双语阅读 | 睡眠会如何影响心理健康?

How Does Sleep Affect Mental Health?睡眠会如何影响心理健康?王淑怡 供稿Insomniais a common problem throughout the world. According to estimates, it is believed to affect approximately 33% of the world’s population. Even people without chronicinsomnia often struggle with sleep problems. According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S. CDC), a third of adults in the U.S. report that they get less than 7 hours each night. Because of this, it is important to understand the potential impact that lack of sleep may have on health.失眠是全球普遍存在的问题。据估计,全世界大约有33%的人受到失眠的影响。即使没有慢性失眠的人也经常会出现睡眠问题。美国疾病控制和预防中心的数据显示,美国三分之一的成年人每晚的睡眠时间少于7小时。正因如此,了解睡眠不足对健康的潜在影响至关重要。The Relationship Between Sleep and Mental Health睡眠和心理健康的关系It’s no secret that sleep plays an important role in good physical and mental health. Sleep deprivation can leave you feeling irritable and exhausted in the short-term, but it can also have serious long-term health consequences as well. Lack of sleep is linked to a number of unfavorable health consequences including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and depression.众所周知,睡眠对人们的生理和心理健康起着重要作用。睡眠不足会让人在短期内感到烦躁和疲惫,长期来看,也会对健康产生严重影响。睡眠不足和很多疾病息息相关,包括心脏病、Ⅱ型糖尿病和抑郁症等。Research suggests that the relationship between sleep and mental health is complex. While sleep disorderhas long been known to be a consequence of many psychiatric conditions, more recent views suggest that sleep problems can also worsen mental health problems.研究表明,睡眠和心理健康的关系十分复杂。长期以来,人们认为许多精神疾病会导致睡眠障碍,但最近的观点表明,睡眠问题也会加剧心理健康问题。How to cope with sleep disorders?如何应对睡眠障碍?The recommendations for treating poor sleep or sleep disturbancesare generally the same whether or not you have a psychiatriccondition. Preliminary approaches usually focus on lifestyle changes you can make. Avoiding sleep interrupters (such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol) and practicing good sleep habits are examples of lifestyle changes you can make that can help.无论是否患有精神疾病,治疗睡眠不佳或睡眠障碍的方法通常别无二致。可以从改变生活习惯做起,避免睡眠干扰物(如咖啡因、尼古丁和酒精等)和培养良好的睡眠习惯,这些生活方式的改变都有助于挽救你的睡眠。In addition to seeking help from medical professionals, there are also steps that you can take on your own to improve your sleep and well-being. Having good sleep hygiene is good for sleep health. Here are some things you can do:除了寻求专业医疗人士的帮助,还可以自行采取措施来改善睡眠和健康。培养良好的睡眠卫生习惯对睡眠健康大有裨益。这里有几个方法:Limit napping. Too much sleep during the day can have an effect on your ability to fall asleep at night. Naps of 20 to 30 minutes a day can help you feel more alert and rested without interrupting your nightly sleep.午睡时间不宜过长。白天睡眠时间过长会让你晚上难以入眠。每天小睡20到30分钟既能让你得到放松,又能让你更有精神,而且不会影响夜间的睡眠。Establish a nightly routine. Take a bath, read a book, or practice a few minutes of meditation to calm your body. Repeat these routines each night to help set the mood for a solid night’s sleep.养成固定的夜间作息。洗个澡,读本书,或者进行几分钟冥想,让身体平静下来。每天晚上重复这些事情能够帮助你营造安稳入睡的氛围。Avoid caffeine or stimulantstoo close to bedtime. Consuming coffee, soda, or other caffeinated products in the late afternoon or evening can make it difficult to fall asleep.避免晚间摄入咖啡因或其他含兴奋剂的食品。傍晚或夜间摄入咖啡、苏打水或其他含咖啡因的产品会让人难以入睡。Turn off your devices. Watching television or playing on your phone at bedtime can make it more difficult to relax and settle down for sleep. Try putting your phone in a different room and investing in a clock radio for your bedside table.关掉电子设备。睡前看电视或玩手机会让人难以放松下来入睡。试着把手机放到另一个房间,另外买一个带闹钟的收音机放在床头吧!Talk to a mental health professional if you suspect that your sleep problems might be caused by or contributing to a mental health condition. Depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric disorders can interfere with sleep – but addressing your sleep problems may also have a positive impact on your psychological symptoms.如果你怀疑自己的睡眠问题是心理健康疾病导致的,那么请咨询心理健康专家。抑郁、焦虑和其他精神疾病会影响睡眠,但解决睡眠问题也会对你的心理健康状况产生积极影响。【VOCABULARY】1.insomnian.失眠,失眠症2.chronicadj.慢性的,长期的3.diabetes n.糖尿病4.sleep disorder睡眠障碍,失眠5.disturbancen.(身体)不适,心神不安6.psychiatricadj.(与)精神病(有关)的7.stimulant n.兴奋剂(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 握手礼节的来源

The origin of handshaking握手礼节的来源林晓洁供稿Handshaking seems like a gesture that has been around forever. Indeed, a throne base from the reign of ancient Assyria's Shalmaneser III in the 9th century BC clearly shows two figures clasping hands. As an ancient custom, the root of handshaking seems lost to the sands of time.握手作为一种打招呼的方式似乎一直都存在。确实,公元前9世纪亚述国王撒缦以色三世统治时期的宝座上就刻着两个人握手的图案。握手作为一种古老的习俗,随着时间的流逝,看起来似乎已经难寻根源。Historians who have pored over old etiquette books have noticed that handshaking in the modern sense of a greeting doesn't appear until the mid-19th century, when it was considered a slightly improper gesture that should only be used with friends.熟读礼仪典籍的历史学家注意到,握手作为现代问候方式直到19世纪中期才出现,当时握手被认为是一种有点不得体的姿势,只有在朋友之间才能使用。Traditionally, the origin of handshaking is often given to the Quakers. But as Dutch sociologist Herman Roodenburg—the chief authority for the history of handshaking—wrote in a chapter of an anthology called A Cultural History of Gesture, "More than in any other field, that of the study of gesture is one in which the historian has to make the most of only a few clues".传统上,人们通常认为贵格会信徒是最早用握手来打招呼的人。但荷兰社会学家赫尔曼·卢登伯格——研究握手史的权威人物——在选集《手势的文化历史》的一章中写道:“和其他领域相比,历史学家只能通过寥寥无几的线索来研究手势。”One of the earliest clues he cites is a 16th-century German translation of the French writer Rabelais's Gargantua and Pantagruel. When one character meets Gargantua, Rabelais writes (in one modern English translation), "he was greeted with a thousand caresses, a thousand embraces, a thousand good-days."他提到的最早的一个线索是16世纪法国作家拉伯雷的《巨人传》的德语译本。在现代英语译本中,当一个角色遇到卡冈都亚时,拉伯雷写道:“欢迎他的是一千个爱抚、一千个拥抱和一千个问候。”There's additional evidence for a handshaking tradition in that era: In 1607 the author James Cleland (believed to have been a Scotsman living in England) proclaimed that instead of things like bowing down to everyone's shoes and kissing hands, he'd rather "retain our good old Scottish shaking of the two right hands together at meeting".还有一个握手传统起源于那个年代的证据:1607年作家詹姆士·克雷兰德(据认为是生活在英格兰的一个苏格兰人)宣称,与其让他深深地鞠躬和亲吻别人的手,他宁愿“保持古老的苏格兰习俗,在会面时伸出右手相握”。A popular hypothesis suggests that Cleland's statements against bowing were actually a wish to go back to a potentially very traditional (though poorly recorded) method of greeting in Europe. As the centuries progressed, handshaking was replaced by more 'hierarchical' ways of greeting—like bowing. According to Roodenburg, handshaking survived in a few niches, like in Dutch towns where they'd use the gesture to reconcile after disagreements. Around the same time, the Quakers—who valued equality—also made use of the handshake. Then, as the hierarchies of the continent weakened, the handshake re-emerged as a standard greeting among equals—the way it remains today.一个流传较广的假说认为,克雷兰德反对鞠躬的声明其实是想重新采用欧洲传统的问候方式(尽管鲜有记载)。几百年间,握手被更为“等级化”的问候方式取代了——比如鞠躬。卢登伯格称,握手作为打招呼的方式在一些偏僻的地方保留了下来,比如荷兰的某些城镇居民会用握手来言和。大约在同一时期,重视平等的贵格会信徒也采用了握手的问候方式。随着欧洲大陆的等级制度被削弱,握手重新成为地位相同的人之间通用的打招呼方式,并一直延续至今日。As for why shaking hands was deemed a good method of greeting, rather than some other gesture, the most popular explanation is that it incapacitates the right hand, making it useless for weapon holding. In the 19th century it was argued that shaking hands without removing gloves was quite rude and required an immediate apology. One 1870 text explains that "this idea would also seem to be an occult remnant of the old notion that the glove might conceal a weapon."至于为什么是握手而非其他手势被视为一种打招呼的好方法,最普遍的解释是它占用了右手,使人无法持有武器。在19世纪,人们认为戴着手套握手是一种相当无礼的行为,需要立即为之道歉。1870年的一段文字解释说“这种想法似乎也是老观念的一种神秘延续,旧时认为手套可能会隐藏武器”。【VOCABULARY】1. reign n. 君主统治时期2. throne n. 王座3. etiquette n. 礼节4. hypothesis n. 假说5. hierarchical adj. 分层的6. reconcile vt. 使和解7. incapacitate vt. 使不能8. occult adj. 神秘的(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 人的性格会随着年龄增长而改变吗?

人的性格会随着年龄增长而改变吗?Do People’s Personalities Change with Age?林晓洁 供稿People go through a host of changes intheir life — jobs, haircuts and relationships that come and go. But as people grow older, do their personalities change?人的一生会经历许多改变——工作、发型和人际关系的更替,但人的性格也会随着年龄增长而改变吗?Personality is the pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviors unique to a person. People tend to think of personality as fixed. But according to psychologists, that's not how it works. "Personality is adevelopmental phenomenon. It's not just a staticthing that you're stuck with and can't get over," said Brent Roberts, a psychologist at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.性格是一个人特有的思维、感觉和行为模式。人们往往认为性格是固定不变的,但心理学家表示事实并非如此。来自伊利诺伊大学香槟分校的心理学家布伦特·罗伯茨说:“性格是一种发展中的现象。它不是你无法改变或摆脱的静态事物。”But in the short term, change can be nearly imperceptible. Longitudinalstudies, in which researchers survey the personalities of participants regularly over many years, suggest that our personality is actually stable on shorter time scales.但从短期来看,性格的改变几乎是察觉不到的。在多年的纵向研究中,研究人员对参与者的性格进行了定期调查。结果显示,人的性格在较短时间内确实是稳定的。Earlier temperamentseems to affect later life experience. For example, one 1995 study published in the journal Child Developmentfollowed children from the age of 3 until the age of 18. The researchers found, for instance, that children who were shyer and more withdrawn tended to grow into unhappier teenagers.早年的性情似乎会对以后的生活经历造成影响。举例来说,1995年一项发表在《儿童发展》期刊上的研究对3-18岁的儿童进行了跟踪调查。研究人员发现,比较害羞内向的孩子到了青少年时期通常更不快乐。But those decades add up. Throughout all those years, our personality is changing, but slowly, Roberts said. "It's something that's subtle," he added. You don't notice it on that five-to-10-yeartime scale, but in the long term, it becomes pronounced. In 1960, psychologists surveyed over 440,000 high school students. The students answered questions about everything from how they reacted to emotional situations to how efficiently they got work done. Fifty years later, researchers tracked down 1,952 of these former students and gave them the same survey. The results, published in 2018 in the Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, found that in their 60s, participants scored much higher than they had as teenagers on questions measuring calmness, self-confidence, leadership and social sensitivity.但是一个又一个10年会对性格产生影响。罗伯茨称,我们的性格会随时间改变,不过这种改变的过程是缓慢的。他补充道:“这种变化很微妙。”5到10年内你察觉不到,但是长期来看,变化很明显。1960年,心理学家对逾44万名高中生进行了调查。这些学生回答了涉及对情绪状况的反应和完成工作的效率在内的各种问题。50年后,研究人员跟踪调查了1952名当年的学生,并对他们进行了同样的调查。调查结果发表于2018年的《性格与社会心理学杂志》上。结果表明,这些年逾60岁的参与者在评估冷静、自信、领导力和社会敏感性的问卷中的得分比他们青少年时的得分要高得多。Again and again, longitudinal studies have found similar results. Personality tends to get "better" over time. Psychologists call it "the maturity principle." People become more extroverted, emotionally stable, agreeable and conscientious as they grow older. Over the long haul, these changes are often pronounced.各种纵向研究一次又一次地得出了相似的结果。随着时间的流逝,人们的性格通常会“变好”。心理学家将其称之为“成熟法则”。随着年龄增长,人们变得更外向,情绪更稳定,更随和,也更有责任心。长期来看,这些改变往往很明显。Some individuals might change less than others, but in general, the maturity principle applies to everyone. There's good evidence that the average self-control of a 30-year-old is higher than a 20-year-old. At the same time, people who are relatively self-controlled at 18 also tend to be relatively self-controlled at age 30.一些人可能改变得比其他人少,但总体来看,“成熟法则”适用于每个人。有充分证据表明,30岁的人平均自制力高于20岁的人。与此同时,18岁时自制力相对较强的人往往到了30岁自制力也相对较强。So why do our personalities change so much? Evidence suggests it's not because of dramatic life events, such as marriage, the birth of a child or loss of a loved one. Some psychologists suggest these events reinforcepeople’spersonalities as peoplebring theircharacteristics with themto that particular situation.那么,为什么人的性格会改变这么多?证据显示,性格改变不是因为人生大事,比如结婚、孩子出生或失去所爱之人。一些心理学家指出,这些大事会强化性格,因为人们会将自己的性格带入到那个特定的情境中。Instead, changing expectations placed on us — as we adjust to university, the work force, starting a family — slowly wears us in, almost like a pair of shoes, Roberts said. "Over time you are asked in many contexts across life to do things a bit differently," he said. "There's not a user manual for how to act, but there's very clear implicit norms for how we should behave in these situations. So we adapt."罗伯茨指出,在我们适应大学、职场和成家时,外界对我们期望值的改变在慢慢地打磨我们,就像打磨一双鞋一样。他说:“随着时间的流逝,人生的许多境遇都会要求你用与以往不同的方式去做事。没有用户手册来指导你如何行动,但是有非常清楚的不成文规范告诉你在这些情况下应该如何表现。于是我们就改变自己去适应。”【VOCABULARY】1.static adj. 静态的2.imperceptible adj.察觉不到的3.longitudinal adj.纵向的4.temperament n.性情5.pronounced adj.明显的6.reinforcev. 强化(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网享有)

练习 | 我们如何记录2020年?

我们如何记录2020年燕山大学 刘立军 供稿【TRANSCRIPT】JUDY WOODRUFF: No matter what age you are, it has undeniably been a year of many firsts. Between COVID and the election of the first woman vice president, 2020 will be a year for historians to examine and dissectfor decades to come. Tonight, biographer and historian Janice Nimura shares her humbleopinion on how we can all help shape the story that is taught to future generations. This essay is part of our ongoing arts and culture series, Canvas.JANICE NIMURA, Author, The Doctors Blackwell: I started keeping a journal in 11th grade. It was an assignment for English class. But once I got going, I discovered what all writers know: Most of the time, you write not to set downwhat you think, but to figure outwhat you have to say. What you have written becomes part of your personal history. I can go back to that green notebook and remember what it felt like to be 16. I have been keeping a journal ever since. You see, the rhetoricof powerful people can persist for millennia, but that kind of writing is a polished mask for an audience.Journals, on the other hand, are scribbled in private, and full of naked feelings. They preservethe voices we don't usually hear, the very young, the elderly, the powerless. For biographers like me who seek treasure in archives, those are the most precious finds. And this is a critical moment to keep one. 2020 is a year none of us will forget, filled with grief, rage, anxiety, and confusion, and also determination, generosity, and hope. We have a lot to process, and what we write in this moment will captureit. We may not ever forget 2020, but our written voices will tell our great-grandchildren the story of right now and possibly help them face the crises of the future.So, keep a journal, find a notebook or jotnotes on your phone. Write about what you had for dinner. Write about what makes you angry. Write about what you want. Or, if you don't feel like writing, draw. Paste in a photo of your cousins on Zoom or of a protest or your best friend wearing a mask. On the first page of my 11th-grade journal, I wrote: This is just for me. Write like no one is watching. That is, write like no one is watching right now. Someday, a historian or your own great-grandchild may lift your notebook from a dusty shelf or open a file on a forgotten hard drive and read your words with growing excitement. They will hear your voice reacting to the turmoilof 2020, figuring out what to feel. And they will learn something from it, just as you learned something about yourself when you wrote it.JUDY WOODRUFF: Such good advice from Janice Nimura. We thank you.【VOCABULARY】1. dissectv.to study sth. closely and / or discuss it in great detail 仔细研究;详细评论;剖析。例如:Her latest novel was dissected by the critics. 评论家对她最近出版的一部小说作了详细剖析。2. humbleadj.showing you do not think that you are as important as other people 谦逊的;虚心的。例如:Be humble enough to learn from your mistakes. 要虚心地从自己的错误中学习。3.set down记下4.figure out弄懂;弄清楚;弄明白5.rhetoric n. (formal, often disapproving) speech or writing that is intended to influence people, but that is not completely honest or sincere 华而不实的言语;花言巧语。例如:the rhetoric of political slogans政治口号的虚华辞藻6. preserve v.to keep a particular quality, feature, etc.; to make sure that sth. is kept 保护;维护;保留。例如:He was anxious to preserve his reputation. 他急于维护自己的名声。7. capture v. to make sb. interested in sth. 引起(注意、想象、兴趣)。例如:They use puppets to capture the imagination of younger audiences. 他们用木偶来启发小观众的想象力。8. jot v.to write sth. quickly 草草记下;匆匆记下。例如:I'll just jot down the address for you.我得赶快把地址给你写下来。9.turmoil n.a state of great anxiety and confusion 动乱;骚动;混乱;焦虑。例如: Her mind was in (a) turmoil. 她心乱如麻。【QUESTIONS】Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.JUDY WOODRUFF: No matter what age you are, it has undeniably been a year of many firsts. Between COVID and the election of the first woman vice president, 2020 will be a year for (Q1) ______________ to examine and dissect for decades to come. Tonight, biographer and historian Janice Nimura shares her humble opinion on how we can all help (Q2) _____________ the story that is taught to future (Q3) _______________________. This essay is part of our ongoing arts and culture series, Canvas.JANICE NIMURA, Author, The Doctors Blackwell: I started (Q4) __________________ in 11th grade. It was an assignment for English class. But once I got going, I discovered what all writers know: Most of the time, you write not to (Q5) ___________________ what you think, but to figure out what you have to say. What you have written becomes part of your personal history. I can go back to that green notebook and remember what it felt like to be 16. I have been keeping a journal ever since. You see, the rhetoric of powerful people can persist for millennia, but that kind of writing is a (Q6) _____________________ for an audience. Journals, on the other hand, are scribbled in private, and full of naked feelings. They preserve the voices we don't usually hear, the very young, the elderly, the powerless. For (Q7) __________________like me who seek treasure in archives, those are the most precious finds. And this is a critical moment to keep one. 2020 is a year none of us will forget, filled with grief, rage, anxiety, and confusion, and also determination, (Q8) ___________, and hope. We have a lot to process, and what we write in this moment will capture it. We may not ever forget 2020, but our written voices will tell our great-grandchildren the story of right now and possibly help them face the crises of the future. So, keep a journal, find a notebook or (Q9) _______ notes on your phone. Write about what you had for dinner. Write about what makes you angry. Write about what you want. Or, if you don't feel like writing, draw. Paste in a photo of your cousins on Zoom or of a protest or your best friend wearing a mask. On the first page of my 11th-grade journal, I wrote: This is just for me. Write like no one is watching. That is, write like no one is watching right now. Someday, a historian or your own great-grandchild may lift your notebook from a dusty shelf or open a file on a forgotten hard drive and read your words with (Q10) _________________________. They will hear your voice reacting to the turmoil of 2020, figuring out what to feel. And they will learn something from it, just as you learned something about yourself when you wrote it.JUDY WOODRUFF: Such good advice from Janice Nimura. We thank you.【KEY】Read the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.JUDY WOODRUFF: No matter what age you are, it has undeniably been a year of many firsts. Between COVID and the election of the first woman vice president, 2020 will be a year for (Q1) historiansto examine and dissect for decades to come. Tonight, biographer and historian Janice Nimura shares her humble opinion on how we can all help (Q2) shapethe story that is taught to future (Q3) generations. This essay is part of our ongoing arts and culture series, Canvas.JANICE NIMURA, Author, The Doctors Blackwell: I started (Q4) keeping a journalin 11th grade. It was an assignment for English class. But once I got going, I discovered what all writers know: Most of the time, you write not to (Q5) set downwhat you think, but to figure out what you have to say. What you have written becomes part of your personal history. I can go back to that green notebook and remember what it felt like to be 16. I have been keeping a journal ever since. You see, the rhetoric of powerful people can persist for millennia, but that kind of writing is a (Q6) polished maskfor an audience. Journals, on the other hand, are scribbled in private, and full of naked feelings. They preserve the voices we don't usually hear, the very young, the elderly, the powerless. For (Q7) biographerslike me who seek treasure in archives, those are the most precious finds. And this is a critical moment to keep one. 2020 is a year none of us will forget, filled with grief, rage, anxiety, and confusion, and also determination, (Q8) generosity, and hope. We have a lot to process, and what we write in this moment will capture it. We may not ever forget 2020, but our written voices will tell our great-grandchildren the story of right now and possibly help them face the crises of the future. So, keep a journal, find a notebook or (Q9) jotnotes on your phone. Write about what you had for dinner. Write about what makes you angry. Write about what you want. Or, if you don't feel like writing, draw. Paste in a photo of your cousins on Zoom or of a protest or your best friend wearing a mask. On the first page of my 11th-grade journal, I wrote: This is just for me. Write like no one is watching. That is, write like no one is watching right now. Someday, a historian or your own great-grandchild may lift your notebook from a dusty shelf or open a file on a forgotten hard drive and read your words with (Q10) growing excitement. They will hear your voice reacting to the turmoil of 2020, figuring out what to feel. And they will learn something from it, just as you learned something about yourself when you wrote it.JUDY WOODRUFF: Such good advice from Janice Nimura. We thank you.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 猫能感染新冠病毒吗?

猫能感染新冠病毒吗?燕山大学 刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Wayt Gibbs.The COVID-19 pandemic has a lot of people stuck at home with their cats - which raises some obvious questions: Can cats catch the new coronavirus from their owners? Can cats spread the disease to each other? And can people get infected by their cats?Scientists have been so busy studying human-to-human transmission of the virus that few, so far, have looked at how it may be able to spread among cats and the humans they live with. But a few preliminary reports within the past few days suggest that cats can catch COVID-19, probably from humans, and then give it to other cats.On April 5, the Bronx Zoo announced that four tigers and three lions have developed symptoms of the disease. Scientists at Cornell University and the USDA tested samples from one of the tigers and confirmed that it was infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. And researchers at the University of Illinois looked at the samples and found that the virus in the tiger was genetically indistinguishablefrom strainsseen in humans.So the tiger must have caught this from a zookeeper - which is a little surprising. I mean, I would think six feet would be a minimum safe distance from a tiger under any circumstance. But perhaps someone coughed on her food.COVID-19 doesn't seem to be limited to big cats, either. Two research groups in China recently published studies on house cats in Wuhan and young cats raised in a lab. These preprintshave not yet been peer-reviewed, and this is very early science that may well change with further study. That said, their findings are worrisome.The Wuhan study did blood tests on 102 cats there to see whether any had antibodiesto SAR-CoV-2, which would mean that they had been infected with the virus at some point. Fifteen percent of the cats tested positive. Three of those had been living with people who were diagnosed with COVID-19. The rest of the cats were straysor had been in pet hospitals.The authors write that "immediate action should be implemented to keep a suitable distance between humans and companion animals such as cats, and strict hygiene and quarantine measures should also be carried out for these animals."In a second study, scientists at a high-containment lab for animal diseases control in Harbin, China, deliberately squirted coronavirus into the noses of cats and other kinds of animals to see whether they became infected. In some good news, they did not see the virus taking hold in dogs, pigs, chickens or ducks. But it did replicaterapidly the respiratory tracts of both cats and ferrets.Within a few days after infection, all of the cats they inoculatedstarted shedding virus in their feces. The researchers placed an uninfected cat in a cage adjacent to each infected one. One third of those healthy cats then caught the virus from their sick neighbors.So far, the CDC says, there is no evidence that people can catch COVID-19 from their cats. But absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. So until it's clearer whether the virus can leap back from cats to their owners, it would seem smart to keep your cats indoors, to wear gloves and a mask when changing the litter box and to avoid kissing or rubbing noses with your little snookums.Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Wayt Gibbs.VOCABULARY1.indistinguishable (from sth.): if two things are indistinguishable , or one is indistinguishable from the other, it is impossible to see any differences between them 无法分辨的;无法区分的。例如:The male of the species is almost indistinguishable from the female.这个物种的雄性和雌性几乎无法分辨。2.strainn. a particular type of plant or animal, or of a disease caused by bacteria, etc. (动、植物的)系,品系,品种;(疾病的)类型。例如:This is only one of the many strains of the disease.这种病有许多类型,这只是其中之一。3. preprintn. 出版前的非正式样本; 预刊本4. worrisome adj.(especially North American English) that makes you worry 令人担心的;使人担忧的5.antibody v.a substance that the body produces in the blood to fight disease, or as a reaction when certain substances are put into the body 抗体(血液中抵抗疾病或当某些物质进入身体时产生反应的物质)6.strayn.an animal that has got lost or separated from its owner or that has no owner 走失的宠物(或家畜);无主的宠物(或家畜)7.replicatev. (formal) to copy sth. exactly 复制8.ferretn.a small aggressive animal with a long thin body, kept for chasing rabbits from their holes, killing rats , etc. 雪貂(身体细长,用以猎兔、捕鼠等)9.inoculate v. to protect a person or an animal from catching a particular disease by injecting them with a mild form of the disease (给……)接种,打预防针10.fecesn.粪,屎11.snookums: (用于称呼小孩或心爱的人) 亲爱的QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. Afew preliminary reports within the past few days suggest that cats can catch COVID-19from humans.2. On April 5, the Bronx Zoo announced that threetigers and fourlions have developed symptoms of the disease. 3. Scientists at Cornell University and the USDA tested samples from one of the lionsand confirmed that it was infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. 4. Six feet would be a minimum safe distance from a tiger under any circumstance. 5. COVID-19 seemsto be limited to big cats. 6. Recently, threeresearch groups in China published studies on house cats in Wuhan and young cats raised in a lab. 7. The Harbin study did blood tests on 102 cats to see whether any had antibodies to SAR-CoV-2.8. According to the USDA, there is no evidence that people can catch COVID-19 from their cats. KEY Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(F)1. Afew preliminary reports within the past few days suggest that cats can catchCOVID-19from humans.(正确表达)Afew preliminary reports within the past few days suggest that cats can probably catchCOVID-19from humans.(F)2. On April 5, the Bronx Zoo announced that threetigers and fourlions have developed symptoms of the disease.(正确表达)On April 5, the Bronx Zoo announced that four tigers and three lionshave developed symptoms of the disease. (F)3. Scientists at Cornell University and the USDA tested samples from one of the lionsand confirmed that it was infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.(正确表达)Scientists at Cornell University and the USDA tested samples from one of the tigersand confirmed that it was infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (T)4. Six feet would be a minimum safe distance from a tiger under any circumstance. (F)5. COVID-19 seemstobe limited to big cats.(正确表达)COVID-19 doesn't seem tobe limited to big cats. (F)6. Recently, threeresearch groups in China published studies on house cats in Wuhan and young cats raised in a lab.(正确表达) Recently, tworesearch groups in China published studies on house cats in Wuhan and young cats raised in a lab. (F)7. The Harbinstudy did blood tests on 102 cats to see whether any had antibodies to SAR-CoV-2. (正确表达)The Wuhanstudy did blood tests on 102 cats to see whether any had antibodies to SAR-CoV-2.(F)8. According to the USDA, there is no evidence that people can catch COVID-19 from their cats.(正确表达) According to the CDC, there is no evidence that people can catch COVID-19 from their cats.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 众多日本国民反对举办东京奥运会

众多日本国民反对举办东京奥运会燕山大学刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTA majority of Japanese people are opposed to holding the Tokyo Olympic Games this year due to concerns over the global health crisis. As Reuters Brian Wood reports, that's according to a Yomiuri Daily poll released on Wednesday.While 70 percent of those surveyed said they were at least "somewhat interested" in the Summer Games, Yomiuri found that 58 percent were against holding the event this year. If the Games were to go on, over 90 percent said the crowd should be kept to a minimum or not allowed at all. The poll was conducted between mid-January through February, when much of the country remained under a state of emergency. A Reuters poll last month showed nearly two-thirds of Japanese companies also oppose holding the Games this year, a shift from the last survey which showed most in favor. As for now, Greater Tokyo remains in a state of emergency, with restrictions on gathering, business hours and foreign travel into the country. That's Reuters Brian Wood.VOCABULARY1. Reuters 英国路透社2. Yomiuri Daily 日本《读卖日报》QUESTIONSListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.Q1: Why are many Japanese people against to hold the Tokyo Olympic Games this year?A. Due to concerns over the global health crisis.B. Due to concerns over the Japanese economic crisis.C. Due to concerns over the global environment crisis.D. Due to concerns over the Japanese nuclear leak crisis.Q2: According to a Reuters poll last month, how many Japanese companies oppose holding the Games this year?A. Nearly 70%.B. Over 58%C. Nearly two-thirds.D. Over 90%.KEYQ1: A。细节题。命题出处:A majority of Japanese people are opposed to holding the Tokyo Olympic Games this year due to concerns over the global health crisis.Q2: C。细节题。命题出处:While 70 percent of those surveyed said they were at least "somewhat interested" in the Summer Games, Yomiuri found that 58 percent were against holding the event this year. If the Games were to go on, over 90 percent said the crowd should be kept to a minimum or not allowed at all. The poll was conducted between mid-January through February, when much of the country remained under a state of emergency. A Reuters poll last month showed nearly two-thirds of Japanese companies also oppose holding the Games this year, a shift from the last survey which showed most in favor.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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