双语阅读 | 可以为服装申请专利吗?

Can You Patent Clothing?可以为服装申请专利吗?曹艺凡 供稿If you've just finished working on a new line of clothing, you're probably wondering whether you can protect it with a patent? The USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) issues design patents that protect the aesthetics or ornamental appearance of an object and utility patents that protect the functional aspects of an article of clothing. So, can a patent protect your clothing?如果你刚刚完成了新一季的服装设计,你可能会好奇是否可以为其申请专利?美国专利及商标局(USPTO)可授权外观设计专利,用以保护产品富有美感或具有装饰性的外观设计;还可授予实用专利,用以保护服装的功能性设计。那么,专利可以保护你的服装设计吗?The short answer is yes, you can patent clothing using a design patent or utility patent. Patenting your clothing will allow you to restrict others from using, making, selling, and importing the patented clothing without your express permission.回答是肯定的,你可以为服装申请外观设计或者实用专利。一旦你的服装取得专利,他人就不得在未经你明确许可的情况下使用、制造、销售和进口该专利服装。You'll have the exclusive right to make and sell your clothing line, you will also be able to license the design or the invention of your clothing to third parties in exchange for a licensing fee. Also, if you wish, you can sell the patented design to another party.你将拥有制造和销售该系列服装的独家权利。此外,你还可以授权第三方使用该服装设计或发明,以赚取授权费。另外,如果你愿意,可以将专利设计出售给另一方。If the piece of clothing or apparel that you want to protect has a new, functional aspect, you can file a utility patent application. Utility patents protect functional items, including clothing that has a new and unique function.如果你想保护的服装具有新功能,那么可以提出实用专利申请。实用专利保护功能性产品,包括具有全新独特功能的服装。Problems with Protecting Clothing with a Patent利用专利保护服装的不足Now that we have covered how you can protect an article of clothing using either a utility patent or design patent, it’s important to understand the shortcomings associated with patent law protecting clothing.前文已介绍如何利用实用或外观设计专利来保护服装,那么了解利用专利法保护服装有哪些不足就十分重要了。It often takes the USPTO 20 months to approve or deny a design patent application and this is simply too slow in the fashion industry where trends tend to move fairly quickly. Often times, the design that’s sought to be patented is already out of fashion by the time the patent office issues the design patent. The USPTO does offer an expedited means of obtaining a design patent, but even then it takes 10 to 12 months to get a design patent approved.美国专利及商标局通常需要20个月的时间来通过或拒绝一项外观设计专利申请,但是时尚界的更新换代非常迅速,这个审批速度实在太慢。大多数情况下,在专利局通过外观设计专利时,申请专利的设计已经过时。即使美国专利及商标局提供了获批外观设计专利的快捷方式,也需要至少10到12个月的时间。In addition, although many makers of unique clothing designs will benefit from patenting their new designs, it is often cost-prohibitive for some people.此外,尽管许多拥有独特服装设计的制造商因其设计的专利保护而获益,但对一些人而言,申请专利的成本往往太过高昂。If you're an individual designer, you should expect to pay between $1,740 to $3,980 for an attorney to prepare and file your design patent application.如果你是独立设计师,你要预备1740至3980美元聘请律师,为你准备并提交设计专利的申请。【Vocabulary】1. aesthetics n.(审)美学2. ornamental adj. 装饰的;点缀的3. apparel n.(商店出售的)服装4. expedite v. 加速5. attorney n. 律师(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 为什么刘畊宏突然爆火?

Why Has Liu Genghong Become an Online Hit为什么刘畊宏突然爆火?何雅蕙 供稿Millions of people in China now share a common routine: A fitness session with their new star personal trainer Liu Genghong.现在,中国老百姓有一个共同日常:跟着他们的明星私教刘畊宏跳健身操。The couple is usually seen exercising to the fast-paced tune of pop singer Jay Chou’s “Compendium of Materia Medica” and others. Snippets of the workout where Liu appears in a red tank top and black slacks with his wife have since gone viral on social media.刘畊宏夫妇的运动常以流行歌手周杰伦的各种快节奏音乐为背景音乐,如本草纲目等。在刘畊宏的直播片段里,他常常身着红色背心和黑色短裤,与妻子一起做运动。他的直播在社交媒体上爆火。Liu’s workout sessions have been so popular that they have broken Douyin’s livestreaming record for 2022 so far, according to data analysis platform Chanmama. Within one month, his livestreams have been viewed nearly 40 million times altogether, with his most popular session attracting over 1 million live views.蝉妈妈数据分析平台显示,刘畊宏的健身直播爆火,打破了2022年抖音的直播记录。仅一个月内,他的直播总浏览量为4000万次,而他最火爆的健身操的实时直播观众超过了100万人。Liu’s followers have also increased from 5 million to 33 million in just 10 weeks.仅仅10周,刘畊宏的粉丝量就从500万涨到了3300万。“Li Jiaqi empties our wallet, Liu Genghong empties our body,” has become one of the most popular comments on microblogging platform Weibo lately.最近微博上的一热评称:“被李佳琦榨干了钱包,被刘畊宏榨干了身体”。Opportunity favors the prepared机会总是留给有准备的人Liu has been a fitness fanatic for more than 30 years, and has published several books, including A Fitness Book by Kent-Hung in 2004, and Fitness Can Change Your Life in 2014.刘畊宏对健身的狂热从30多年前就开始了。这期间,他曾出版了几本书籍,比如2004年出版的《畊宏健身书》以及2014年出版的《健身,就能改变人生》。In 2013, Liu participated in the CCTV2 weight loss programme Super Diet King, aka The Biggest Loser, as a motivational coach, and later also became a fitness instructor for the Jiangsu TV show Changing My Life, in which he also helped overweight people to become fit. After that, more fitness programs followed, including the 2017 Challenge the Limit show.2013年,刘畊宏担任CCTV2台减肥节目《超级减肥王》的健身教练。随后,他在江苏卫视《减出我人生》中担任总教练,指导超重的选手减肥。在此之后,他还参与了很多健身节目,比如2017年的《全能极限王》。In an interview with China Daily, Liu saidhis current popularity is not something he achieved in several months. Instead, it’s the result of many years of work.在《中国日报》的采访中,刘畊宏表示他现在的名气不是短短几个月内得来的,而是长达数年努力付出的结果。The time produces its heroes时势造英雄The online fitness business has seen a significant surge in China. According to a March report by Douyin, the number of fitness videos in 2021 increased by 134% while followers of such content were up by 208% compared with the previous year.线上健身在中国火速发展, 抖音3月的一份报告显示,与2020年相比,2021年抖音上的健身视频增加了134%,而相关内容的粉丝则增长了208%。Liu Genghong isn’t the only icon who has been able to get the attention of fitness enthusiasts recently. With her workout videos, German fitness model Pamela Reif has also built a massive fanbase with over 8.3 million followers on social platform Xiaohongshu.而刘畊宏也不是唯一一个吸引健身爱好者的健身偶像。来自德国的帕梅拉也在中国吸引了大量粉丝,她在小红书上的粉丝量超过了830万。【VOCABULARY】1. snippets n.片段2. fanatic n.(对某项活动的)狂热者3. surge n. 激增(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

双语阅读 | 鱼是怎么睡觉的?

How Do Fish Sleep?鱼是怎么睡觉的?曹艺凡 供稿Sleep plays an essential role in our overall functioning, development, and how long we live. Without enough sleep, our health and cognitive performance suffers. The same goes for animals, including fish.睡眠对我们身体的整体机能、发育和寿命长短有着至关重要的影响。缺乏足够的睡眠,我们的身体健康和认知能力就会受损。这对动物也是如此,包括鱼类。While nearly all animals sleep, the way they sleep can be very different, especially in the case of fish. Fish sleep looks so different that many researchers prefer to call it rest instead of sleep.虽然几乎所有的动物都会睡觉,但它们的睡眠方式大相径庭,特别是鱼类。鱼类的睡眠看起来如此不同,许多研究人员更愿意称其为休息,而不是睡眠。Do Fish Sleep?鱼会睡觉吗?Many types of fish appear to sleep, but fish sleep differs from what we usually think of as sleep. Researchers have not been able to measure the familiar brain wave patterns that characterize human sleep and the sleep of many other animals in most fish, so researchers often refer to fish sleep as rest. Also, since most fish do not have eyelids, they can’t close their eyes during this rest.很多种类的鱼似乎都会睡觉,但鱼的睡眠与我们通常所认为的睡眠不同。人类和许多其他动物在睡眠中会伴随有各种脑电波波形,但在大多数鱼类身上,研究人员尚未检测到类似波形。因此,研究人员一般把鱼的睡眠称为休息。此外,由于大多数鱼没有眼睑,它们在这种休息中无法闭眼。Fish appear to be more alert than humans are during sleep, which may give them more time to react to potential threats in their environment. Still, fish do slow down metabolic processes in their resting state, much like humans. They physically slow down as well, with some fish floating in place.鱼在睡眠期间看起来比人类更警觉,这样,它们就可能有更多时间对环境中的潜在威胁作出反应。然而,就像人类一样,鱼在休息状态下的新陈代谢还是会放缓。它们的动作也会减慢,有些鱼会漂浮在适宜的地方。How Do Researchers Know That a Fish Is Sleeping?研究人员如何得知一条鱼在睡觉?Since fish do not look very different when they are asleep, it can be difficult to determine whether a fish is resting or awake. However, during a state of rest, fish are much less responsive. Some may appear to stop moving completely, and can even be touched or handled without waking up.由于鱼在睡着的时候看起来没有什么不同,所以很难确定一条鱼是在休息还是醒着。但在休息状态下,鱼的反应能力要弱得多。一些鱼可能看起来完全不动,甚至在被触碰或拿起来的时候都不会醒过来。Moreover, some fish are more vulnerable to being attacked by predators at night, which suggests that they are diurnal, or resting and less alert at night. Studies have found that certain fish species experience more deaths in the first two hours after sunset, which indicates that these fish tend to fall asleep at that time.此外,一些鱼在夜间更容易受到捕食者的攻击,这表明它们主要在白天活动,在夜间会进入休息状态因而不太警觉。研究发现,某些鱼类在日落后两小时的死亡数量更多,表明这些鱼在那个时间段更容易进入睡眠状态。A lack of responsiveness is often a sign of fish sleep, but researchers have found additional markers of sleep that fish share with humans and other animals. For example, studies show that melatonin may regulate the sleep-wake cycles in zebrafish. Zebrafish also appear to have distinct stages of sleep like humans, and follow a circadian rhythm.缺乏反应能力通常是鱼类进入睡眠的标志,但研究人员发现了鱼类和人类以及其他动物所共有的其他睡眠标志。例如,研究表明,褪黑素或许可以调节斑马鱼的睡眠—觉醒周期。斑马鱼似乎也像人类一样拥有明显不同的睡眠阶段,遵循着昼夜节律。The Stages of Fish Sleep鱼类睡眠的不同阶段Humans cycle through four stages of sleep, including two stages of light sleep, one stage of slow-wave, deep sleep, and one stage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Although fish do not have a neocortex like humans, researchers were able to monitor the brain activity, heart rate, and eye and muscle movement in zebrafish to document two stages of sleep that are similar to slow-wave sleep and REM sleep.人类睡眠可以分为四个阶段,包括两个轻度睡眠阶段、一个慢波深度睡眠阶段、以及一个快速眼动(REM)睡眠阶段。尽管鱼类不像人类那样拥有大脑新皮质,但研究人员还是能够监测到斑马鱼的大脑活动、心率、眼睛和肌肉运动,记录两个与慢波睡眠和快速眼动睡眠相似的睡眠阶段。When fish do not get enough sleep, they seem to be vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation. After a night of sleep deprivation, zebrafish experience a sleep rebound, in which they catch up on sleep.当鱼没有得到足够的睡眠时,它们似乎很容易受到睡眠不足的影响。整夜的睡眠不足会使斑马鱼出现睡眠反弹现象,在这个过程中它们会补足睡眠。This resting state is so essential to fish that they will find ways to maintain a bare minimum of sleep, just like other animals. For example, if fish are subjected to experiments in which their sleep is interrupted, they will eventually nod off into microsleeps, managing to obtain at least 5% to 10% of their normal amount of sleep.这种休息状态对鱼来说是非常重要的。它们会像其他动物一样,想办法维持最低水平的睡眠。例如,如果鱼经历了睡眠被打断的实验,它们最后会打瞌睡至微睡眠模式,从而获得至少5%—10%的正常睡眠量。【Vocabulary】1. predator n. 捕食者2. diurnal adj. 日间活动的3. melatonin n. 褪黑素4. circadian adj. (指每24小时人或动物体内变化)昼夜节律的,生理节奏的5. neocortex n. (大脑)新皮质6. deprivation n. 缺乏;剥夺7. rebound n. 反弹(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 美国堕胎率上升

美国堕胎率上升刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTA new report says the number and rate of abortions in the United States increased from 2017 to 2020, after a long period of decline. An abortion is a medical procedure that ends a pregnancy.The Guttmacher Institute is a research group that supports abortion rights. It released its latest report about abortions in the United States on Wednesday. The researchers counted more than 930,000 abortions in the nation in 2020. That is up from about 862,000 abortions in 2017. That was when national abortion numbers reached their lowest point since the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that legalized the procedure nationwide. About one in five pregnancies ended in abortion in 2020, the report found. The report's release comes as the Supreme Court appears ready to overturn its 1973 ruling.The number of women seeking abortions demonstrates a need for the procedure, said Sara Rosenbaum. She is a health law and policy professor at George Washington University in Washington, D.C. She added that the report shows "how devastating a Supreme Court decision is going to be for access to an absolutely vital service."Medication abortions, sometimes called the "abortion pill," accounted for 54 percent of U.S. abortions in 2020. That was the first time they made up more than half of abortions, Guttmacher said in its report. The COVID-19 pandemic may have pushed down the numbers in some states, the report said.In New York, abortions increased from 2017 to 2019, then fell 6 percent between 2019 and 2020. One in 10 clinics in New York suspended or stopped abortion care in 2020. Texas saw a 2 percent decrease between 2019 and 2020, because of pandemic-related abortion restrictions in the state. Experts say the pandemic may also have limited the availability of birth control and other forms of contraception. It also may have prevented women from attending all the health care visits involved in a pregnancy. But abortions already were increasing before the pandemic began.One important factor is that some states expanded Medicaid access to abortion. Medicaid is a government program that provides health care to people in need. Illinois, for example, began permitting state Medicaid money to pay for abortions starting in January 2018. The state saw abortions increase 25 percent between 2017 and 2020. In neighboring Missouri, abortions dropped sharply. But the number of Missouri residents traveling to Illinois for abortions increased.Carol Tobias is president of the National Right to Life Committee, which opposes abortion. She said, "If states are paying for abortions, I hope they are also looking at how to support childbirth, so a woman doesn't think abortion is the best or only option."Guttmacher carries out the nation's largest survey of abortion providers every three years. Its numbers are considered more complete than data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC does not include several states like California, the nation's most populous state.In 2020, fewer women were getting pregnant and a larger amount of them chose abortion, the researchers found. The abortion rate in 2020 was 14.4 per 1,000 women aged 15 to 44. That is an increase from 13.5 per 1,000 women in 2017.I'm Dan Novak.VOCABULARY1. abortion n. the deliberate ending of a pregnancy at an early stage 人工流产2. overturn v. to officially decide that a legal decision etc. is not correct, and to make it no longer valid 推翻,撤销(判决等)3. devastating adj. extremely shocking to a person 令人震惊的;骇人的4. clinic n. a building or part of a hospital where people can go for special medical treatment or advice 诊所;(医院的)门诊部5. suspend v. to officially stop sth. for a time; to prevent sth. from being active, used, etc. for a time 暂停6. expand v. to become greater in size, number or importance; to make sth. greater in size, number or importance 扩大,增加QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.1. A new report says the number and rate of abortions in the United States increased from 2017 to 2020.2. The Guttmacher Institute is a research group that opposes abortion rights.3. About 20% pregnancies ended in abortion in 2020, the report found.4. Sara Rosenbaum is an abortion law and policy professor at George Washington University.5. Medication abortions accounted for 54 percent of U.S. abortions in 2021.6. Texas saw a 2 percent decrease between 2019 and 2020 because of pandemic-related abortion restrictions in the state.7. Medicaid is a non-government program that provides health care to people in need.8. Guttmacher carries out the nation's largest survey of abortion providers every four years.KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). Then correct the false statements.(T)1. A new report says the number and rate of abortions in the United States increased from 2017 to 2020.(F) 2. The Guttmacher Institute is a research group that opposes abortion rights. (正确表达)The Guttmacher Institute is a research group that supports abortion rights.(T) 3. About 20% pregnancies ended in abortion in 2020, the report found.(F) 4. Sara Rosenbaum is an abortion law and policy professor at George Washington University.(正确表达)Sara Rosenbaum is a health law and policy professor at George Washington University.(F) 5. Medication abortions accounted for 54 percent of U.S. abortions in 2021. (正确表达)Medication abortions accounted for 54 percent of U.S. abortions in 2020.(T) 6. Texas saw a 2 percent decrease between 2019 and 2020 because of pandemic-related abortion restrictions in the state.(F) 7. Medicaid is a non-government program that provides health care to people in need. (正确表达)Medicaid is a government program that provides health care to people in need.(F) 8. Guttmacher carries out the nation's largest survey of abortion providers every four years. (正确表达)Guttmacher carries out the nation's largest survey of abortion providers every three years.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 为什么你可能会经历精神上的隆冬

Why You May Be Experiencing a Mental Midwinter?为什么你可能会经历精神上的仲冬时节?刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTEvery year, nature quietly takes us through a moral lesson that has much to teach us about how we might relate to certain of the more dispiritingand despair-inducing moments in our own development. Beginning in mid-October in the northern hemisphere, the temperature drops, the nights draw in, the earth turns cold and hard, fog lies low over the land and rain drives hard across the austere, comatosegrey-brown landscape. There is nothing immediate we can hope for; now we have nothing to do but wait, with resignedpatience, until something better shows up.Far more than we can generally accept, our minds too have cycles. We cannot be permanently fruitful or creative, excited or open. There are necessary times of retrenchmentwhen, whatever we might desire, there seems no alternative but to stop. We can no longer be productive; we lose direction and inspiration. We are immovably numb and sterile.It can be easy to panic: why should such a paralyzed and detached mood have descended on our formerly lively minds? Where have all our ideas and hopes gone? What has happened to our previous animation and gladness?We should, at such times, take reassurance from the late November landscape. Certainly, things are lifeless, cold and in suspension. But this is not the end of the story; the earth is like this: not as a destination but as a phase. The deadness is a preludeto new life; the fallowperiod is a guarantorof fecunddays to come. All living organisms need to recharge themselves; old leaves have to give way; tired limbs must rest. The dance and fermentcould not go on. It may look as if nothing at all is happening, as though this is a trancewithout purpose. Yet, deep underground, at this very moment, nutrients are being gathered, the groundwork for future ebullienceand dynamism is being laid down, another summer is very slowly collecting its strength.As nature seeks to tell us, we cannot permanently be in flower. We need moments of reposeand confusion. There is nothing to fear. Things will re-emerge. We should make our peace with our own midwinters ― and lean on nature’s wise accommodation to strengthen us in our pursuit of serenityand patience.VOCABULARY1.dispiritingadj.making sb. lose their hope or enthusiasm令人沮丧的;使人气馁的。例如:a dispiriting experience/failure令人沮丧的经历/失败2. austereadj. simple and plain; without any decorations朴素的;简陋的;无华饰的。例如:her austere bedroom with its simple narrow bed她那仅有一张窄床的简陋卧室3. comatoseadj. (humorous, usedfigurativelyin the text) extremely tired and lacking in energy; sleeping deeply(有幽默意味,在文中为修辞用法)困乏的;无精打采的;酣睡的4. resignedadj. being willing to calmly accept sth. unpleasant or difficult that you cannot change安然接受的;顺从的。例如:He was resigned to never seeing his birthplace again.他认命了,甘愿永不再去他的出生地。5. retrenchmentn.节省;(开支)6. sterileadj. lacking individual personality, imagination or new ideas紧缩刻板的;无个性的;缺乏新意的。例如:He felt creatively and emotionally sterile.他感觉自己既缺乏创造力又没有充沛的感情。7. suspensionn. the act of delaying sth. for a period of time, until a decision has been taken暂缓;推迟;延期。例如:These events have led to the suspension of talks.这些事件导致谈判延期。8. preluden. an action or event that happens before another more important one and forms an introduction to it序幕;前奏;先声9. fallowadj. (of a period of time一段时期) when nothing is created or produced; not successful空闲的;休眠的;不成功的。例如:Contemporary dance is coming onto the arts scene again after a long fallow period.当代舞蹈经过一段长时期的销声匿迹之后现在又回到了艺术舞台。10. guarantorn. a person who agrees to be responsible for sb. or for making sure that sth. happens or is done担保人;保证人。例如:The United Nations will act as guarantor of the peace settlement.联合国将充当和平解决方案的保证人。11. fecundadj. producing a lot of good or useful things多产的;丰饶的12. fermentn. (formal) a state of political or social excitement and confusion(政治或社会上的)动乱,骚动,纷扰。例如:The country is in ferment.这个国家动荡不安。13. trancen. a state in which sb. seems to be asleep but is aware of what is said to them, for example if they are hypnotized昏睡状态;催眠状态。例如:to go/fall into a trance进入/陷入昏睡状态14. ebulliencen.(感情等的)奔放,兴高采烈;沸腾15. reposen.(literary) a state of rest, sleep or feeling calm休息;睡眠;平静;镇静16. serenityn. calmnessand peace平静;宁静;安详。例如:The hotel offers a haven of peace and serenity away from the bustle of the city.那家旅馆远离闹市,是一个幽静安谧的好去处。QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Every year, nature quietly takes us through a moral lesson that has much to teach us about how we might relate to certain of the more dispiriting and despair-inducing moments in our own development. Beginning in mid-October in the northern hemisphere, the temperature drops, the nights draw in, the earth turns (Q1) ______________________, fog lies low over the land and rain drives hard across the austere, comatose grey-brown landscape. There is nothing immediate we can hope for; now we (Q2) ________________________, with resigned patience, until something better shows up.Far more than we can generally accept, our minds too have cycles. We cannot be permanently fruitful or creative, excited or open. There are necessary times of retrenchment when, whatever we might desire, there seems no alternative but to stop. We can no longer be productive; we lose (Q3) __________________________________. We are immovably numb and sterile. //It can be (Q4) ___________________: why should such a paralyzed and detached mood have descended on our formerly lively minds? Where have all our ideas and hopes gone? What has happened to our previous animation and gladness?We should, at such times, (Q5) ________________________________________. Certainly, things are lifeless, cold and in suspension. But this is not the end of the story; the earth is like this: not as a destination but as a phase. The deadness is a prelude to new life; the fallow period is a guarantor of fecund days to come. All living organisms need to (Q6) ______________themselves; old leaves have to give way; tired limbs must rest. The dance and ferment could not go on. It may look as if nothing at all is happening, as though this is a trance without purpose. Yet, deep underground, at this very moment, nutrients are being gathered, the groundwork for future (Q7) ____________________is being laid down, another summer is very slowly collecting its strength.As nature seeks to tell us, (Q8) ____________________________. We need moments of repose and confusion. (Q9) ____________________. Things will re-emerge. We should make our peace with our own midwinters ― and lean on nature’s wise accommodation to strengthen us in our pursuit of (Q10) _________________________. KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.Every year, nature quietly takes us through a moral lesson that has much to teach us about how we might relate to certain of the more dispiriting and despair-inducing moments in our own development. Beginning in mid-October in the northern hemisphere, the temperature drops, the nights draw in, the earth turns (Q1) cold and hard, fog lies low over the land and rain drives hard across the austere, comatose grey-brown landscape. There is nothing immediate we can hope for; now we (Q2) have nothing to do but wait, with resigned patience, until something better shows up.//Far more than we can generally accept, our minds too have cycles. We cannot be permanently fruitful or creative, excited or open. There are necessary times of retrenchment when, whatever we might desire, there seems no alternative but to stop. We can no longer be productive; we lose (Q3) direction and inspiration. We are immovably numb and sterile.It can be (Q4) easy to panic: why should such a paralyzed and detached mood have descended on our formerly lively minds? Where have all our ideas and hopes gone? What has happened to our previous animation and gladness?We should, at such times, (Q5) take reassurance from the late November landscape. Certainly, things are lifeless, cold and in suspension. But this is not the end of the story; the earth is like this: not as a destination but as a phase. The deadness is a prelude to new life; the fallow period is a guarantor of fecund days to come. All living organisms need to (Q6) rechargethemselves; old leaves have to give way; tired limbs must rest. The dance and ferment could not go on. It may look as if nothing at all is happening, as though this is a trance without purpose. Yet, deep underground, at this very moment, nutrients are being gathered, the groundwork for future (Q7) ebullience and dynamismis being laid down, another summer is very slowly collecting its strength.As nature seeks to tell us, (Q8) we cannot permanently be in flower. We need moments of repose and confusion. (Q9) There is nothing to fear. Things will re-emerge. We should make our peace with our own midwinters ― and lean on nature’s wise accommodation to strengthen us in our pursuit of (Q10) serenity and patience.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

练习 | 收集调研数据

Collecting Data收集调研数据刘立军 供稿TRANSCRIPTIn this video, we will discuss finding respondents, and we will compare written and spoken surveys. Let’s start by discussing respondents.Finding and choosing respondents can be challenging because respondents have to give their time to answer the survey questions. Many people will say no to a stranger, especially if they think it will take too much time. Often, people in parks, coffee shops, or community centers are more willing to share their time since they are already relaxing.There are two important things to consider when choosing respondents: number and variety. The more people, the better. “75% of respondents would be interested in buying my product” is a more persuasive statement when there are 100 respondents instead of four. 75% of a hundred is 75, but 75% of four is only three.It’s important to find respondents with different demographicprofiles. For example, men and women of many different ages. This can help researchers identify market nicheswhen appropriate. For example, young women may not be interested in buying the same product as older men.Once a market niche has been identified, then surveys can be created specifically for that group. Should the researcher use written or spoken surveys? There are advantages and disadvantages to both.Let’s look at written surveys first. A written survey is where a respondent receives and answers questions in writing. This can be done on paper or in an electronic file.What are the advantages?First, many respondents can complete the survey at the same time, and, therefore, it can be easier to collect more data faster. Second, it’s easier to keep a record of individual responses in writing. And finally, some respondents might feel more comfortable and confident doing the survey in writing. It can feel more private.What are the disadvantages?First, the researcher has very little interaction with the respondent and cannot judge if the respondent is a good source of data. Second, respondents may not answer all the questions and the data may be incomplete. Finally, the biggest disadvantage is the risk that respondents may not complete or return the survey, wasting the time of the researcher.Now, let’s look at spoken surveys. These are surveys where the researcher reads aloud the questions and answers to the respondent. As you can expect, the advantages are the opposite of the disadvantages of written surveys. In a spoken survey, the researcher has a lot more interaction with the respondent, and can judge if the respondent is a good source of data. Respondents are more likely to answer all of the questions, and they can ask for further explanation or information if needed. Most importantly, they’re likely to complete the survey so that the researcher has the data.What are the disadvantages of spoken surveys?First, because they must be done one at a time, it takes more time and can limit the number of surveys that can be done. Second, the researcher must take careful notes that individual responses are recorded accurately and clearly. Finally, some respondents may not feel confident in English so that they would prefer to read the questions in writing.Let’s review the ideas in this video. New product survey data is more objective and persuasive when there are many respondents and a large variety in the demographic profiles. Written surveys are easier to give to many people; spoken ones allow for more interaction with the respondents.VOCABULARY1.respondentn.a person who answers questions, especially in a survey回答问题的人;(尤指)调查对象。例如:Sixty percent of the respondents agreed with the suggestion.调查对象中60%同意这项建议。2. demographicadj.人口(学)的; 人口统计(学)的3. profilen. a short description that gives important details about a person, a group of people, or a place人物简介,传略;(某地方的)概况。例如:a short profile of the actor那位演员的简介4.nichen. (business商) an opportunity to sell a particular product to a particular group of people(产品的)商机;市场定位。例如:He spotted a niche in the market.他发现了市场中的一个商机。QUESTIONSAnswer the following questionsaccording to what you hear.Q1: What will we do in this video?Q2: Why is it challengingto find and chooserespondents?Q3: Who are more willing to share their time?Q4: Whatare the two important things to consider when choosing respondents?Q5: Whatis a written survey?Q6: What are the three advantagesof a written survey? Q7: What are the three disadvantagesof a written survey? Q8: What are the three advantages of spokensurveys?Q9: What are the three disadvantages of spoken surveys? KEYQ1: What will we do in this video?In this video, we will discuss finding respondents, and we will compare written and spoken surveys.Q2: Why is it challengingto find and chooserespondents?Respondents have to give their time to answer the survey questions.Q3: Who are more willing to share their time?Often, people in parks, coffee shops, or community centers are more willing to share their time.Q4: Whatare the two important things to consider when choosing respondents?Number and variety.Q5: Whatis a written survey?A written survey is where a respondent receives and answers questions in writing.Q6: What are the three advantagesof a written survey?First, many respondents can complete the survey at the same time, and, therefore, it can be easier to collect more data faster. Second, it’s easier to keep a record of individual responses in writing. And finally, some respondents might feel more comfortable and confident doing the survey in writing. It can feel more private.Q7: What are thethree disadvantagesof a written survey?First, the researcher has very little interaction with the respondent and cannot judge if the respondent is a good source of data. Second, respondents may not answer all the questions and the data may be incomplete. Finally, the biggest disadvantage is the risk that respondents may not complete or return the survey, wasting the time of the researcher.Q8: What are thethree advantages of spokensurveys?In a spoken survey, the researcher has a lot more interaction with the respondent, and can judge if the respondent is a good source of data. Respondents are more likely to answer all of the questions, and they can ask for further explanation or information if needed. Most importantly, they’re likely to complete the survey so that the researcher has the data.Q9: What are the three disadvantages of spoken surveys?First, because they must be done one at a time, it takes more time and can limit the number of surveys that can be done. Second, the researcher must take careful notes that individual responses are recorded accurately and clearly. Finally, some respondents may not feel confident in English so that they would prefer to read the questions in writing.(封面图片来源于摄图网,版权归摄图网所有)

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