双语阅读 | 减肥是否应该不吃晚饭?

Should You Skip Dinner to Lose Weight?减肥是否应该不吃晚饭?王淑怡 供稿There's an old saying about healthy eating: “Breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and supper like a pauper.” In other words,front-loadmore calories in the early part of the day. But does that mean you should be skipping dinner if you want to lose weight?The short answer: Not necessarily.关于健康饮食有一句老话,“早餐吃得像国王,午餐吃得像王子,晚餐吃得像乞丐”。也就是说,你可以在早上摄入更多的卡路里。但是,这是否意味着如果你想减肥,就应该不吃晚餐?答案是,未必如此。In a January 2021 Nutrientsstudy, researchers found that college-aged students who regularly skipped dinner gained more weight than their counterparts who — for the most part — ate dinner daily. Dinner-skippers gained about 10 percent of their body weight over the six-year study period and were also more likely to be in the overweight/obese category (BMI≥25kg/m2). These findings were consistent in both people assigned male at birth and people assigned female at birth.2021年1月,在《营养素》(Nutrients)的一项研究中,研究人员发现,在大多数情况下,经常不吃晚餐的大学生比每天吃晚餐的大学生体重增加得更多。在六年的研究期间,不吃晚餐的人体重大约增加了10%,而且更有可能属于超重或肥胖人群(体重指数≥25kg/m2),以上结果对于男女来说均是如此。“People who skip dinner still eat throughout the evening, they just tend to eat more snack-like foods, which is what would lead to weight gain,” saysa researcher,“From my experience, [dinner-skippers] most likely load up on snacks that tend to lack nutrition, are low in fiber and protein, and high in sugar and carbs. These types of food rarely fill you up butcan lead to eating more.”“不吃晚餐的人晚上仍然会吃东西,他们只是倾向于吃更多零食类的食物,这是导致他们体重增加的原因,”一名研究人员表示,“根据我的经验,[不吃晚餐的人]最可能吃的零食往往缺乏营养,纤维和蛋白质含量低,而糖和碳水化合物含量高。这类食物无法让你吃饱,反而会让你吃得更多。”Still, there's other research that indicates skipping dinner could encourage weight loss. For instance, the research, based on a seven-year dietary analysis of 50,000 adults, found that body weight, measured by body mass index, corresponds with when we eat and how often we eat. Specifically, people who eat larger breakfasts and adopt an 18-hour overnight fast, say from 1 pm to 7 am, have the lowest body weights. Those who ate more than three meals, or three meals plus snacks, had higher BMIs.不过,还有其他的研究证明,不吃晚饭有利于减肥。例如,在对五万名成年人长达七年的饮食分析的基础上,有研究发现体重指数与进食时间和进食频率相关。具体而言,早餐吃得多、18小时(下午1点至早上7点)空腹的人,体重指数最低。一天吃三顿以上,或者三餐加零食,体重指数会更高一些。Skipping dinner seems to work in the above study because participants were essentially intermittent fastingversus forgoing dinner and then having a snackfest later in the evening.“When people implement intermittent fasting, skipping dinner can be a powerful weight-loss tool,” says theresearcher, “this type of fasting is called circadian rhythmfasting and mimicsour traditional eating patterns.The goal is to eat when the sun comes up and finish eating when the sun goes down. Eating in line with your circadian rhythms can make for better weight managementas well as improved sleep, etc.”在上述研究中,不吃晚餐似乎很有效,但这是因为参与者基本是间歇性禁食,而不是不吃晚餐,然后在晚上吃零食。“当人们采用间歇性禁食法时,不吃晚餐可以成为一个强有力的减肥方式,”研究人员表示,“这种类型的禁食被称为昼夜节律禁食,模仿我们的传统饮食习惯,即在太阳升起和落山时进食。按照昼夜节律进食可以帮助你更好地控制体重,改善睡眠等。”Of course, thisintermittent fasting approach isn't for everyone. People who maintain highly active lifestyles, for instance, and need adequate fuel to power morning runs or help muscle fibers recover from intense evening workouts like weightlifting might not benefit. 当然,这种间歇性禁食并不适合所有人。比如,对那些日常生活高度耗能的人来说,这种禁食可能没有益处;他们需要充足的燃料,来为晨跑提供动力、或使肌肉纤维从高强度的夜间锻炼(例如举重)后得到恢复。If you're looking to lose 10 pounds, eating a healthy and light dinner will help your body maintain its functions. Also, dinner is important because after a long day full of activities, your body needs to fuel up. It is unhealthy if you skip your dinner or consume way too much for dinner. So, the key is to maintain balance. 如果你想要减重10磅,吃一顿健康和清淡的晚餐能够帮助你的身体维持各项功能。此外,晚餐十分重要,因为经过一整天的活动,你的身体需要补充能量。如果你不吃晚餐或晚餐吃得太多,都是不健康的,关键是要保持平衡。【VOCABULARY】1.paupern.乞丐;穷人;靠救济度日者2.front-loadv.将(费用、经历等)更多地用于前期3.nutrient n.营养物4.BMI n.体重指数(body mass index的缩写)5.intermittent fasting间歇性禁食;断食疗法6.circadian rhythm[生理] 生理节律;[生理] 近昼夜节律;日周期节律7.mimicsv.模仿(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 为什么通勤16分钟是通往幸福之路的关键?

Why the key to happiness is a 16-minute commute?为什么通勤16分钟是通往幸福之路的关键? 王淑怡 供稿 Many people look forward to a lengthy work commute as it provides them with an opportunity to awaken their senses before entering the office and starting their workday. Others, however, prefer commutes under half an hour in length, as long ones make them feel drained and exhausted before even stepping foot into their place of work.许多人喜欢漫长的通勤时间,因为这可以让他们在到达办公室、开启一天的工作之前唤醒身体感官。然而,另一些人更喜欢通勤时间在半小时以内,因为长时间的通勤会让他们在到达办公室之前就已经筋疲力尽。 It’s perhaps not surprising that our commutes make us miserable. The UK’s Office for National Statistics has found that “commuters have lower life satisfaction, a lower sense that their daily activities are worthwhile, lower levels of happiness and higher anxiety on average than non-commuters”. In fact, if your commute takes longer than an hour, feelings of happiness decrease with every successive minute of travel. If a lengthy commute makes us unhappy, then it should follow that a shorter commute improves our happiness levels.通勤让我们苦不堪言,这也许并不奇怪。英国国家统计局调查发现“相比非通勤人员,通勤人员通常生活满意度较低、更不容易体会到日常活动的意义、幸福指数更低,而焦虑感更高”。事实上,如果你的通勤时间超过一小时,时间每增加一分钟,你的幸福感也会随之相应下降。既然漫长的通勤时间剥夺了我们的幸福感,那么就应该缩短通勤时间,以提高我们的幸福指数。 What’s the ideal commute that is necessary to ensure work efficiency and general happiness? Prepare to be surprised. It turns out that the ideal commute is actually not no commute at all. A study of more than 1,000 workers in San Francisco found that their ideal one-way commute was 16 minutes. Fewer than two per cent of people wanted a commute time shorter than four minutes, while only 1.2 per cent wanted no commute time at all.多少时间才称得上是理想的通勤,既能保证工作效率,又能确保整体幸福感?答案出乎人们的意料。研究表明理想的通勤并不是完全不需要通勤。通过对旧金山1000多名工人进行调查发现,他们理想中的单程通勤时间为16分钟。只有不到2%的人希望通勤时间小于4分钟,另外仅有1.2%的人希望完全避免通勤。 It seems that people do appreciate some separation between work and home – using the travel time as a psychological tool to decompress from the day. And it’s backed up by science. An increasing amount of research shows that ‘active commutes’, which involve walking or cycling, can make life better – even as important to wellbeing as a marriage or a pay rise.人们希望办公地点与住所能保持适当的距离,这样他们可以利用这段通勤时间缓解一天的心理压力。这在科学上是有根据的。现在越来越多的研究表明“积极通勤”(包括步行或骑单车)能够让生活变得更美好,其对于幸福的意义甚至如同婚姻或加薪一样重要。 If the ideal commute for most people is a 16-minute stroll each way, how should businesses respond? “Gone are the days of making employees spend unproductive time traveling to a central location and working to fixed hours that date back to Victorian times,” says Richard Morris, UK CEO at Regus. “Businesses of every size [should be] investigating flexible work options that enable employees to work closer to home and to vary their hours to better suit their circumstances.”如果大多数人理想的通勤时间是每天单程步行16分钟,那么企业对此如何回应呢?“自维多利亚时代以来,员工每天在路上花费一段毫无成果的时间前往中心区域并按照固定时间工作,这样的日子已经一去不复返了,”雷格斯英国首席执行官Richard Morris表示,“各种规模的企业[应该]研究可行的弹性工作制,使员工能够在离家较近的地方工作,并能改变自己的上班时间,以更好地适应的各自不同的生活状况。” If, as the ancient Athenian historian Thucydides suggests, “The secret to happiness is freedom”, the opportunity to choose where to work and how to get there could make all the difference to weary commuters across the world.古希腊历史学家修昔底德说:“幸福的秘诀是自由。”对于世界各地疲惫的通勤者来说,如果能够自己选择工作地点和通勤方式,那将具有非凡的意义。  【VOCABULARY】 1. drain v. 耗尽2. commuter n. 通勤者;每日往返上班者3. decompress v. 使减压;使解除压力4. stroll n. 漫步;闲逛5. unproductive adj. 非生产性的;徒劳的6. weary adj. 疲倦的;厌烦的 7. Athenian adj. 雅典的;雅典人的 (封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 为什么开车时容易犯困?

Why Do You Get Sleepy When You Drive?为什么开车时容易犯困?王淑怡 供稿Most of us have probably felt sleepy on a car journey, but it's not always due to an early start, or a long day, or a lack of caffeine.我们大多数人可能在开车过程中会感到困倦,但这并不总是因为起得太早,或经历了漫长的一天,或缺少咖啡因所导致的。 It's all to do with the vibrations a car makes as it moves: they can bring on sleepiness in just 15 minutes, the new study shows. That's something for both car manufacturers and road safety experts to think about, according to the researchers from RMIT University in Australia. They want to conduct further studies into how car seat vibrations could be secretly bringing on sleep.一项新的研究表明,这与汽车行驶时产生的振动有关,振动可以在短短15分钟内让人产生困意。澳大利亚皇家墨尔本理工大学的研究人员表示,这是汽车制造商和道路安全专家需要思考的问题。他们希望进一步研究汽车座椅的振动是如何在不知不觉中让人昏昏欲睡的。 "When you're tired, it doesn't take much to start nodding off and we've found that the gentle vibrations made by car seats as you drive can lull your brain and body," says one of the team, Stephen Robinson. "Our study shows steady vibrations at low frequencies – the kind we experience when driving cars and trucks – progressively induce sleepiness even among people who are well rested and healthy."“在很累的情况下,人们很容易就会打瞌睡。我们发现,驾驶过程中汽车座椅产生的轻微振动可以使人的大脑和身体得到放松,”该团队一名研究人员斯蒂芬·罗宾逊说,“我们的研究表明,即便是休息良好且身体健康的司机,当驾驶汽车或卡车时,汽车座椅低频率的轻微振动也会逐渐诱发困意。” Robinson and his colleagues hooked 15 volunteers up to a virtual simulator that they could vibrate at different frequencies. The volunteers were tested twice, once with no vibration, and once with low-frequency 4-7 Hz vibrations. They then measured the heart rate variability (HRV) of the participants. 罗宾逊和他的同事们将15名志愿者与虚拟模拟器连接起来,该模拟器可以产生不同频率的振动。志愿者们分别进行了两次测试,一次是4-7赫兹的低频振动,一次无振动,随后立即测量他们的心率变异性(HRV)。 These researchers discovered that levels of alertness after driving for only 15 min begin to decrease dramatically, and by 30 minutes will have a significant impact on your ability to stay alert and concentrate on the road. By 60 minutes sleepiness was at its peak. However, with tiredness a factor in around 1 in 5 fatal accidents on the road, it's important to make further studies. The researchers want to continue their work by looking at bigger groups of people and more ranges of frequencies.研究员们发现,仅仅在驾车15分钟后,司机的警觉性就开始大幅降低,30分钟后司机的注意力和警觉能力受到巨大影响,而在60分钟后驾驶员的困意达到最高点。不过,由于五分之一的致命交通事故都是由疲劳驾驶引起的,还需要对此进行更深入的研究。研究员们表示,希望能够继续针对更大范围的群体以及更多波段的频率进行研究。 This is the first study to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration on seated human alertness and drowsiness. The data clearly demonstrate that exposure to vibration has considerable influence on subjective sleepiness levels, and more importantly, human reaction times and lapses of attention.此项研究首次调查了坐着的人在受到全身振动时其警觉性和睡意受到的影响。数据清楚地表明,振动对主观嗜睡水平有很大的影响,更重要的是,对人类的反应时间和注意力缺失也有显著影响。 These findings need to be further consolidated particularly in relation to driving behavior. This line of research can then assist in the development of practical and relevant guidelines for limitation of vibration exposure in the automotive industry, in an effort to reduce the burden of road accidents.上述研究结果还需要得到进一步的证实,特别是与驾驶行为相关的方面。这些研究将有助于制定实用的指南以指导汽车制造业限制振动程度,从而达到减少道路事故的目的。 VOCABULARY1. vibration n. 震动;颤动;抖动;(感情的)共鸣2. nod off  打盹3. lull v. 使放松;使镇静4. heart rate variability 心率变异性5. drowsiness n. 睡意;困倦;假寐6. lapse n.  (一时的) 走神; 判断错误  (封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 如何使用介词 between 和 among

如何使用介词between和amongHow to use the prepositions "between" and "among"刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTQuestion:Akira writes,When I learned about prepositions in junior high school about 70 years ago, it was taught that "between" is used to describe two things and "among" is used with three things or more. Is my memory correct?Answer:Dear Akira,Thank you for your question. Your memory is excellent. And your teacher gave some helpful guidance on using these two important prepositions.Prepositions - words or groups of words that are used with nouns, noun phrases, or pronouns to show direction, location, and so on - are a difficult subject. They sometimes have clear uses and differences, but sometimes they share meanings with other prepositions. We will explore that idea later.AmongLet's start with among. Many of the uses of among center on the idea of a group of people or things. For example, news stories for over a year have had language such as:The coronavirus is spreading quickly among members of the community.In this case, among means in or through a group of people. Among can also be used to show that a group of people or things is involved in, or affected by something, as in:The new rules have led to increased competition among local businesses.And among can mean in the presence of a group of people. News stories often carry language such as:The prime minister was standing among his supporters.BetweenBetween often carries the idea of a separation, as in:The ball is between the tree and the house.In this case, between means in the space that separates two things - the tree and the house.Between can also mean in the time that separates two actions or events, as in:If you want to stay healthy, you should drink plenty of water between meals.In many cases, among is used for a group of things or people, and between is used for two things or people. But the difference in meaning is not always so clear.In some cases, between and among have pretty much the same meaning. Consider these two statements, both of which appear in Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary:They compared the cars but found few differences between them.They compared several new cars but found few differences among them.In both cases, the preposition shows the group of things that are being considered or compared.As with many issues in English, there are general rules or meanings and there are exceptions to those general rules and meanings. If you have a question for our staff of teachers, send it by email to learningenglish@voanews.com.And that's Ask a Teacher!I'm John Russell.VOCABULARY1. start with: 以……开始2. staff n. all the workers employed in an organization considered as a group 全体职工(或雇员)。例如: (British English) teaching staff全体教师QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. Prepositions are words or groups of words that are used with nouns, noun phrases, or pronouns to show direction, location, and so on.2. Prepositions sometimes have clear uses and differences, but sometimes they share meanings with other prepositions.3. Many of the uses of among center on the idea of a group of people or things.4. Between can also be used to show that a group of people or things is involved in, or affected by something.5. Among can mean in the presence of a group of people.6. Among often carries the idea of a separation.7. Among can also mean in the time that separates two actions or events.8. In many cases, among is used for a group of things or people, and between is used for two things or people.9. In some cases, between and among have pretty much the different meaning.KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(T) 1. Prepositions are words or groups of words that are used with nouns, noun phrases, or pronouns to show direction, location, and so on.(T) 2. Prepositions sometimes have clear uses and differences, but sometimes they share meanings with other prepositions.(T) 3. Many of the uses of among center on the idea of a group of people or things.(F) 4. Between can also be used to show that a group of people or things is involved in, or affected by something. (正确表达)Among can also be used to show that a group of people or things is involved in, or affected by something.(T) 5. Among can mean in the presence of a group of people.(F) 6. Among often carries the idea of a separation.(正确表达)Between often carries the idea of a separation.(F) 7. Among can also mean in the time that separates two actions or events. (正确表达)Between can also mean in the time that separates two actions or events.(T) 8. In many cases, among is used for a group of things or people, and between is used for two things or people.(F) 9. In some cases, between and among have pretty much the different meaning. (正确表达)In some cases, between and among have pretty much the same meaning.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 宇航员

Astronauts宇航员燕山大学 刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTAs more companies start selling tickets to travel into space, people are asking: Who gets to call themselves an astronaut?It is no longer an easy question to answer. People who are very rich are able to pay to go into space.Russian space officials have been calling them spaceflight participants for many years.The new supervisorof the U.S. space agency NASA is Bill Nelson. He does not consider himself an astronaut although he spent six days in space in 1986. He was a congressmanthen.He told The Associated Pressthat he believes the term "astronaut" should be for professionals.Richard Garriott is a computer game developer. He paid a lot of money for his trip to the International Space Station in 2008 on a Russian spacecraft. He hates the term space tourist. He said in an email, "I am an astronaut." He said he trained for two years to go into space.Axiom Space's Michael Lopez-Alegria is a former NASA astronaut. He will join three businessmen on a SpaceX spacecraft on a trip to the space station planned for January.They each paid $55 million for the trip. Lopez-Alegria said they do not consider themselves space tourists since they will be doing research.Recently, Axiom Space said there will be a second flight to the space station next year. Peggy Whitson will be on that flight. She is a retired NASA astronaut who has spent 665 days in space.Whitson will bring John Shoffner. He is a businessman and race car driver from Knoxville, Tennessee. He is also paying about $55 million. Shoffner said he asked Peggy to make the training difficult for him. He said, "Make me an astronaut."The word astronaut comes from the Greek words for star and sailor. The idea is easy to market and astronauts appear in movies and popular culture.Jeff Bezos is the owner of the rocket company, Blue Origin. It will call future clients "astronauts." It is selling a place on its first spaceflight with people, planned for July. NASA even has a new term for this kind of trip: PAM for Private Astronaut Mission.Many individuals want to work as astronauts. More than 12,000 people applied to join NASA's upcoming class. Only about 12 will be chosen in December.But many passengers are expected to travel into space soon. There will be Russian actress and movie director, Yulia Peresild, who will fly to the space station in October. And Japanese businessman, Yusaku Maezawa, will go in December with an assistant to documenteverything. In each case, there will be a professional astronaut supervising things. But, Blue Origin and SpaceX's spacecraft do not need pilots.Asif Siddiqi is a history professor at Fordham University and the writer of several space books. He said it might be necessary to retire the term once hundreds if not thousands of people reach space. He questioned, "Are we going to call each and every one of them astronauts?"Mike Mullane is a retired NASA astronaut. He suggests using astronaut first class, second class, third class. He said this could depend on the person's involvement.However, Mullane noted, "astronaut is not a copyrightedword. So anybody who wants to call themselves an astronaut can call themselves an astronaut, whether they've been in space or not."I'm Jill Robbins.VOCABULARY1. supervisorn. a person who supervises sb. / sth. 监督人;指导者;主管人。例如:I have a meeting with my supervisor about my research topic.我要就我的研究课题同导师见一次面。2.congressmann.a member of Congress in the US, especially the House of Representatives (尤指美国众议院的)国会议员3.professionaln. a person who does a sport or other activity as a paid job rather than as a hobby 职业运动员;(从事某活动的)专业人员。例如:a top golf professional顶级高尔夫球职业选手4.documentv. to record the details of sth. 记录,记载(详情)。例如:Causes of the disease have been well documented.这种疾病的起因已有完备的记载。5.pilotn.a person who operates the controls of an aircraft, especially as a job 飞行员;(飞行器)驾驶员。例如:an airline pilot民航飞机飞行员6.copyrightv. to get the copyright for sth. 获得……的版权QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).1. People who are very rich are able to pay to go into space.2. Russian space officials have been calling them spaceflight participants for many years.3. Bill Nelsonbelieves the term "astronaut" should be for professionals.4. Richard Garriott paid a lot of money for his trip to the International Space Station in 2018 on a Russian spacecraft. 5. Michael Lopez-Alegria is a former NASA astronaut. 6. Peggy Whitson is a retired NASA astronaut who has spent 665 days in space.7. John Shoffneris a sportsman and race car driver from Knoxville, Tennessee. 8. The word astronaut comes from the Latinwords for star and sailor. 9. Jeff Bezos is the owner of the rocket company, Blue Origin. 10. Yulia Peresildwill fly to the space station in December. 11. Yusaku Maezawawill go in December with ascientistto document everything. 12. Mike Mullane suggests using astronaut first class, second class, third class. KEY Read the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).(T) 1. People who are very rich are able to pay to go into space.(T) 2. Russian space officials have been calling them spaceflight participants for many years.(T) 3. Bill Nelsonbelieves the term "astronaut" should be for professionals.(F)4. Richard Garriott paid a lot of money for his trip to the International Space Station in 2018on a Russian spacecraft. (正确表达)Richard Garriott paid a lot of money for his trip to the International Space Station in 2008on a Russian spacecraft. (T) 5. Michael Lopez-Alegria is a former NASA astronaut. (T) 6. Peggy Whitson is a retired NASA astronaut who has spent 665 days in space.(F)7. John Shoffneris a sportsmanand race car driver from Knoxville, Tennessee.(正确表达)John Shoffneris a businessmanand race car driver from Knoxville, Tennessee. (F)8. The word astronaut comes from the Latinwords for star and sailor.(正确表达)The word astronaut comes from the Greekwords for star and sailor. (T) 9. Jeff Bezos is the owner of the rocket company, Blue Origin. (F)10. Yulia Peresildwill fly to the space station in December. (正确表达) Yulia Peresildwill fly to the space station in October. (F)11. Yusaku Maezawawill go in December with ascientistto document everything.(正确表达)Yusaku Maezawawill go in December with an assistantto document everything. (T) 12. Mike Mullane suggests using astronaut first class, second class, third class.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

带练习 | 硬化道路有助于减排

Hardening the roads helps to save energy硬化道路有助于减排刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTThis is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more energy than striding down a sidewalk—because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for vehicles driving on roads."The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow indentation or, you know, deflection in the pavement—and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."Jeremy Gregory, a sustainability scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved—and greenhouse gases avoided—by simply hardening the nation's roads and highways.And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades—that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.To put those emissions savings into context - that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground—or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could mix small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual hurdles."You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also driver behavior, which involves millions and millions of people—as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our pavements. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."And when it comes to retrofitting our streets and highways - those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.VOCABULARY1. stride v. to walk with long steps in a particular direction 大步走;阔步行走。例如:She camestriding along to meet me. 她大步走上前来迎接我。2. sidewalk n.人行道3. indentation n. a cut or mark on the edge or surface of sth. 缺口;凹陷;凹痕。例如:The horse'shooves left deep indentations in the mud. 马蹄在泥地里留下了深深的蹄印。4. deflection n.(尤指击中某物后)突然转向,偏斜,偏离。例如:the angle of deflection偏斜度5. pavement n. (North American English) the surface of a road 路面。例如:Two cars skidded on the icy pavement. 两辆汽车在结冰的路面上打滑。6. stiffen v.(使)变硬7. offset v. 抵消;弥补;补偿8. nanotubes 纳米管9. asphalt n. 沥青;柏油10. retrofit v. 给机器设备装配(新部件);翻新;改型QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more (Q1) __________________ than striding down a sidewalk—because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for vehicles driving on roads."The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow (Q2) __________________ or, you know, deflection in the pavement—and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."Jeremy Gregory, a (Q3) ________________________ scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved—and greenhouse gases avoided—by simply (Q4) ______________ the nation's roads and highways. And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades—that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.To put those (Q5) _________________________________into context—that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground—or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could (Q6) _________________ small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual (Q7) __________________. "You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also (Q8) _________________, which involves millions and millions of people—as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our (Q9) ________________________. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."And when it comes to retrofitting our (Q10) __________________________________—those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.When you walk on a sandy beach, it takes more (Q1) energy than striding down a sidewalk—because the weight of your body pushes into the sand. Turns out, the same thing is true for vehicles driving on roads."The weight of the vehicles creates a very shallow (Q2)indentation or, you know, deflection in the pavement—and it makes it such that it's continuously driving up a very shallow hill."Jeremy Gregory, a (Q3) sustainability scientist at M.I.T. His team modeled how much energy could be saved—and greenhouse gases avoided—by simply (Q4) hardening the nation's roads and highways. And they found that stiffening 10 percent of the nation's roads every year could prevent 440 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions over the next five decades—that’s enough to offset half a percent of projected transportation sector emissions over that time period.To put those (Q5) emissions savings into context - that amount is equivalent to how much CO2 you'd spare the planet by keeping a billion barrels of oil in the ground—or by growing seven billion trees for a decade. The results are in the Transportation Research Record.As for how to stiffen those roads? Gregory says you could (Q6) mix small amounts of synthetic fibers or carbon nanotubes into paving materials. Or you could pave with cement-based concrete, which is stiffer than asphalt, and it's worth noting the research was funded in part by the Portland Cement Association.This system could also be a way to shave carbon emissions without some of the usual (Q7)hurdles."You know, usually, when it comes to reducing emissions in the transportation sector, you're talking about changing policies related to vehicles and also (Q8) driver behavior, which involves millions and millions of people—as opposed to changing the way we design and maintain our (Q9) pavements. That's just on the order of thousands of people who are working in transportation agencies."And when it comes to retrofitting our (Q10) streets and highways—those agencies are where you might say the rubber meets the road.Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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