如何介绍产品,以口红为例

小小一支口红,在女性心中的地位不输一只精美的包包,或是一件新潮的时装。口红的存在,让迷人的色彩驻足于唇齿之间,也让世人看见了人类爱美的天性是如何改变着整个世界:在一涂一抹之间,支撑的可是金额数以亿计的化妆品行业。口红并不是现代社会的产物。早在公元前5000年,苏美尔人便已开始使用带色的矿物和植物色素涂抹在脸颊和嘴唇上,以达到美容的目的。我国女性使用口红的历史也十分悠久,在唐朝,贵族妇女使用檀色注唇,这一化妆术沿用至后世的各个朝代。但说到现代口红的兴起,则仅仅是过去一百年中的事情。1915年,美国人Maurice Levy发明了世界上第一支金属管口红,小巧的外形和便携的特性为口红的流行奠定了基础。之后发生的事情,想必大家都能归纳出来:不同品牌、不同色号、不同质地的口红争奇斗艳,唇彩、唇釉、唇棒等不同口红形态也应运而生。然而,就是这么一支精致小巧的口红,蕴含着不少的学问。从使用角度来说,有打底、上色、卸妆等步骤;从挑选口红来说,除了选择自己心仪的品牌和种类,还要在色号上大动脑筋:什么颜色适合自己的肤色,什么颜色搭配什么类型的妆容、服饰、场合等等等等。因此尽管“网购”“代购”盛行,但挑选口红,消费者还是会到柜台进行试色,请教专柜小姐帮助自己选择。正因如此,化妆品柜台的服务员除了充分了解产品的特性,还需要具备专业的化妆能力,才能为顾客挑选最好的搭配方案,而口红便是其中非常关键的一环。今天的微课就将为大家介绍如何用英语介绍口红,从而扩展到如何介绍各类产品,以小见大,拓展语言的能力。

“5G”大幕即将开启

Forget 4G LTE (Long Term Evolution), the stage is set for 5G wireless race in the telecom space. With the telecom industry continuously evolving globally, companies in the sector are fighting it out to stay ahead of the curve.忘掉4G LTE网络吧,接下来的通讯潮流将被5G所取代。随着5G网络研发的不断推进,全球的通讯企业都在激烈竞争,以求在新一股通讯技术热潮中获取领先地位。Recently, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology announced that China will issue “temporary” 5G licenses this year to boost the development of the next-generation mobile communications technology, which is expected to stimulate the economy and bring big changes to daily life.近日,工业和信息化部宣布我国将在今年颁发5G临时牌照,不断推进下一代移动通讯技术的发展,为经济增长带来新的动力,也将为日常生活带来新的变革。The temporary 5G licenses will be given out in several cities this year, and consumers will be able to use the first batch of 5G smartphones and tablet computers in the second half of 2019.5G临时牌照今年将在若干城市进行发放,消费者最快能在今年下半年拿到首批装载有5G技术的智能手机和平板电脑。Why 5G?为什么要发展5G?Major countries in the world are competing to be the leader in 5G — the next generation of wireless connectivity — which will enable faster speeds and low latency wireless broadband services. 5G networks will be ten times faster than 4G networks, which is critical not only for consumer experience, but also for new industries to develop more possibilities.当今世界各大国家都在竞相发展5G通讯技术——也就是下一代的无线通信标准,它将为无线信息传输带来更高的速度和极短的网络延迟。5G网络的速度预计将是4G网络的十倍以上,这不仅对消费者体验是一次质的飞跃,还将为新产业的发展提供更多可能性。The rising demand for technologically superior products has been a silver lining for the telecom industry in an otherwise tough environment. In this respect, the superfast 5G mobile networks will be of utmost necessity in managing the exponential growth of internet-connected devices, popularly known as Internet of Things (IoT). For self-driving cars, for example, a steady and superfast network is needed to ensure safe driving through communicating with other cars efficiently. 5G is a solution to make this happen.高科技产品的持续发展使通讯技术需要不断进行革新。因此,超高速5G移动网络将全面应用于基于互联网运行的设备,特别是当下正热的物联网(IoT)。例如,对于无人驾驶汽车来说,高速、稳定的网络能保障车辆间的互通互联,确保车辆安全运行,而5G网络便能满足这样的需求。While 3G wireless network enabled seamless internet connectivity to mobile phone. 4G standard helped companies which thrive on mobile connectivity. Notably, 5G wireless network is likely to boost high-tech artificial intelligence-based products significantly, which is set to be a trend in the future.如果说,3G网络技术确保移动电话能够进行无缝的网络连接,4G网络助力企业进行高速的信息传输,那么即将到来的5G技术,则将大力提升高科技人工智能产品的实际运用,这无疑将成为未来通讯的主流。VOCABULARYsilver lining: 一线希望utmost: adj. 极度的;最大的exponential: adj. 指数级的

抱歉机器人,你被炒鱿鱼了

The Henn Na Hotel in Japan, which from 2015 has employed almost 250 robots to meet guests' needs, is cutting back on automation after its experiment failed to reduce costs or workload for employees.位于日本的海茵娜酒店为了满足宾客的需求,从2015年开始引进了大约250个机器人,但却没能减轻雇佣成本或员工负担,因此该酒店正在大幅减少机器人的数量,让它们“下岗”。The hotel will reduce its robotic workforce by more than half and return to more traditional human-provided services for guests, though it will maintain a number of robots in areas where it found them to be effective and efficient. Its change of direction can offer lessons for companies that are pursuing robotic solutions for customer service roles.酒店内有过半的机器人将面临“被炒鱿鱼”的命运,取而代之的是更为传统的人工服务,但是工作效果比较好的一些机器人则会被保留在原有的岗位上。很多企业想要通过机器人来解决客户服务方面的问题,而酒店将机器人“炒鱿鱼”这一案例则给它们上了一课。The hotel utilized a host of robots including in-room voice assistants and a robotic concierge. It also put robots to work behind the scenes to complete tasks such as sorting and transporting luggage. While robots moving luggage into and out of storage containers or around the hotel has proven to be useful, most of the other deployments have not, for a variety of reasons.在这家酒店内机器人无处不在:客房内有语音助手机器人,房外有机器人门房,还有机器人专门负责行李的挑拣和运送。尽管行李机器人在实际运用中的效果还算不错,但其它的机器人则是状况百出。Foremost among these is the growing obsolescence of some of these robots, with units like the in-room assistants leaving customers frustrated with their experience. In other instances, robots didn't actually eliminate the need for workers, such as at the check-in desk, where robots designed to look like dinosaurs greeted guests but still needed humans to make copies of passports, for example.各类问题中最突出的要数部分机器人的陈旧过时,它们渐渐跟不上时代的步伐,例如房内机器人助手经常解决不了顾客的问题。有些机器人则没法减轻工作人员的负担:如被设计成“恐龙”样式的前台机器人虽然能向顾客问好,但是复印护照这种细活,仍然需要人工来完成。Most consumers are still uncomfortable with robots when they need to communicate with the machines face to face. Instead, robots should be developed for tasks where they work alongside trained employees and are likely to have the most meaningful impact — after all they are not good enough to replace all human work at present.当和机器人面对面交流时,大多数的顾客仍然感到不自然。实际上,要想在服务业领域让机器人大派用场,最好的办法是让它们协助训练有素的我们进行工作,这样才能使整体的工作效率最大化——毕竟当前的机器人还无法完全替代人类来工作。VOCABULARYconcierge: n. 看门人,门房deployment: n. 部署;调度

练习 | FOX新闻:异族通婚在美国呈上升趋势

燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTA new analysis by the Pew Research Center on information collected by the 2015 census shows that one in six couples married that year are an interracial pair.That means one in every 10 married people, some 11 million Americans, have a spouse of a different race or ethnicity.The census also finds that the most common pairing in 2015 marriages were whites with Hispanics at 42 percent, followed by Asian and white at 15.However, the most stark increase in interracial marriages was among the black community with that number increasing some 12 percent since 1980.Anna Eliopoulos, FOX News.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201903/580077.shtmlVOCABULARY1. interracial adj. (只用于名词前) involving people of different races 不同种族的人的;种族间的。例如:interracial marriage种族间的通婚2. ethnicity n. (不可数名词) (technical 术语) the fact of belonging to a particular race 种族渊源;种族特点。例如:Many factors are important, for example class, gender, age and ethnicity. 许多因素都很重要,如阶级、性别、年龄及民族。3. Hispanic adj. 拉美裔美国籍的 A Hispanic person is a citizen of the United States of America who originally came from Latin America, or whose family originally came from Latin America. 例如:a group of Hispanic doctors in Washington华盛顿的一群拉美裔美国籍医生4. stark adj. very different to sth. in a way that is easy to see (指区别)明显的,鲜明的。例如:stark differences鲜明的区别Social divisions in the city are stark. 城市里各社会阶层有明确的分野。The good weather was in stark contrast to the storms of previous weeks. 这时的好天气和前几个星期的暴风雨形成鲜明的对比。QUESTIONSListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.(Q1) What’s the percentage of an interracial pair in 2015?(A) One in six.(B) One in seven.(C) One in eight.(D) One in ten.(Q2) What’s the most common pairing in 2015 marriages?(A) Whites with whites.(B) Whites with Hispanics.(C) Whites with Asian.(D) Whites with blacks.(Q3) Which community has the most clear increase in interracial marriages?(A) Among the white community.(B) Among the Hispanic community.(C) Among the Asian community.(D) Among the black community.KEY(Q1) A。细节题。命题出处:A new analysis by the Pew Research Center on information collected by the 2015 census shows that one in six couples married that year are an interracial pair.(Q2) B。细节题。命题出处:The census also finds that the most common pairing in 2015 marriages were whites with Hispanics at 42 percent, followed by Asian and white at 15.(Q3) D。细节题。命题出处:However, the most stark increase in interracial marriages was among the black community with that number increasing some 12 percent since 1980.

练习 | VOA常速:美国希望更多学生选择STEM专业

燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTCyree Beckett is a junior at the University of District of Columbia studying Electrical Engineering. I chose STEM because it seemed to be the right path for me, based off of my family values. It’s the really the best way to go in terms of gaining an education and doing something relevant in the world. Unlike Beckett, most American Students of his age prefer to study anything but STEM: science, technology, engineering and math. According to a recent report by Forbes, STEM departments in U.S. colleges have plenty of students, but many are foreign, and education experts worried not enough are Americans. American University’s director of graduate teacher education program Carolyn Parker says, images that portray scientists and mathematicians as nerds discouraged teenagers at a time of life when self-image is important.They don’t entice students to want to become involved. There’s a, there’s you look at programs like the Big Bang Theory and you know scientists are nerds. To recruit more American students in STEM fields, the White House five-year strategic plan tries to remove social and financial barriers to a rewarding education and technical fields. University of District of Columbia’s Engineering School’s Dean Devdas Shetty believes many students avoid STEM, because they think they have better options. They see opportunities in sports, opportunities in philosophy or history or arts, and they see examples of people excelling the TV influences a lot. Parker believes that to compete with countries like China and India, the country needs to encourage STEM education at young age. Make sure that students from the time they’re in early childhood to elementary school to middle school to high school through college and going out into higher education, and the workforce have strong and, and positive STEM experiences, so that we can remain competitive with countries like China and India.Cyree Beckett believes that support and encouragement from his family is what pushed him to choose STEM, and it is something he wishes for every student selecting a field of study.For Sahar Majid in Washington. This is Bezhan Hamdard, VOA News.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201903/580125.shtmlVOCABULARY1. in terms of: in terms of sth. | in…terms: used to show what aspect of a subject you are talking about or how you are thinking about it 谈及;就…而言;在…方面。例如:The job is great in terms of salary, but it has its disadvantages. 就薪金而言,这个工作倒是挺不错的,但也有一些不利之处。The decision was disastrous in political terms. 从政治上来看,这个决定是灾难性的。He's talking in terms of starting a completely new career. 他正在谈论开创全新的事业。In terms of cost - how much were you thinking of charging? 说到费用,你们想要多少?2. nerds n. a person who is boring, stupid and not fashionable 令人厌烦的人;愚蠢的人;落伍的人3. entice v. (usually + 副词或介词短语) entice sb. (into doing sth.) to persuade sb./sth. to go somewhere or to do sth., usually by offering them sth. 诱使;引诱。(动词 + 名词短语) 例如:The bargain prices are expected to entice customers away from other stores. 低廉的价格意在把顾客从其他商店吸引过来。The animal refused to be enticed from its hole. 那只动物怎么引诱也不肯出洞。(动词 + 名词短语 + 带to的不定式) 例如:Try and entice the child to eat by offering small portions of their favourite food. 给孩子少许爱吃的食物,设法诱使他们吃饭。(派生词) enticement n. (可数名词, 不可数名词) 例如:The party is offering low taxation as its main enticement. 这个党正提出低税收,以此作为其主要的诱人举措。4. excel v. (单独使用的动词) excel (in/at sth./at doing sth.) to be very good at doing sth. 擅长;善于;突出。例如:She has always excelled in foreign languages. 她的外语从来都是出类拔萃。The team excels at turning defence into attack. 这个队善于打防守反击。As a child he excelled at music and art. 他小时候擅长音乐和美术。QUESTIONSListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.(Q1) What’s STEM?(A) Science, technology, engineering and math.(B) Science, technology, entertainment and math.(C) Science, technology, engineering and merchandise. (D) Science, technology, entertainment and merchandise.(Q2) To recruit more American students in STEM fields, what does the White House try to do in the five-year strategic plan?(A) To remove social and financial barriers to a rewarding education and engineering fields.(B) To remove social and financial barriers to a rewarding education and science fields.(C) To remove social and financial barriers to a rewarding education and technical fields.(D) To remove social and financial barriers to a rewarding education and math fields.(Q3) Why do many American students avoid STEM?(A) It’s very boring to study STEM.(B) It’s difficult to realize the American dream if a person studies STEM.(C) They try to avoid STEM because the subjects are difficult to study.(D) They think they have better options except STEM.(Q4) What pushed Cyree Beckett to choose STEM?(A) Support and encouragement from his teachers.(B) Support and encouragement from his family.(C) Support and encouragement from his friends.(D) Support and encouragement from the government.KEY(Q1) A。细节题。命题出处:Unlike Beckett, most American Students of his age prefer to study anything but STEM: science, technology, engineering and math.(Q2) C。细节题。命题出处:To recruit more American students in STEM fields, the White House five-year strategic plan tries to remove social and financial barriers to a rewarding education and technical fields.(Q3) D。细节题。命题出处:University of District of Columbia’s Engineering School’s Dean Devdas Shetty believes many students avoid STEM, because they think they have better options.(Q4) B。细节题。命题出处:Cyree Beckett believes that support and encouragement from his family is what pushed him to choose STEM, and it is something he wishes for every student selecting a field of study.

练习 | 科学美国人60秒:口腔快速愈合带来的启示

燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you burn your tongue or cut your cheek, the pain can be intense. But the wound heals pretty quickly, compared to injuries elsewhere.That's because all the factors needed to repair a wound are ready to jump into action in oral tissue - and a new study shows that proteins called transcription factors, which control all those healing elements, are present at greater levels in the mouth.You can think of those controlling proteins as theater directors...and the healing factors as the actors, waiting in the wings. "They are ready to go, right on the sidelines, in the oral epithelia, so the director says come ahead and then they are just right onstage." Maria Morasso, a senior investigator at the National Institutes of Health.She says that's not the case in regular skin tissue. "They have the capability of coming on stage. But they're nowhere close, so you have to go through that step of getting them in the stage to be able to go ahead with that function."Which delays healing. "It might be difficult to have the play finish on time and according to the script." The study is in the journal Science Translational Medicine.Morasso and her colleagues also tested this idea by genetically engineering mice to have more of those factors, the 'directors', in their regular skin tissue - and sure enough, those mice had significantly faster skin wound healing than did control mice.But we can't genetically engineer humans. Instead, Morasso says, if we can learn more about who the healing 'actors' are... and perhaps we can find targeted ways of sending those individuals onstage... to deliver a better performance for patients.Thanks for listening for Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.Adapted from http://www.kekenet.com/broadcast/201902/577672.shtmlVOCABULARY1. protein n. (可数名词, 不可数名词) a natural substance found in meat, eggs, fish, some vegetables, etc. There are many different proteins and they are an essential part of what humans and animals eat to help them grow and stay healthy. 蛋白质。例如:essential proteins and vitamins 必不可少的蛋白质和维生素protein deficiency蛋白质缺乏Peas, beans and lentils are a good source of vegetable protein. 豌豆、豆荚和扁豆是植物蛋白质的大好来源。2. transcription n. (可数名词) a change in the written form of a piece of music so that it can be played on a different instrument or sung by a different voice (乐曲的)改编3. epithelium n. 上皮,上皮细胞 (复数) epitheliaQUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you burn your (Q1) _________________ or cut your cheek, the pain can be intense. But the wound heals pretty quickly, compared to (Q2) _____________________ elsewhere.That's because all the factors needed to repair a wound are ready to jump into action in (Q3) _________________ - and a new study shows that (Q4) __________________ called transcription factors, which control all those healing elements, are present at greater levels in the mouth.You can think of those controlling proteins as (Q5) ______________________...and the healing factors as the actors, waiting in the wings. "They are ready to go, right on the sidelines, in the oral epithelia, so the director says come ahead and then they are just right onstage." Maria Morasso, a senior (Q6) ________________________ at the National Institutes of Health.She says that's not the case in (Q7) ______________________. "They have the capability of coming on stage. But they're nowhere close, so you have to go through that step of getting them in the stage to be able to go ahead with that function." Which delays healing. "It might be difficult to have the play finish on time and according to the script." The study is in the journal Science Translational Medicine.Morasso and her colleagues also tested this idea by (Q8) _______________________ to have more of those factors, the 'directors', in their regular skin tissue - and sure enough, those mice had significantly faster skin wound healing than did (Q9) __________________________.But we can't genetically engineer humans. Instead, Morasso says, if we can learn more about who the healing 'actors' are... and perhaps we can find targeted ways of sending those individuals onstage... to deliver a better performance for (Q10) ____________________.Thanks for listening for Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you burn your (Q1) tongue or cut your cheek, the pain can be intense. But the wound heals pretty quickly, compared to (Q2) injuries elsewhere.That's because all the factors needed to repair a wound are ready to jump into action in (Q3) oral tissue - and a new study shows that (Q4) proteins called transcription factors, which control all those healing elements, are present at greater levels in the mouth.You can think of those controlling proteins as (Q5) theater directors...and the healing factors as the actors, waiting in the wings. "They are ready to go, right on the sidelines, in the oral epithelia, so the director says come ahead and then they are just right onstage." Maria Morasso, a senior (Q6) investigator at the National Institutes of Health.She says that's not the case in (Q7) regular skin tissue. "They have the capability of coming on stage. But they're nowhere close, so you have to go through that step of getting them in the stage to be able to go ahead with that function." Which delays healing. "It might be difficult to have the play finish on time and according to the script." The study is in the journal Science Translational Medicine.Morasso and her colleagues also tested this idea by (Q8) genetically engineering mice to have more of those factors, the 'directors', in their regular skin tissue - and sure enough, those mice had significantly faster skin wound healing than did (Q9) control mice.But we can't genetically engineer humans. Instead, Morasso says, if we can learn more about who the healing 'actors' are... and perhaps we can find targeted ways of sending those individuals onstage... to deliver a better performance for (Q10) patients.Thanks for listening for Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.

第九届教学大赛商务英语专业组特等奖霍雨佳授课

授课点评:总体上,霍雨佳老师对整个单元的主题和各部分内容熟悉,理解准确,整体设计完善合理,授课重点突出,所选教学展示内容能很好发挥其自身优势。主要特点如下: 一、沉稳自然,教能优秀。霍雨佳老师授课沉着冷静,有条不紊,胸有成竹;语言流利,语音准确,语速适中;教态自然,亲和力强,能引导学生积极主动配合。作为语言教师其综合素质和教学能力优秀。二、宏观安排合理,微观处理得当。本次比赛与以往不同,要求以一个单元进行整体教学设计。霍雨佳老师宏观上对每个部分均有设计,皆有具体目标要求、授课步骤、重点难点、语言技能训练等,且语言技能和商务技能兼顾。其整体设计合理,综述层次分明。微观上表现在教学展示中,仅突出Talking Business? Watch Your Language整篇课文中所讨论的humor和witty remarks在商务谈判或交流中的使用,以点带面,以少概多。三、衔接自然,详略得当。授课思路清晰,陈述有序,条理分明,自然推进。从授课意图,课文内容简介,学生小组信息阅取,信息归纳,以例释之,再到课文内容取舍利用,都显得合理恰当,有序有节,自然连贯。四、重点突出,环环紧扣。教学展示中重点突出Dealing with Humor in Intercultural Business Talks。从怎样使用和为何使用humor/witty remarks引入,环环相扣,步步扩展,很好地推出授课重点和展开教学环节。其PPT简洁,用语流利明了,讲述清楚易懂。五、互动良好,掌控有度。在约4次互动环节中,问题明确,任务清楚,引导适当,并注意启发学生思维。互动时间从约25秒到2分30秒不等,选手把握准确,不拖泥带水,干净利落。从问题设计,时间把控,互动开展,都恰当好处。六、发挥优势,尽展才能。该选手曾有interpreter的经历,教学展示中较好利用其自身优势,尽展其口译经验、技能和策略。以“红茶”的翻译为例(用时4分20秒),讨论witty remarks and humor in business talks,举例有趣(What’s the ship that never sinks? -- Our partnership),逐步扩展,进而推出更多讨论内容,且能够放得开,收得拢(先后用时9分钟),但均能围绕主题,突出授课重点,其口译才能也展现无遗。有待改进提高之处在于,霍老师在教学展示中语言技能训练稍显不足;课文内容利用不够充分;对学生思辨能力培养应有更多重视。些微不足,但瑕不掩瑜。这是一堂高质量的课堂实践教学,展现了一位优秀教师不凡的语言、能力、素质和风采,其职业生涯发展可望更加辉煌。点评专家:邓海教授

第九届教学大赛英语专业组特等奖王慧说课

说课点评:教学经验丰富,教学模式与授课中呈现的一致,即SPICM模式。且本处较为具体地解释了5P,即学生预习、参与、练习、展现和产出(2'23''-2'49'')。教学目标明确,即在着重训练学生对词汇知识、对比的有效手段等语言知识的掌握、高效地理解课文等的基础上,更加突出训练学生的基于输入的产出能力。教学过程分时清楚,不同阶段完成不同的任务,重点强调课前预习。在布置预习任务时,能有效结合课文主要内容(4'17''-5'05''),在帮助学生理解课文的同时,有效地激发学生广泛阅读,以达到拓展学生的相关人文知识的目的。课堂教学注重课文信息提炼与形式转换,对比东方、西方文明的不同。与教学目标相吻合,教师注重让学生自己讨论总结以刻意训练其产出能力。四类活动设计由易到难,学生首先搜索列举简单事实,到最后发表意见,上升到训练思辨能力层面上来(5'18''-9'50'')。整个课堂设计完整,课前、课堂活动安排合理。教师具有较高的综合素质,说课过程中英语表达偶尔出现欠流畅现象。但能在短时间内有效调整自己,显露出较为扎实的语言基本功。建议:说课部分有套路化倾向,可与教学案例结合更紧密,更为具体地描述每个教学环节的主要内容和实施手段。应提高表述效率,避免给人造成对文章内容不熟悉的印象。点评专家:许明武教授

X光是如何穿透你的皮肤的

In 1895, a physicist named Wilhelm Roentgen was doing experiments with a cathode tube, a glass container in which a beam of electrons lights up a fluorescent window.He had wrapped cardboard around the tube to keep the fluorescent light from escaping, when something peculiar happened.Another screen outside the tube was glowing.In other words, invisible rays had passed through the cardboard.Wilhelm had no idea what those rays were, so he called them X-rays, and his discovery eventually won him a Nobel Prize.Here's what we now know was happening.When high energy electrons in the cathode tube hit a metal component, they either got slowed down and released extra energy, or kicked off electrons from the atoms they hit, which triggered a reshuffling that again released energy.In both cases, the energy was emitted in the form of X-rays, which is a type of electromagnetic radiation with higher energy than visible light, and lower energy than Gamma rays.X-rays are powerful enough to fly through many kinds of matter as if they are semi-transparent, and they're particularly useful for medical applications because they can make images of organs, like bones, without harming them, although they do have a small chance of causing mutations in reproductive organs, and tissues like the thyroid, which is why lead aprons are often used to block them.When X-rays interact with matter, they collide with electrons.Sometimes, the X-ray transfers all of its energy to the matter and gets absorbed.Other times, it only transfers some of its energy, and the rest is scattered.The frequency of these outcomes depends on how many electrons the X-rays are likely to hit.Collisions are more likely if a material is dense, or if it's made of elements with higher atomic numbers, which means more electrons.Bones are dense and full of calcium, which has a relatively high atomic number, so they absorb X-rays pretty well.Soft tissue, on the other hand, isn't as dense, and contains mostly lower atomic number elements, like carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.So more of the X-rays penetrate tissues like lungs and muscles, darkening the film.These 2-D pictures are only useful up to a point, though.When X-rays travel through the body, they can interact with many atoms along the path.What is recorded on the film reflects the sum of all those interactions.It's like trying to print 100 pages of a novel on a single sheet of paper.To see what's really going on, you would have to take X-ray views from many angles around the body and use them to construct an internal image.And that's something doctors do all the time in a procedure called a CT, Computed Tomography scan, another Nobel Prize winning invention. Think of CT like this.With just one X-ray, you might be able to see the density change due to a solid tumor in a patient, but you wouldn't know how deep it is beneath the surface.However, if you take X-rays from multiple angles, you should be able to find the tumor's position and shape.A CT scanner works by sending a fan or cone of X-rays through a patient to an array of detectors.The X-ray beam is rotated around the patient, and often also moved down the patient's body,with the X-ray source tracing a spiral trajectory.Spiral CT scans produce data that can be processed into cross sections detailed enough to spot anatomical features, tumors, blood clots, and infections.CT scans can even detect heart disease and cavities in mummies buried thousands of years ago.So what began as Roentgen's happy accident has become a medical marvel.Hospitals and clinics now conduct over 100 millions scans each year worldwide to treat diseases and save lives.Source: http://www.kekenet.com/Article/201901/575640.shtml

教育培训更多

商务英语核心课程开放课堂暨教师研修班

课程概况专题讲座在本环节,国内商务英语学科资深专家学者将围绕商英学科人才培养、课程设置与设计、课堂组织、教学模式创新等问题进行专题讲座报告。开放课堂在本环节,对外经贸大学英语学院将专门设计并开放多门有代表性的商务英语核心技能型及知识型课程,由浅入深,由易至难,全面展示其立体化课程体系。开放课堂以对外经贸大学在校生为授课对象,真实反映其课堂教学实况。研修教师可根据自身授课情况或兴趣意愿自主选择观摩对象。说课讨论在本环节,当日接受观摩的核心课程授课教师将全面介绍其教育理念、备课方法、教学资源来源、课程设计思路、课堂组织形式以及评估手段,参训教师将有机会全方位透视每门课程的生成过程。评课问答在本环节,参训教师将有机会直接参与评课讨论,并与授课教师进行互动问答,切磋教学技能和授课经验。

学术英语教学与研究前沿工作坊

本工作坊聚焦教师专业发展的三大核心环节:课程教材、课堂教学、课题教研,探索一线大学英语教师面临的重点、难点与热点议题。在课程教材环节,讲解难度调控与话题推荐等重点议题;在课堂教学环节,探索合作阅读与合作写作等难点议题;在课题教研环节,分享学术英语相关论文撰写与课题申报等热点议题。工作坊共设14学时,包括“专家讲座”与“学员体验”两种授课模式。

Workshops on Researching the Language Classroom

1.Two approaches for assessing communicative competence;2.Assessing metapragmatic knowledge;3.Using discourse completion tasks;4.Designing communicative assessment tasks;5.Assessing the performance of communicative tasks;6.Using role-plays to assess pragmatic competence;7.Scoring productive data;8.Formative and summative assessment

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