office won't be what it was.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 百年新征程——科技发展图自强

百年新征程——科技发展图自强China's centurygoal to be a "global scientific power" 刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTI'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn and here's what I'm watching: China's overarchingnational goals to become an "innovative nation" by 2020, to be in the "front ranks" of innovative countries by 2035, and a "global scientific power" by 2050. China has achieved the first goal - for example, the number of patentsfiled by Chinese entities now leads the world though quality, while improving, still lags.But now, in light of disruptinginternational conditions, led by U.S. sanctionsand pressures to decouplescience and technology, China has a laser focus on self-reliance in science and technology.In formulating the "14th Five-Year Plan," 2021-2025, and in setting a long-range 15-year plan to 2035 - both formalized by the National People's Congress during the 2021 Two Sessions - the CPC, in its 5th Plenumin October 2020, established a "new development stage," developing a "new development philosophy” and applying a “new development paradigm."Clearly, these new development stage, philosophy and paradigm demand that scientific and technological innovation be top priority in order to create new development momentum by accelerating key core technology capabilities and research. The 14th Five-year Plan emphasizes artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, integrated circuit design and manufacturing (semiconductor chips), quantum computing, life sciences and biotechnology (especially brain sciences), and new materials. Technological applications emphasize the digital economy, 5G, intelligent manufacturing, healthcare, alternative energy and new energy vehicles, and space and sea sciences, among others. Chinese experts cite three ways how China's national development over the next five years must stress technological independence and self-reliance. First: increase the proportion of original innovation, especially basic research. Currently, the proportion of China's basic research investment of its total R&D investment is below 6%, which is far lower than the 18% in the U.S. and 25% in France. Second: continue intelligent industrial upgrading and transformation, transitioning from "following" to "parallel running" or even to "leading" in some high-tech fields.Third: prepare for de-globalization and uncoupling of scientific and technological cooperation and supply chains; indigenousinnovation must alleviatebottlenecks and make up for shortcomings, particularly in semiconductor chips. China plans to spend $1.4 trillion during the next five years in emerging new technologies: AI, 5G, chips, data centers, and quantum computing. But there are challenges: When huge funds are allocated by government and time-periods are demanded to be short, it is all too easy for resources to be misallocated to well-connected but poorly equipped enterprises, causing inefficiencies, waste, distraction and disappointment. In response, the government is tightening peer-review procedures and engaging the private sector. One lens through which to view China's science and technology is that of the New Development Concepts, which fit the new development stage and drive the 14th Five-year Plan. I'm keeping watch. I'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn. VOCABULARY1. overarching adj.(常用于名词前)(formal) very important, because it includes or influencesmany things 非常重要的;首要的。2. patentn.an official right to be the only person to make, use or sell a product or an invention; adocument that proves this 专利权;专利证书。例如:to apply for/obtain a patent on an invention申请 / 获得发明专利权3.lagv. to move or develop slowly or more slowly than other people, organizations, etc. 滞后;落后于。例如:We still lag far behind many of our competitors in using modern technology. 我们在运用现代技术方面仍然远远落后于我们的许多竞争对手。4.disruptv.to make it difficult for sth. to continue in the normal way 扰乱。例如:Demonstratorssucceeded in disrupting the meeting. 示威者成功地扰乱了会议。5. sanction n. an official order that limits trade, contact, etc. with a particular country, in order to make it do sth., such as obeying international law 制裁。例如:The economic sanctions have been lifted. 经济制裁已被取消。6. decouplen.(formal) to end the connection or relationship between two things (使两事物)分离,隔断。7.plenum n.a meeting attended by all the members of a committee, etc.; a plenary meeting (委员会等的)全体会议,全会8.paradigmn. a typical example or pattern of sth. 典范。例如:a paradigm for students to copy供学生效法的榜样9.quantum computing量子计算10.indigenous adj. (formal) belonging to a particular place rather than coming to it from somewhere else 本地的;当地的;土生土长的11.alleviate v. to make sth. less severe 减轻;缓和;缓解QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.I'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn and here's what I'm watching: China's overarching national goals to become an "(Q1) ________________" by 2020,tobe in the "front ranks" of innovative countries by 2035, and a "global scientific power" by 2050. China has achieved the first goal - for example, the number of (Q2) __________ filed by Chinese entities now leads the world though quality, while improving, still lags.But now, in light of disrupting international conditions, led by U.S. (Q3) ______________ to decouple science and technology, China has a laser focus on self-reliance in science and technology.In formulating the "14th Five-Year Plan," 2021-2025, and in setting a long-range 15-year plan to 2035 - both formalized by the National People's Congress during the 2021 Two Sessions - the CPC, in its 5th Plenum in October 2020, established a "(Q4) _____________________," developing a "new development philosophy” and applying a “new development paradigm."Clearly, these new development stage, philosophy and paradigm demand that scientific and technological innovation be top priority in order to create new development momentum by accelerating key core technology capabilities and research. The 14th Five-year Plan emphasizes artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, integrated circuit design and manufacturing (semiconductor chips), quantum computing, life sciences and biotechnology (especially brain sciences), and new materials. Technological applications emphasize the (Q5) ______________, 5G, intelligent manufacturing, healthcare, alternative energy and new energy vehicles, and space and sea sciences, among others. Chinese experts cite three ways how China's national development over the next five years must stress technological independence and self-reliance. First: increase the proportion of (Q6) ___________________, especially basic research. Currently, the proportion of China's basic research investment of its total R&D investment is below 6%, which is far lower than the 18% in the U.S. and 25% in France. Second: continue intelligent industrial (Q7) ______________________, transitioning from "following" to "parallel running" or even to "leading" in some high-tech fields.Third: prepare for de-globalization and uncoupling of scientific and technological cooperation and supply chains; indigenous innovation must alleviate bottlenecks and make up for shortcomings, particularly in (Q8) _______________. China plans to spend $1.4 trillion during the next five years in emerging new technologies: AI, 5G, chips, data centers, and quantum computing. But there are challenges: When huge funds are allocated by government and time-periods are demanded to be short, it is all too easy for resources to be misallocated to well-connected but poorly equipped enterprises, causing inefficiencies, waste, (Q9) _______________. In response, the government is tightening (Q10) _________________ procedures and engaging the private sector. One lens through which to view China's science and technology is that of the New Development Concepts, which fit the new development stage and drive the 14th Five-year Plan. I'm keeping watch. I'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn. KEY Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.I'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn and here's what I'm watching: China's overarching national goals to become an "(Q1) innovative nation" by 2020,tobe in the "front ranks" of innovative countries by 2035, and a "global scientific power" by 2050. China has achieved the first goal - for example, the number of (Q2) patentsfiled by Chinese entities now leads the world though quality, while improving, still lags.But now, in light of disrupting international conditions, led by U.S. (Q3) sanctions and pressuresto decouple science and technology, China has a laser focus on self-reliance in science and technology.In formulating the "14th Five-Year Plan," 2021-2025, and in setting a long-range 15-year plan to 2035 - both formalized by the National People's Congress during the 2021 Two Sessions - the CPC, in its 5th Plenum in October 2020, established a "(Q4) new development stage," developing a "new development philosophy” and applying a “new development paradigm."Clearly, these new development stage, philosophy and paradigm demand that scientific and technological innovation be top priority in order to create new development momentum by accelerating key core technology capabilities and research. The 14th Five-year Plan emphasizes artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, integrated circuit design and manufacturing (semiconductor chips), quantum computing, life sciences and biotechnology (especially brain sciences), and new materials. Technological applications emphasize the (Q5) digital economy, 5G, intelligent manufacturing, healthcare, alternative energy and new energy vehicles, and space and sea sciences, among others. Chinese experts cite three ways how China's national development over the next five years must stress technological independence and self-reliance. First: increase the proportion of (Q6) original innovation, especially basic research. Currently, the proportion of China's basic research investment of its total R&D investment is below 6%, which is far lower than the 18% in the U.S. and 25% in France. Second: continue intelligent industrial (Q7) upgrading and transformation, transitioning from "following" to "parallel running" or even to "leading" in some high-tech fields.Third: prepare for de-globalization and uncoupling of scientific and technological cooperation and supply chains; indigenous innovation must alleviate bottlenecks and make up for shortcomings, particularly in (Q8) semiconductor chips. China plans to spend $1.4 trillion during the next five years in emerging new technologies: AI, 5G, chips, data centers, and quantum computing. But there are challenges: When huge funds are allocated by government and time-periods are demanded to be short, it is all too easy for resources to be misallocated to well-connected but poorly equipped enterprises, causing inefficiencies, waste, (Q9) distraction and disappointment. In response, the government is tightening (Q10) peer-reviewprocedures and engaging the private sector. One lens through which to view China's science and technology is that of the New Development Concepts, which fit the new development stage and drive the 14th Five-year Plan. I'm keeping watch. I'm Robert Lawrence Kuhn. 改编自 CGTN(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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